Category Archives: Survival

The Tom Linden BUG-OUT BELT

The Tom Linden Bug-Out Belt

My BUG-OUT BELT was personally constructed by Scott Douglas Palmer

Who is Director of Cultural Development at Lion Corporation and Founder & President at Slatsmandu Corporation – Alpenlore, is my version of his awesome range of incredible Hybrid Survival / Tactical EDC Belt Systems

The colours I have chosen are designed to allow my belt to blend into the background in the outdoors environment and at the same time not stand out in a rural environment either.

My belt is the most compact adventure survival belt on the market.

The AlpenLITE Belt System is a type of “Hyper Belt” which is an exceptional ON THE FLY adventure Belt that can be worn as an everyday belt, very soft and flexible but solid. and incredibly useful.

High tension outdoor Pro-cord, a type of advanced para-cord (paracord ), can be used for a multitude of Bushcraft, Survival, EDC & First-aid situations in multiple environments.

The applications for its use are endless… Wherever you go, the AlpenLITE Belt goes with you and can be immediately deployed.

The inner-core has up to 12 feet of layered hidden webbing. Together with the PROcord shell makes this belt system stand apart from all the others. Strong, lite & compact, just unravel and GO!

“We promise you have never seen a product like this that offers such a vast array of features. Johnny Spillane (World Class Olympian) and 3 Silver medalist and world champion in Nordic Ski proudly wears our product and finds it to be a great aid that you carry with you but never notice its there” says Scott.

It fits like a normal belt only slightly thicker but unnoticeable while wearing. It is hands free and always there when you need it, from morning till night, the AlpenGuide Belt System is there waiting to assist you.

Specs Each AlpenLITE Belt SYSTEM is created from 100% Premium Hardware with fine attention to detail and proudly Handcrafted by Americans who have extensive experience with the Outdoors.

And the AlpenLITE BELT is the most compact rescue adventure belt in the world!

Length

ProWEB Core / S 2.7m (8.8ft) – M 3.2m (10.5ft) – L 3.7m (12ft)

ProCORD outer-Shell / S 10.5m (34ft) – M 12.5m (41ft) – L 15.5m (50ft)

Material

AlpineBuckle / Military Grade – High Impact Resistant

COBRA BUCKLE / 800lb working capacity 7075 Aluminum Alloy w/ Stainless steel components

TriangleRING / 4.7mm / 4.4 kN ( 1000 lbf / 453 kgf ) -316 Stainless

ProCORD / 1.43kN (320lbf / 146kgf ) Breaking Power

ProWEB / 25mm 5.74kN ( 1290lbf / 585kgf ) Breaking Power

DIMENSIONS * Belt Width 1.25 inch / 4cm – Belt Thickness .03in / 7mm

SURVIVAL KIT includes (3 matches, Surgical Blade, 2 fish hooks and Knots Guide).

Pocket GUIDE-BOOK in German/English fits in your wallet and has loads of survival tips.

Mini FERRO ROD

All HARDWARE is CERTIFIED & TESTED BEFORE CONSTRUCTION ^

You can order my belt from April 1st at http://www.alpenlore.com/

 

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Survival Page Four

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EMP Protection

EMP stands for “electromagnetic pulse,” and it’s essentially a big burst of electromagnetic radiation, which we know as electricity, magnetic fields, radio waves, WiFi, and all manner of other pulses and waves and whatnot.

Although much of this article is about protecting one’s own personal electronic items (especially regarding communications), it is important to remember that the greatest threat, by far, to the life and well-being of you and your family comes from the damage to electrical and electronic systems that are outside of your personal control: the national critical infrastructures.

The bulk of your EMP protection efforts must be directed toward protecting yourself from the results of the loss of the critical infrastructures that support our everyday lives. All of our national critical infrastructures are dependent upon the electrical grid and our electronic infrastructure.

This is necessarily a rather long article because of the large amount of things that must be addressed when confronting the loss of national critical infrastructures, and this article is only a primer. It does not cover everything.

Because of the inevitability of a large solar superstorm, we have to accept the fact that the current electric power grid upon which our lives depend is only a temporary infrastructure. This temporary infrastructure has served us very well, and we now have entrusted our very lives to it. Of course, it is possible to build a resilient electrical grid. In most countries, such as the United States, United Kingdom though, the will to make the electric grid resilient has been absent.

The fact that the electric power grid began as a convenience, but has become a necessity for sustaining life, is both one of the most beneficial, and one of the most dangerous, facts of 21st century existence.

We do not know how long the current power grid will last; but if it is not replaced by a robust permanent infrastructure in time, hundreds of millions of people will die when the electric power grid collapses simultaneously in many countries. How such a collapse occurs is very well known, and the methods to either prevent it, or to have spare transformers in place to fairly quickly repair it, are also well known. Although these preventive measures would not be terribly expensive, they would take some time to put into place; and those things have never been done.

Preparing

Even those in flats or on a very low income can have a level of preparedness that will be of significant help. By buying an extra can of reasonably nutritious canned food every week or so, you can build up a food reserve — before you realize it — that will last you for at least two or three weeks, and probably much longer. Two or three weeks of “breathing room” after a disaster can give you great peace of mind and allow you to stop and think and plan for a future course of action (while the unprepared are all in a great panic). It is even possible that some additional help may arrive after a week or two. The most important thing is to store at least a two-week supply of drinking water. There are many plastic containers of all sizes that can be stored in a closet that won’t take up an excessive amount of space.EMP. The letters spell burnt out computers and other electrical systems and perhaps even a return to the dark ages if it were to mark the beginning of a nuclear war. But it doesn’t need to be that way. Once you understand EMP, you can take a few simple precautions to protect yourself and equipment from it. In fact, you can enjoy much of the “high tech” life style you’ve come accustomed to even after the use of a nuclear device has been used by terrorists—or there is an all-out WWIII. EMP (Electro-Magnetic Pulse), also sometimes known as “NEMP” (Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse), was kept secret from the public for a long time and was first discovered more or less by accident when US Military tests of nuclear weapons started knocking out phone banks and other equipment miles from ground zero. EMP is no longer “top secret” but information about it is still a little sketchy and hard to come by. Adding to the problems is the fact that its effects are hard to predict; even electronics designers have to test their equipment in powerful EMP simulators before they can be sure it is really capable of with standing the effect. EMP occurs with all nuclear explosions. With smaller explosions the effects are less pronounced. Nuclear bursts close to the ground are dampened by the earth so that EMP effects are more or less confined to the region of the blast and heat wave. But EMP becomes more pronounced and wide spread as the size and altitude of a nuclear blast is increased since the ground; of these two, altitude is the quickest way to produce greater EMP effects. As a nuclear device is exploded higher up, the earth soaks up fewer of the free electrons produced before they can travel some distance. The most “enhanced” EMP effects would occur if a nuclear weapon were exploded in space, outside the Earth’s atmosphere. In such a case, the gamma radiation released during the flash cycle of the weapon would react with the upper layer of the earth’s atmosphere and strip electrons free from the air molecules, producing electromagnetic radiation similar to broad-band radio waves (10 kHz-100 MHz) in the process. These electrons would follow the earth’s magnetic field and quickly circle toward the ground where they would be finally dampened. (To add to the confusion, we now have two more EMP terms: “Surface EMP” or “SEMP” which refers to ground bursts with limited-range effects and “High-altitude EMP” or “HEMP” which is the term used for a nuclear detonation creating large amounts of EMP.) Tactically, a space-based nuclear attack has a lot going for it; the magnetic field of the earth tends to spread out EMP so much that just one 20-MT bomb exploded at an altitude of 200 miles could—in theory—blanket the continental US with the effects of EMP. It’s believed that the electrical surge of the EMP from such an explosion would be strong enough to knock out much of the civilian electrical equipment over the whole country. Certainly this is a lot of “bang for the buck” and it would be foolish to think that a nuclear attack would be launched without taking advantage of the confusion a high-altitude explosion could create. Ditto with its use by terrorists should the technology to get such payloads into space become readily available to smaller countries and groups. But there’s no need for you to go back to the stone age if a nuclear war occurs. It is possible to avoid much of the EMP damage that could be done to electrical equipment—including the computer that brought this article to you—with just a few simple precautions. First of all, it’s necessary to get rid of a few erroneous facts, however. One mistaken idea is that EMP is like a powerful bolt of lightning. While the two are alike in their end results—burning out electrical equipment with intense electronic surges—EMP is actually more akin to a super-powerful radio wave. Thus, strategies based on using lightning arrestors or lightning-rod grounding techniques are destined to failure in protecting equipment from EMP. Another false concept is that EMP “out of the blue” will fry your brain and/or body the way lightning strikes do. In the levels created by a nuclear weapon, it would not pose a health hazard to plants, animals, or man PROVIDED it isn’t concentrated. EMP can be concentrated. That could happen if it were “pulled in” by a stretch of metal. If this happened, EMP would be dangerous to living things. It could become concentrated by metal girders, large stretches of wiring (including telephone lines), long antennas, or similar set ups. So—if a nuclear war were in the offing—you’d do well to avoid being very close to such concentrations. (A safe distance for nuclear-generated EMP would be at least 8 feet from such stretches of metal.) This concentration of EMP by metal wiring is one reason that most electrical equipment and telephones would be destroyed by the electrical surge. It isn’t that the equipment itself is really all that sensitive, but that the surge would be so concentrated that nothing working on low levels of electricity would survive. Protecting electrical equipment is simple if it can be unplugged from the mains sockets, phone systems, or long antennas. But that assumes that you won’t be using it when the EMP strikes. That isn’t all that practical and—if a nuclear war were drawn out or an attack occurred in waves spread over hours or days— you’d have to either risk damage to equipment or do without it until things had settled down for sure. One simple solution is to use battery-operated equipment which has cords or antennas of only 30 inches or less in length. This short stretch of metal puts the device within the troughs of the nuclear-generated EMP wave and will keep the equipment from getting a damaging concentration of electrons. Provided the equipment isn’t operated close to some other metal object (i.e., within 8 feet of a metal girder, telephone line, etc.), it should survive without any other precautions being taken with it. If you don’t want to buy a wealth of batteries for every appliance you own or use a radio set up with longer than 30-inch antenna, then you’ll need to use equipment that is “hardened” against EMP. The trick is that it must REALLY be hardened from the real thing, not just EMP-proof on paper. This isn’t all that easy. The National Academy of Sciences recently stated that tailored hardening is “not only deceptively difficult, but also very poorly understood by the defence-electronics community.” Even the worlds Military have equipment which might not survive a nuclear attack, even though it is designed to do just that. That said, there are some methods which will help to protect circuits from EMP and give you an edge if you must operate ham radios or the like when a nuclear attack occurs. Design considerations include the use of tree formation circuits (rather than standard loop formations); the use of induction shielding around components; the use of self-contained battery packs; the use of loop antennas; and (with solid-state components) the use of Zener diodes. These design elements can eliminate the chance an EMP surge from power lines or long antennas damaging your equipment. Another useful strategy is to use grounding wires for each separate instrument which is coupled into a system so that EMP has more paths to take in grounding itself. A new device which may soon be on the market holds promise in allowing electronic equipment to be EMP hardened. Called the “Ovonic threshold device”, it has been created by Energy Conversion Devices of Troy, MI. The Ovonic threshold device is a solid-state switch capable of quickly opening a path to ground when a circuit receives a massive surge of EMP. Use of this or a similar device would assure survival of equipment during a massive surge of electricity. Some electrical equipment is innately EMP-resistant. This includes large electric motors, vacuum tube equipment, electrical generators, transformers, relays, and the like. These might even survive a massive surge of EMP and would likely to survive if a few of the above precautions were taking in their design and deployment. At the other end of the scale of EMP resistance are some really sensitive electrical parts. These include IC circuits, microwave transistors, and Field Effect Transistors (FET’s). If you have electrical equipment with such components, it must be very well protected if it is to survive EMP. One “survival system” for such sensitive equipment is the Faraday box. A Faraday box is simply a metal box designed to divert and soak up the EMP. If the object placed in the box is insulated from the inside surface of the box, it will not be affected by the EMP travelling around the outside metal surface of the box. The Faraday box simple and cheap and often provides more protection to electrical components than “hardening” through circuit designs which can’t be (or haven’t been) adequately tested. Many containers are suitable for make-shift Faraday boxes: cake boxes, ammunition containers, metal filing cabinets, etc., etc., can all be used. Despite what you may have read or heard, these boxes do NOT have to be airtight due to the long wave length of EMP; boxes can be made of wire screen or other porous metal. The only two requirements for protection with a Faraday box are:

The equipment inside the box does NOT touch the metal container (plastic, wadded paper, or cardboard can all be used to insulate it from the metal) and

The metal shield is continuous without any gaps between pieces or extra-large holes in it.

Grounding a Faraday box is NOT necessary and in some cases actually may be less than ideal. While EMP and lightning aren’t the “same animal”, a good example of how lack of grounding is a plus can be seen with some types of lightning strikes. Take, for example, a lightning strike on a flying airplane. The strike doesn’t fry the plane’s occupants because the metal shell of the plane is a Faraday box of sorts. Even though the plane, high over the earth, isn’t grounded it will sustain little damage. In this case, much the same is true of small Faraday cages and EMP. Consequently, storage of equipment in Faraday boxes on wooden shelves or the like does NOT require that everything be grounded. (One note: theoretically non-grounded boxes might hold a slight charge of electricity; take some time and care before handling ungrounded boxes following a nuclear attack.) The thickness of the metal shield around the Faraday box isn’t of much concern, either. This makes it possible to build protection “on the cheap” by simply using the cardboard packing box that equipment comes in along with aluminium foil. Just wrap the box with the aluminium foil (other metal foil or metal screen will also work); tape the foil in place and you’re done. Provided it is kept dry, the cardboard will insulate the gear inside it from the foil; placing the foil-wrapped box inside a larger cardboard box is also wise to be sure the foil isn’t accidentally ripped anywhere. The result is an “instant” Faraday box with your equipment safely stored inside, ready for use following a nuclear war. Copper or aluminium foil can help you insulate a whole room from EMP as well. Just paper the wall, ceiling and floor with metal foil. Ideally the floor is then covered with a false floor of wood or with heavy carpeting to insulate everything and everyone inside from the shield (and EMP). The only catch to this is that care must be taken NOT to allow electrical wiring connections to pierce the foil shield (i.e., no AC powered equipment or radio antennas can come into the room from outside). Care must also be taken that the door is covered with foil AND electrically connected to the shield with a wire and screws or some similar set up. Many government civil defence shelters are now said to have gotten the Faraday box, “foil” treatment. These shelters are covered inside with metal foil and have metal screens which cover all air vents and are connected to the metal foil. Some of these shelters probably make use of new optical fibre systems—protected by plastic pipe—to “connect” communications gear inside the room to the “outside world” without creating a conduit for EMP energy to enter the shelter. Another “myth” that seems to have grown up with information on EMP is that nearly all cars and trucks would be “knocked out” by EMP. This seems logical, but is one of those cases where “real world” experiments contradict theoretical answers and I’m afraid this is the case with cars and EMP. According to sources working at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, cars have proven to be resistant to EMP in actual tests using nuclear weapons as well as during more recent tests (with newer cars) with the US Military’s EMP simulators. One reason for the ability of a car to resist EMP lies in the fact that its metal body is “insulated” by its rubber tires from the ground. This creates a Faraday cage of sorts. (Drawing on the analogy of EMP being similar to lightning, it is interesting to note that cases of lightning striking and damaging cars is almost non-existent; this apparently carries over to EMP effects on vehicles as well.) Although Faraday boxes are generally made so that what is inside doesn’t touch the box’s outer metal shield (and this is especially important for the do-it-yourself since it is easy to inadvertently ground the Faraday box—say by putting the box on metal shelving sitting on a concrete floor), in the case of the car the “grounded” wiring is grounded only to the battery. In practice, the entire system is not grounded in the traditional electrical wiring sense of actually making contact to the earth at some point in its circuitry. Rather the car is sitting on insulators made of rubber. It is important to note that cars are NOT 100 percent EMP proof; some cars will most certainly be affected, especially those with fibreglass bodies or located near large stretches of metal. (I suspect, too, that recent cars with a high percentage of IC circuitry might also be more susceptible to EMP effects.) The bottom line is that all vehicles probably won’t be knocked out by EMP. But the prudent survivalist should make a few contingency plans “just in case” his car (and other electrical equipment) does not survive the effects of EMP. Discovering that you have one of the few cars knocked out would not be a good way to start the onset of terrorist attack or nuclear war. Most susceptible to EMP damage would be cars with a lot of IC circuits or other “computers” to control essential changes in the engine. The very prudent may wish to buy spare electronic ignition parts and keep them a car truck (perhaps inside a Faraday box). But it seems probable that many vehicles WILL be working following the start of a nuclear war even if no precautions have been taken with them. A major area of concern when it comes to EMP is nuclear reactors located in the US. Did you know that a little-known Federal dictum prohibits the NRC from requiring power plants to withstand the effects of a nuclear war. This means that, in the event of a nuclear war, many nuclear reactors’ control systems might will be damaged by an EMP surge. In such a case, the core-cooling controls might become inoperable and a core melt down and breaching of the containment vessel by radioactive materials into the surrounding area might well result. (If you were needing a reason not to live down wind from a nuclear reactor, this is it.) I would bet this is the case with UK reactors as well. Provided you’re not next door to a nuclear power plant, most of the ill effects of EMP can be overcome. EMP, like nuclear blasts and fallout, can be survived if you have the know how and take a few precautions before hand. And that would be worth a lot, wouldn’t it? Some initial thoughts on EMP protection from the US military packaging division. A continuously sealed metal barrier has proven to be very effective in preventing EM/HPM energy from reaching susceptible electronic or explosive components. Exterior packaging fabricated from plastic, wood or other fibre materials provides almost no protection form EM/HPM threats. The metal enclosure can be very thin provided there are no openings (tears, pin holes, doors, incomplete seams) that would allow microwaves to enter. Sealed barrier bags that incorporate a thin layer of aluminium foil and are primarily used to provide water vapour proof protection to an item, can add a great deal of resistance to EM/HPM penetration. A number of cylindrical and rectangular steel containers have been developed by the Packaging Division for a wide range of munitions, weapon systems and associated components. The cylindrical containers are end opening and the rectangular containers are top opening. All the containers have synthetic rubber gaskets that allow them to maintain a +3 psi environmental seal to the outside environment. The containers are constructed using seam welding to provide for continuous metal contact on all surfaces of the body assembly. The cover openings have been held to a minimum and the sealing gaskets positioned in a manner to allow overlapping metal parts to add additional protection to these areas. Microwaves are very adept at bouncing around and working their way into even the smallest opening. Tests of the cylindrical and rectangular steel containers used by this organization have demonstrated a high level of protection in preventing EM/HPM energy from entering the container. The key is to use a metal enclosure and eliminate or minimize any openings. Where openings are needed they should be surrounded to the greatest extent possible by continuous metal and in the case of a gasket, metal sheathing or mesh can be placed around the elastometer material or conductive metal moulded into the gasket. The closer the surrounding container comes to a continuous metal skin the more protection that will be provided. High quality gaskets, utilizing either a mesh or embedded conductive metal design, are very expensive. They add a magnitude of cost to a normal gasket and can easily double the price of a container similar to the ones mentioned above.

Urban Foraging Abandoned Cars for Survival

In all the disaster type movies you will see motorway’s full of abandoned vehicles, just like the city and town streets.

And their occupants are shown abandoning their vehicles and joining the never ending line of unfortunates trying to escape on foot.

Can you imaging what they have discarded within those vehicles? and by playing your cards right it could all be yours.

In any long-term survival scenario scavenging or urban foraging, as I call it, will play an important role in my post SHTF survival plans.

And I will tell you why.

Hollywood seems to show that when survivors run out of supplies they will need to select other sources for life saving supplies and searching abandoned cars is a good starting point.

Now in my mind this attitude is actually very wrong, because a lot of what could have been acquired will have gone off or have been attacked by four legged food hunters.

By leaving your scavenging until “You have to”, you lose out on the fresh foods that the previous owner had just bought from the supermarket, or that take-away meal, or those electrical devices full of much needed batteries etc.

Not forgetting a fully charged car battery and of course fuel, but there is so much more to benefit from.

Checking buildings for resources I think is useless as this is where everyone will turn once the shelves, so there will nothing left to find.

Building abandoned vehicles into your bug-out/survival plans is I would say if common sense.

Think about it there are over 33 million vehicles in the UK and over 300 million in the USA, and each one could have the items you need.

You will need some basic tools and the right eye to spot all the valuables hiding in those metal carcasses.

Before I tell you about the valuable items that you could find when searching abandoned cars, there are a few basic rules to follow:

Make sure that the vehicle is abandoned, there could be people living in them and you don’t need a fight.

Always have a lookup for when times are tense. It will be a lawless time, some will chose to become the law and they will not like the idea of people “stealing” from their land.

If you see someone coming, don’t stay around and try to justify your actions.

Before you start attacking the vehicle, you should first look for the keys and check if the vehicle will start. It’s much easier taking the car with you rather than to strip it.

Almost every car model will have something you can scavenge, but you should target cheaper cars when scavenging abandoned cars. They are generally easier to work with and disassemble.

Keep an eye out for commercial vehicles such as vans and work truck as they may contain valuable items a passenger car wouldn’t.

Always go for the items you need first. Time is a valuable resource post SHTF and you need to use it in your favour.

Remember you can always come back later and get the rest of the items you might need.

To me common sense says before you start searching abandoned cars for the parts I will mention, you should check the glove box, centre console and any other storage compartments available in the car.

You can find miscellaneous items that can become very useful in a survival scenario. Bottled water, medications, lighters, sanitizers and first aid kits are just a few examples of what you can find in abandoned vehicles.

Here are the items to look for:

Fuel

This is probably the most obvious resource that one could scavenge from an abandoned car and most people will go for it first.

To get it out of the fuel tank you will need a small-diameter rubber hose, one or more jerry cans or 2.5 gallon water jugs and a piercing instrument.

When liberating fuel from abandoned vehicles the model of the car plays an important role and you should know what you have to deal with.

Newer vehicles have a screen or a valve that prevents the use of a hose to siphon from the gas tank.

If you come across this then look under the car, find the fuel tank and bore or punch a hole using a knife.

Pay attention and work with care as you don’t want to cause a spark.

Once you have pierced the fuel tank, place the water jug in the right position and let it fill.

You might need to make a second hole to help the gas flow more easily if you are in a hurry.

If luck is on your side, you might find a vehicle from the 1990s or even earlier. These vehicles may lack the protective screen from the tank and you will just need to pry the metal flapper near the opening out of the way.

Use the rubber hose and your mouth to siphon the gasoline, but make sure you don’t inhale too much of it as serious injuries may occur.

Doing this simply means you will end up having a precious resource that will help you greatly in a doomsday situation.

Jack and tools

You don’t need any advanced knowledge to get the tools from a car, you just need to know where to look for them.

Most cars will store these tools under the boot carpet, but you can also look under or behind the seats.

The jack is usually located with the tools and if that’s not the case, you have to look for storage compartments in the boot.

There are many ways to use these tools, but the steel lug wrench can be used as a prybar, blunt instrument or even as a weapon.

Carpet and upholstery

Vehicle carpets are thick, soft and insulated fabrics which make good materials that you can use in a survival scenario, say to insulate a shelter.

These materials can also be used for warm bedding, as blankets or shelter against the elements.

When scavenging abandoned cars, you should always look for floor mats and seat covers that are easily removable.

If someone got them before you, cutting away the upholstery is your only other option. Start with the headlining first as it provides one large piece of fabric.

Warning: don’t use these materials as kindling. They contain chemicals that will turn into toxic fumes once burned.

Tires

If you manage to find the jack and tools, it is time to take care of the tires. You should start first by looking for a spare tire since it will require less work.

You can find it inside or under the boot and in case it’s missing you will have to remove the other four wheels.

Removing a tire from its wheel can be quite a challenge for some.

Getting the tires from an abandoned vehicle is worth the trouble and there are many situations in which these tires can come in handy.

You can burn one to create a rescue signal after you let the air out of it. You can use tires to create a good shelter; use tires to create the exterior walls facing the sun.

During the day the tires will absorb the heat and will transmit it inside the living space during the night. Cut a tire in two and you now have an animal feeder.

You could use them as planters simply stack them together, fill them with dirt and plant the potatoes etc.

The sun will do the rest. There are many ways in which tires can be used and it’s all up to your imagination.

Seatbelts

When scavenging abandoned cars you shouldn’t forget about the seatbelts. They are made of extremely strong durable nylon and can become excellent cordage if needed. Pull to unravel the seatbelt from its reel than cut it using a sharp knife. Seatbelts can be used for various needs, the same way cordage would be used.

Mirrors

To get the mirrors from a car you will need a screwdriver or a prior instrument. The exterior ones can be carefully pried out of their housing using a flat screwdriver or a knife.

The interior ones can be unscrewed from the roof. These mirrors are great for rescue signaling at long distance or they can be used to start a fire. You can also use the mirrors to help you with personal hygiene (examine debris in your eye or inspect an injury).

Battery

A car battery can provide long-lasting 12-volt electrical power and they can be used to jump start a car or even to start a fire.

In conjunction with a power inverter, a car battery can be used to power a variety of AC electronics such as mobile phones or radios.

To remove the car battery you first have to pop the bonnet and see what you are dealing with.

The location of the battery should be obvious, although some car manufacturers prefer to hide it with a plastic cover. If you want to take it with you, you will need to disconnect the tie-down bar and the terminal wires using a small wrench or pliers.

Lights

Automotive lights are great survival items because they can be wired directly to a 12-volt battery for instant, bright light.

If you know what you are doing you can remove an entire headlight assembly and use it to light your shelter.

You can remove just the bulbs themselves if you find it easier to do so. To remove the lights you will need a set of wrenches and a pair of needle-nose pliers. For most of the older car models, you can reach behind the car headlights and un-clip or twist the bulbs to pull them out of their housings.

You will need to cut two pieces of wire from the engine or scavenge them from other electronic devices and connect the positive and negative battery terminals to the corresponding bulb terminals.

Motor oil

Motor oil is an excellent lubricant for mechanical items and especially for your firearms.

Not to mention that you can use it in an oil burning furnace to provide heat for your shelter.

There are many uses for motor oil and it all depends on the survival situation you find yourself in. Getting the motor oil is simple and although you will have to jack up cars.

I would go for the pick up type vehicles first.

They provide enough ground clearance and you will save precious time. Once you are beneath the car you need to locate the oil drain bolt and remove it using a wrench. Keep the water jugs close and use it as a recipient to drain some oil into it.

Some will prefer to remove even the spark plugs and use them as glass-breaking tools, but I don’t think it’s worth the trouble.

If you are in a survival scenario and you need to get chunks or ceramic from spark plugs to break a window, you are doing something very wrong.

If society will collapse tomorrow the drivers will be gone after a few days or weeks, but their cars will still be there, waiting for you.

Scavenging abandoned cars for survival items is a good tactic to hoard items that will make your life easier in a world depleted of resources.

You never know what you might find in an abandoned car, so make sure you scavenge them if no other options are available.

Catapult or Slingshot Small Game Hunting
Like most British kids I played with a handmade catapult, hand made by me that is. Now OK, I say handmade but in truth it was a cut “Y” shaped branch of the right size with elastic bands, but you know, it actually worked.
The upgrade then was for a steel caty with bands fitted by the manufacturer.
Last year I was sent the Survivalslingshot from www.survivalslingshot.com and I fell in love again with this form of hunting.
We as members of the preparedness community should consider slingshots and their effectiveness as a small game hunting tool, especially in a large-scale disaster scenario where food stockpiles may run out.
So let’s talk about slingshots and their usefulness as a disaster prep.
 Before we even get into this topic, we need to make a couple things very clear.
First, a slingshot is not a toy, it’s a weapon.
You should be taking just as many precautions and safety procedures with a slingshot that you would with any other weapon.
In fact, due to the inherent design of a slingshot, you will want to take even greater precautions, especially in eye protection. If you don’t believe me, go to YouTube and search for “slingshot accidents”. Warning: some of those videos are quite graphic.
Secondly, before the clever emails roll in, yes there are several other weapons that are better suited for hunting than a slingshot.
Depending on the situation though, there can be several advantages to using a slingshot over other types of hunting tools, which I will cover later.
The benefits of using a slingshot for hunting
On the surface it might seem that slingshots would be one of the worst choices for a hunting weapon.
They’re not nearly as powerful as a bow (let alone a firearm), they take a lot of practice to be accurate with, you have to be much closer to your target and they’re usually pretty limited as far as what kind of game you can really go after with it.
However, there are actually quite a few benefits for using a slingshot instead of a normal hunting weapon, including:
They are easier to use in an urban areas – IE you’re unlikely to get reported to the police for shooting a slingshot in your backyard.
They are legal to openly carry in most areas
They don’t attract nearly as much attention as a firearm or bow
They are one of the quietest ways to hunt game
Finding ammo for a slingshot can be as easy as picking up a rock off the ground
They have very few parts and can be made and maintained very easily
You don’t need any sort of documentation or licenses to own a slingshot
A commercial slingshot is a fraction of the cost of any other hunting tool
Slingshot hunting is very challenging and can teach you to be a better hunter all-around
In a SHTF, long-term disaster scenario, slingshots will be perfect for hunting small game when ammunition and gun parts are scarce and you want to be as quiet as possible.
Follow the seasons  
Just because you’re hunting with a slingshot doesn’t mean you’re exempt from hunting seasons. Although in many areas small game hunting is legal year-round, some countries have specific seasons when you can hunt specific small game.
 Safety- slingshots really can kill you
 A slingshot is simply a modified form of a Sling, which has been used for hunting and even defensive purposes for literally thousands of years. It’s not a toy. It can kill someone.
Most commercial slingshots can shoot projectiles anywhere from 150-300 feet per second. Specialty hunting slingshots can actually reach over 400 feet per second.
Combined with the heavy weight of most slingshot ammo, this is more than enough power to kill someone.
Types of slingshots
There are several types of slingshots on the market today ranging from a simple plastic fork with cheap bands, all the way to top-of the line hunting slingshots outfitted with super-strength bands, stabilizing bars and even laser sights.
Usually with gear, the rule of thumb is that you get what you pay for, however it’s been my experience that slingshots are kind of an exception to that rule.
Some of the most expensive commercial hunting slingshots out there are pure JUNK.
They’re inaccurate and wear out faster than even traditional, forked stick, backyard-made slingshots.
It almost seems like the designers were much more concerned about making the thing look cool instead of actually making it functional.
In my opinion, the best slingshots are homemade. I’m not talking about a simple “Y” shaped stick in your backyard, but actually designing a slingshot out of high-quality material that fits your hand perfectly and experimenting with several band and pouch options until you have something that is tailor fit just for you and serves your purposes.
Types of slingshot bands
There are several types of pre-made bands you can buy for your slingshot. Most are made out of decent quality rubber and will last for at least a few months of normal use before noticing any decrease in performance.
That being said, a lot of people don’t actually recommend buying pre-made bands for slingshots. For one, they’re overpriced.
Secondly, slingshot hunting is, unfortunately, not that popular. Slingshots in general aren’t all that popular. When you buy a package of those replacement bands, it’s very likely they’ve been sitting on that shelf for over a year. For slingshot bands, that’s not good.
Your slingshot bands need to be changed regularly. Not only will they deliver a more consistent shot and velocity but it’s much safer this way.
Bands that have been sitting around a while will dry out and could even be cracked straight out of the package. There’s a real chance that it could break on your first shot and cause injury.
 So why not buy band material and make your own. It’s extremely simple.
The most common band material is called TheraBand Gold. It’s the industry standard for custom slingshot makers.
Hunting Slingshot ammunition
Yes, you can shoot rocks and pebbles out of your slingshot with no problem. It’s been done for generations. That being said, natural materials shouldn’t be your usual ammunition for a slingshot.
Rocks and pebbles are oddly shaped, have edges that could hurt your pouch and bands aren’t usually weighted correctly to give you consistent, accurate shot placement. Your best bet is to go with steel or lead shot.
Personally I like steel shot better for hunting. I believe it’s just a better round for the distances I like to shoot. Your experiences can and will be different depending on your setup. One major advantage steel shot has though is that it is magnetic, which makes it easier to collect after shooting it.
Don’t hunt if you can’t hit your target reliably
Hunting with a slingshot isn’t easy. You have to be much closer to your target since the slingshot doesn’t generate enough energy to keep the heavy projectile from falling mid-flight.
You also have to be experienced with approaching small animals without spooking them.
Additionally, slingshot ammunition doesn’t cause piercing damage, it causes blunt force damage. This means that you have to put your shots in an area that isn’t going to cause internal damage to your animal which can spoil your meat. This means headshots only guys.
 My rule of thumb for this is simple. If you can’t hit a target the size of a 2P piece consistently, keep practicing and don’t go out hunting. Killing an animal humanely is a responsibility of every hunter.
Continue practicing at varying distances from your target. Once you get proficient enough that you can hit a target the size of a 2P piece reliably, then you’ll be ready to take those headshots on small game.
The Deadly Enemies to Your Survival
When putting together survival kits, there are 8 enemies of survival to consider – no matter whether the kit is for someone going into the bush, or if the kit is being made for a teotwawki situation. Taking care of these eight issues by stocking up your kit well will go a long way to ensuring your survival in just about any survival situation.
 Fear:
Fear often leads to panic and panic does no one any good…in fact it often kills. The best way to temper fear is by preparing with proper survival skills and survival gear.
Survival skills help reduce fear because you know that you can take care of yourself in a survival situation. Without those survival skills people who are lost are often so scared they don’t know what to do. They’re scared of the animals, scared of the dark, scared of being without all of the comforts of civilization.
Survival gear helps combat fear because it gives you the tools that makes surviving easier.
Complacency:
Complacency is a bane of modern life. Complacency is dangerous because it lulls you into believing everything is alright and causes you to ignore clear signs of danger. A good way to combat complacency is by practicing the art of relaxed awareness.
Relaxed awareness is similar to the art of meditation….it is achieved by being fully immersed and aware of your surroundings. A good example of relaxed awareness is when you are practicing defensive driving. After you practice defensive driving, you remember the entire drive because your mind was fully engaged and active the entire trip. Unfortunately relaxed awareness isn’t something you can pack in a bag, but you can practice it constantly to help ensure your survival.
Hunger:
Hunger can nag at you, slow you down, and eventually kill you. Combat hunger by learning primitive hunting and fishing skills. Make sure that you have snare wire, survival knives, paracord, a fishing kit and anything else you can think of that will help you find and secure game and fish. Also, learn what wild plant in the area are edible.
Thirst
You will die in only a few days without water. Depending on your activity level and the environment, you will need at least a gallon of water a day. Knowing how to locate, store and decontaminate water is essential. Always carry a way to store and decontaminate water.
98.6 degrees Fahrenheit
If you can’t keep the core temperature of your body at 98.6 degrees, you are in a world of hurt. Cody Lundin of “Dual Survival” fame covers this reality very well in his book “98.6 Degrees: The Art of Keeping Your Ass Alive“.
You need to be able to protect your body from both heat and the cold. Always have a way to make a quick emergency shelter in your survival kit. Bivy bags are lightweight and take up very little room. You also need several ways to start a fire in your kit. Also, always have clothing in your survival kit that is rugged and made for the weather of the season that you are in.
Pain
Avoid pain at all costs. It can cripple or at the very least slow you down to the point that you are in imminent danger of losing your life. If possible, carry medications to deal with it. Injuries are more likely when one panics or is fatigued.
Fatigue
Getting overly tired or fatigued makes the chances of injury greater and increases the dangers of exposure. One important thing to understand is that fatigue affects your mind just as much as it does your body.
Arctic explorers discovered that if you sleep when you need to rather than pushing on, you will wake up when you become cold. If you push on till you collapse from exhaustion you’ll freeze to death instead of waking up.
Boredom
Boredom is like a cancer that slowly eats away at morale. It is always a good idea to keep a way to entertain you in your survival kit. Something as simple as a deck of cards can do wonders for fighting boredom. To this one you can add loneliness…if you are alone. Loneliness can be devastating.
As you can see, these enemies of survival can all make surviving an emergency much more difficult…if not impossible. By understanding them you will have a much better chance of getting out of your next survival situation/emergency alive.
The Chap Stick
When you’re selecting what to put into your survival kit or bug out
bag, it’s a good idea to pack items that have multiple uses.
This is one of the best way to be prepared for all types of situations
without taking up more space than necessary.
There are dozens of multi-use items, but I want to look at the humble
Chap Stick
Moisten chapped
hands and scrapes.
This helps them heal faster and keeps them protected from the
elements.
Stop small cuts
from bleeding.
Obviously this won’t work for deep cuts, but it’s great for little
cuts for example if you cut yourself shaving. It will also keep dirt and other
things out thereby reducing the chance of infection.
Protect your
skin from the cold.
In extremely cold weather, rub it on exposed skin
to help prevent frostbite.
Protect your
skin from the sun.
Chap Stick can also be used as sunscreen. It’s not as effective as
regular sunscreen, but it will do as long as you’re not in the sun all day.
Just don’t get any in your eyes!
Prevent
blisters.
If there’s a spot on your skin that is getting rubbed raw, put some
Chap Stick on it to prevent a blister from forming.
Reduce glare. If you’re in a
bright desert or snowy area, dip Chap Stick in black ashes and rub it under
your eyes. This will keep you from going snow blind.
Use it on
kindling.
Rub it on cotton balls, lint, cloth, gauze, or even dried bark to make
kindling that burns easily and for a long time.
Make a candle. Cut a Q-tip in
half, rub the cotton end on the chap stick, then turn it over and stick the
other end into the chap stick and you’ll have a small candle. It won’t burn all
evening, but it is a good temporary candle that will make it a lot easier to
get a fire started.
Lubricate your
bow drill.
The bearing block needs to be lubricated so the spindle will spin more
easily. If nothing else is available, Chap Stick will do.
Lubricate
threads.
I’m talking about the ones on metal twist caps or outdoor light bulbs.
This will prevent them from rusting.
Lubricate zips
that are stuck.
This will make them easier to move and make them a little more water
resistant.
Lubricate tools,
screws, and nails.
Any tool with moving parts and friction can benefit from the Chap
Stick. Also, if you put it on screws and nails it will be easier to drill /
hammer them into place.
Keep knives from
rusting.
Now this one I really like rub it directly onto the blade. Very
helpful if you’re on the move and it’s raining.
Patch holes. If you have any
tiny holes in your poncho or tent, a little chap stick will plug it up.
Protect leather. This is a must
for those who have leather sheaths just rub it all over anything leather such
as a sheath or shoes. This will protect the leather and make it somewhat water
proof.
Clean glasses. Rub a dab of Chap
Stick all over the lens then polish with a thin cloth. This will clean the lens
and keep them from fogging up.
Take off a ring. If your hands
swell up, rub Chap Stick on your fingers and the ring will slide right off.
Hide cash. Take off the caps
on both ends, clean it out really well, then roll up some cash and stick it in
there. Great way to hide money.
Make a tiny
survival kit.
Several little things can fit into an empty chap stick tube such as
pills, a tiny compass, a Q-tip (for kindling), strike-anywhere matches, steel
wire, the tip of a pen for writing, a hook and fishing line, etc.
So you are stuck in snow

 

OK so you have a snow shovel in your vehicle during winter, you do have
one don’t you? Having one can literally mean the difference between life and
death… You should also have a vehicle emergency pack with essential survival
items in case you have to spend the night in your car, or walk miles home
in freezing weather.
Even if you have a snow shovel, if the road is frozen hard, even after
digging out around the wheels, it can still be difficult to gain traction and
get un-stuck.
In this situation there is a way you can get traction and get moving
again. It can also work even if you didn’t have a snow shovel, so couldn’t dig
out first, but only if the snow isn’t too deep.
This tip will only really work on hard surfaces such as roads,
driveways and car parks, but here’s what to do –
If there is snow and you have a snow shovel, dig out as much snow
around the wheels as possible. No snow shovel, then do this!
Take out the floor mats in your car, turn them upside down and place
them in front and underneath the wheels which are spinning, this will obviously
depend on whether your car is front or rear wheel drive.
Jump back in the car and try to drive forward slowly and steadily.
If you escape, be sure to run back and pick up your floor mats. If your
car simply moved over the floor mats and immediately got stuck again, you can
keep repeating the process and inch forward.

 

What to do in a Terrorist Attack
In the late 60’s/early 70/s I lived in Northern Ireland and during this time we saw the height of the troubles with daily bombings and shootings on our streets.
Even to the point where the terrorist would place large bombs in the actual doorways of the pubs which were full of people and warn them not to more for so many minutes.
Needless to say that when the bombers left so did the people inside as the timers were not very good in those early days of terrorism.
We took many precautions back then that may seem very strange to you now.
The first thing that happened was a back street industry began in the ability to re-tune our radios to receive not the normal programmes but also the police, Army, and believe it or not Taxis as if they were sending taxis into an area then it was usually safe for us to go there too.
Bomb threats happened as I said daily and it got to the point where it became annoying having programmes interrupted continually by bomb warnings that were in areas that you did not actually live in.
Today 40 years later nothing has really changed at all, as today we still face the terrorist threat.
Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence by a person or group. The goal is to intimidate or coerce societies or governments in an effort to promote political, ideological beliefs or religious beliefs.
These attacks can take many forms, and could happen at any time in any place. Terrorists typically exploit vulnerabilities, and may use technology, hazardous materials, biological agents or other methods to create devastating disruptions to the community.
Terrorism thrives on fear. By planning how to respond to a terrorist attack, you can greatly improve your chances of survival. You can also lessen the impact of the attack by reducing the fear in the aftermath.
Take precautions when traveling.
Do not accept packages from strangers and do not leave luggage unattended. You should promptly report unusual behaviour, suspicious or unattended packages, and strange devices to the police or security personnel.
Learn where emergency exits are located in buildings you frequent. Plan how to get out in the event of an emergency. Also, be prepared to do without services you normally depend on— electricity, telephone, natural gas, petrol pumps, cash registers, Holes in the wall/ATMS, and Internet access.
Bomb Threat
If you receive a telephoned bomb threat, you should get as much information as possible. Try asking the following questions:
When is the bomb going to explode?
Where is it right now?
What does it look like?
What kind of bomb is it?
What will cause it to explode?
Did you place the bomb?
Try to keep the caller on the line and record everything that is said. Notify the police immediately. If the threat seems credible, evacuate the building immediately.
During
If a terrorist attack occurs, it is important that you remain calm and follow instructions from local officials and emergency service personnel.
You should be aware of your surroundings and watch for additional attacks.
Listen to local TV and radio for directions and travel information and instructions from local officials. If you are in a position where the attack occurs near you, check for injuries and provide first‐aid. This is a situation when a GHB will be of use as well as a plan on how you will get home.
In your home
If the disaster occurs near your home while you are there, check for damage using a torch/flashlight. Do not light matches or candles or turn on electrical switches.
Check for fires, fire hazards and other household hazards. Sniff for gas leaks, starting at the water heater.
If you smell gas or suspect a leak, turn off the main gas valve, open windows, and get everyone outside quickly.
Turn off any other damaged electrical appliances or equipment.
Confine or secure your pets.
Call your family contact—do not use the telephone again unless it is a life‐threatening emergency. In some cases, mobile phones will not work. Consider other ways of communicating. Remember in the recent Paris attacks the authorities shut the mobile networks down to prevent the terrorist talking to each other.
Check on your neighbours, especially those who are elderly or disabled.
If you see or hear an explosion
Call 999 or 112
Get under a sturdy table or desk if things are falling around you. When they stop falling, leave quickly, watching for obviously weakened floors and stairways.
As you exit from the building, be especially watchful of falling debris.
Leave the building as quickly as possible. Crawl low to the floor if there is smoke. Do not stop to retrieve personal possessions or make phone calls.
Do not use the lifts.
Check for fire and other hazards.
Once you are out, do not stand in front of windows, glass doors or other potentially hazardous areas.
If you are trapped in debris: Use a torch/flashlight, if possible, to signal your location to rescuers.
Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can hear where you are.
If possible, use a whistle to signal rescuers.
Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust.
Avoid unnecessary movement so you don’t kick up dust.
Cover your nose and mouth with anything you have on hand. (Dense‐weave cotton material can act as a good filter. Try to breathe through the material.)
Be wary of suspicious packages and letters. They can contain explosives, chemical or biological agents.
Be particularly cautious at your place of work. Some typical characteristics of suspicious packages may include:
Unexpected or unfamiliar senders.
No return address or a return address that can’t be verified as legitimate.
Marked with restrictive endorsements such as “Personal,” “Confidential,” or “Do not X‐ray.”
Have protruding wires or aluminium foil, strange odours or stains.
Show a city or location in the postmark that doesn’t match the return address.
Are of unusual weight given their size or are lopsided or oddly shaped.
Are marked with threatening language.
Have inappropriate or unusual labelling.
Have excessive postage or packaging material, such as masking tape and string.
Have misspellings of common words.
Are addressed to someone no longer with your organization or are otherwise outdated.
Have incorrect titles or titles without a name.
Are not addressed to a specific person.
Have hand‐written or poorly typed addresses.
After a Terrorist Attack
You can expect heavy police and security involvement at the local, county and even national levels.
These agencies will investigate the incident and the location will be treated as a crime scene.
Your workplace or school may be closed, and there may be restrictions on domestic and international travel.
You and your family may have to evacuate the area, as instructed by the police or other safety personal. You should also expect extensive media coverage and increased police activity, even if the attack did not occur in your immediate area.
What to do in a terror attack
If you have not already done so, then now is a good time to make yourself aware of a few tips on what to do if you’re unfortunate enough to be caught up in a terror attack.
Surviving a terror attack
If you are involved or close to a terror incident you must exercise heightened security awareness and follow the directives of local authorities.
Here are a few safety first tips:
Stay inside your home, work place or any other accommodation you are in at the time.
Do not go out onto the streets.
Be alert to local news developments.
Stick to any imposed curfews or security restrictions.
Be aware of conspicuous or unusual behaviour. Unusual behaviour and strange devices should be reported to the police or security personnel promptly.
If you are in a building located close to the site of a terrorist attack, stay away from the windows
If in the vicinity of an attack, do not stay to watch what is happening, as you will only get in the way of the emergency services. There is also a risk that additional attacks may occur.
Make a mental note of safe havens, such as police stations and hospitals.
If there’s a bomb blast
Leave the area as soon as possible
Stay clear of glass shop fronts.
If you are injured attend to yourself before others.
Obey all instructions and orders that are given by local police.
Make your way to a pre-planned secure area.
If you return to your home or hotel stay away from the windows.
Listen to television and radio reports.
Contact family or friends and let them know your situation.
Write down what you saw before and after the blast it may help the authorities in their investigation.
If you are injured
If you are injured or become ill please seek medical aid.
Be aware that any functioning hospitals and clinics may be busy caring for large numbers of people who have been injured in the incident.
Preparing for terrorism on holiday abroad
Before visiting a country where there is a risk of terrorism you should first obtain as much information on that country as possible.
When you arrive, stay away from those areas that may have been the target of terrorism in the past.
Identify the main tourist areas and stay away from those which appear less secure.
Make yourself aware of your surroundings. Be aware of the conduct of people near to you.
Stay away from large gatherings or demonstrations.
Know the telephone numbers of local police, hospitals and your Embassy.
f you are with friends identify a rendezvous point to meet should there be an incident.
Prepare a plan to evacuate should there be an incident.
Know the telephone numbers of local transport and hire car companies.
What is happening to me and who do I call?
It is important to remember that the situation you are in can be extremely stressful.
Call home and your country’s Consulate or Embassy to let them know where you are, if you are alright and if you need any assistance.
Surviving a Flood

Floods are one of
the most common hazards in the world, however not all floods are alike. Some
floods develop slowly, while others such a flash floods, can develop in just a
few minutes and without visible signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be
local, impacting an estate or community, or very large, affecting entire river
basins and even whole counties.

 

Flash floods can
occur within a few minutes or hours of excessive rainfall, a dam or river bank
breach. Flash floods often have a dangerous wall of roaring water carrying
rocks, mud and other debris.


Overland flooding,
the most common type of flooding event typically occurs when waterways such as
rivers or streams overflow their banks as a result of rainwater causing
flooding in surrounding areas. It can also occur when rainfall or snowmelt
exceeds the capacity of underground pipes, or the capacity of streets and
drains designed to carry flood water away from urban areas.


Be aware of flood
hazards no matter where you live or work, but especially if you are in
low-lying areas, near water, behind a flood barrier or downstream from a dam.
Even very small streams, gullies, culverts, dry streambeds or low-lying ground
that appear harmless in dry weather can flood.


Before a Flood


What would you do if
your property were flooded? Are you prepared?


Even if you feel you
live in an area with a low risk of flooding, remember that anywhere it rains,
it can flood.  Just because you haven’t experienced a flood in the past,
doesn’t mean you won’t in the future. 

 

Flood risk isn’t
just based on history; it’s also based on a number of factors including
rainfall , topography, flood-control measures, river-flow and tidal-surge data,
and changes due to new construction and development.
Flood-hazard
maps have been created to show the flood risk for your community, which
helps determine the type of flood insurance coverage you will
need since standard homeowners insurance doesn’t cover flooding.  The
lower the degree of risk, the lower the flood insurance premium.
To prepare for a flood, you should:
Build an emergency
kit and make a family communications plan.
Avoid building in a
floodplain unless you elevate and reinforce your home.
You could elevate
the fire, water heater and electric panel in your home if you live in an area
that has a high flood risk.
Consider installing
“check valves” to prevent flood water from backing up into the drains of your
home.
If feasible,
construct barriers to stop floodwater from entering the building and seal walls
in basements with waterproofing compounds.
During a Flood
If a flood is likely
in your area, you should:
Listen to the radio
or television for information.
Be aware that flash
flooding can occur. If there is any possibility of a flash flood, move
immediately to higher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move.
Be aware of stream,
drainage channels, valleys and other areas known to flood suddenly. Flash
floods can occur in these areas with or without typical warnings such as rain
clouds or heavy rain.
Secure your home. If
you have time, bring in outdoor furniture. Move essential items to an upper
floor.
Turn off
utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to do so.
Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not touch electrical equipment if you are
wet or standing in water.
If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation
tips:
Do not walk through
moving water. Six inches of moving water can make you fall. If you have to walk
in water, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick to check the firmness
of the ground in front of you.
Do not drive into
flooded areas. If floodwaters rise around your car, abandon the car and move to
higher ground if you can do so safely. You and the vehicle can be swept away
quickly.
Do not camp or park
your vehicle along streams, rivers or creeks, particularly during threatening
conditions.
After the Flood
Your home has been
flooded. Although floodwaters may be down in some areas, many dangers still
exist. Here are some things to remember in the days ahead:
Use local alerts and
warning systems to get information and expert informed advice as soon as
available.
Avoid moving water.
Stay away from
damaged areas unless your assistance has been specifically requested by police,
fire, or relief organization.
Emergency workers
will be assisting people in flooded areas. You can help them by staying off the
roads and out of the way.
Play it safe.
Additional flooding or flash floods can occur. Listen for local warnings and
information. If your car stalls in rapidly rising waters, get out immediately
and climb to higher ground.
Return home only
when authorities indicate it is safe.
Roads may still be
closed because they have been damaged or are covered by water. Barricades have
been placed for your protection. If you come upon a barricade or a flooded road
go another way.
If you must walk or drive in areas that have been
flooded.
Stay on firm ground.
Moving water only 6 inches deep can sweep you off your feet. Standing water may
be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines.
Flooding may have
caused familiar places to change. Floodwaters often erode roads and walkways.
Flood debris may hide animals and broken bottles, and it’s also slippery. Avoid
walking or driving through it.
Be aware of areas
where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and could collapse
under the weight of a car.
Stay out of any
building if it is surrounded by floodwaters.
Use extreme caution
when entering buildings; there may be hidden damage, particularly in
foundations.
STAYING HEALTHY
A flood can cause
physical hazards and emotional stress. You need to look after yourself and your
family as you focus on clean up and repair.
Avoid floodwaters;
water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline or raw sewage.
Service damaged
septic tanks, cesspools, pits and leaching systems as soon as possible. Damaged
sewer systems are serious health hazards.
Listen for news
reports to learn whether the community’s water supply is safe to drink
Clean and disinfect
everything that got wet. Mud left from floodwaters can contain sewage and
chemicals.
Rest often and eat well.
Keep a manageable
schedule. Make a list and do jobs one at a time.
Discuss your
concerns with others and seek help. Contact Red Cross for information on
emotional support available in your area.
CLEANING UP AND REPAIRING YOUR HOME
Turn off the electricity
at the main breaker or fuse box, even if the power is off in your community.
That way, you can decide when your home is dry enough to turn it back on.

 


Ground to Air
Signals


When you’re in
distress in the outdoors and you need to call for help, you can use a number of
different rescue signal techniques. But if you believe that an airplane,
helicopter, or other airborne rescue party may be searching for you, then you
can use the five-symbol ground-to-air emergency code to signal a specific
message in advance of the aircraft’s landing.


Most importantly,
the ground-to-air emergency code can help let rescuers know whether or not
anyone in your party is injured, and it can guide them more effectively towards
your location. The five ground-to-air emergency code symbols and their meanings
are as follows:


Require Assistance: V


A V-shaped signal
communicates that you need assistance, in general, but it doesn’t imply that
you or someone in your party is injured.


Require Medical Assistance: X


Use the letter X to
communicate that you or someone in your party needs medical attention. Whereas
the V symbol communicates a call for help, the X symbol communicates a more
urgent request for assistance.


No or Negative: N


The N symbol can be
used to communicate your negative response to a question that the aircraft or
rescue organization has asked.

 

Yes or Affirmative: Y
The Y symbol can be
used to communicate your affirmative response to a question that the aircraft
or rescue organization has asked.
Proceed in this Direction: Arrow, pointing towards the
location
Place an
arrow-shaped symbol with the head, or point, of the arrow indicating the
direction of your location. This symbol is a good one to use when rescuers may
need additional information about how to reach your location after they have
identified another ground-to-air signal, such as a group of X symbols in an
open area indicating a need for medical assistance. Place the arrow in a
position that will guide rescuers from the open area towards your location.
Tips for Using the Air-to-Ground Emergency Code:
Signal using the
air-to-ground emergency code as you would signal with other methods, such as a
smoke rescue fire.
Remember these key
ideas when arranging signals and communicating with rescue crews:
As with other visual
signals, signalling in threes communicates and confirms distress.
Choose a large, open
area as close as possible to your location for the signal location.
Choose to place
signals on the highest, flattest terrain you can find near your location.
Choose a signal that
will contrast with the underlying terrain. Choose dark-coloured branches, for
example, on top of white snow.
Go big! Use several
rows of rocks or debris to build each part of a signal letter so that it is
thick enough and big enough to be seen clearly from above.
Be prepared to use a
back-up signal, such as a signal mirror, to confirm your location as soon as
you see aircraft in the area.

 


Out and About
Alone


I would never
recommend going into the wilderness alone for many reasons, centred mainly I
would have to say around safety.


But going into the
wilderness challenges us as individuals and tests our knowledge and survival
skills and you know that is why we do it.


Going out alone in
the wilderness can be quite rewarding, as long as everything goes smoothly.
Perhaps you’re after some peace and quiet, or perhaps you’re looking for a way
to challenge yourself mentally and physically.


People go out
backpacking, hiking, and camping alone for various reasons, but it’s important
to be aware of the risks and be prepared in order to return home safely.


Here are a few
things that you can do to increase your chances of surviving a solo adventure
and enjoy yourself in the process:


Plan in Advance


Don’t go out solo on
a whim. Instead, take the extra time you need to make careful plans. Advance
planning for a solo venture should include all of the following:


Monitor weather forecasts:
Choose to go solo in the best weather possible. Take extra clothing to protect
yourself from the elements including rain, wind, and snow. Consider lining your
backpack with a plastic rubbish bag to keep gear dry, or cover your backpack
with a rain cover.


Check with the locals:
Call Tourist Information or the National Trust to make sure that conditions are
safe. Ask about obstacles such as water or snow, and make sure you’re aware of
emergency shelters that may be along your proposed route.

 

Check to see if
mobile phones will work in the area you are heading for, and make a list of
emergency contacts that you will carry with you.
Make a gear checklist:
Include emergency survival gear and a wilderness first-aid kit on your list.
Plan to purchase necessary items in advance to avoid a last-minute rush.
Gather route information:
Do as much as you can to study your route by reading about it in guidebooks,
studying maps, and consulting others who have been in the area.
Find out about
potential terrain and wildlife hazards. Use technology such as Google Earth,
online maps, and photographs to help you anticipate terrain.
If you’re able to go
hike a section of a trail that you’re worried about encountering on a multi-day
trip, you could always hike it as a day hike so that you are mentally and
physically prepared.
Practice in Advance
If you haven’t gone
out on a solo venture, practice in advance, and practice in increasing levels
of difficulty. Begin with a solo day hike, and then advance to an overnight
trip. Once you’ve gained sufficient skill and experience, next venture out for
a multi-day trip.
Plan on sharing your
first overnight trips with others who are more experienced than you so that you
can practice your skills and learn from their advice before next going out
alone.
Get fit! Don’t go
out alone if you’re worried about your physical fitness. Train in advance of a
solo adventure by increasing endurance and weight carried on the trail.
Practice hiking with a backpack that will match the weight of the one you plan
to carry on your solo journey so that you’re not surprised by its weight when
the time comes for you to go out alone.
Share Detailed Plans
Let friends, family,
and/or rangers know the details of your proposed journey, and then don’t
deviate from those plans. Choose a specific point of contact, and file a trip
plan with that person; include detailed route information, time of departure,
and estimated time of return.
Also include
information about what response you’d like if you don’t return on time. Do you
want people to come out searching for you immediately? Leave contact numbers
for emergency and search agencies so that your point of contact knows how to
proceed.
Choose Gear Wisely
When going out solo,
you will have to carry all of your camp weight instead of sharing it with a
partner or a group. Carry the lightest load possible by planning calorie-dense
meals, carrying light cooking gear, and taking the lightest shelter that’s
sufficient for the conditions.
Carry communications
equipment in a waterproof bag. Turn off equipment when it’s not in use, and
take extra batteries or a solar charger to make sure you have power when you
need it.
Make sure that you
have a sufficient wilderness first-aid kit and other emergency supplies such as
a signal mirror, a fire starter, a knife, and a water purification system. Use
your checklist for packing essentials, such as a map, compass, whistle and
proper clothing.
Be Conservative
When confronted with
a threatening situation, adopt a survival mentality, but be conservative with
gear, food, and route selection. If you break or lose something essential, you
could put yourself in greater danger when you’re alone than with others who can
share their gear.
Approach water
crossings with caution since you won’t be able to rely on other hiking partners
to help you, and look for ways to avoid dangerous or exposed terrain. When
you’re out alone, your survival ultimately depends on your health, your gear,
and your ability to improvise.

 

How to stay
warm at home when cash is low
How to stay warm at
home if without turning the heating on when low on cash? Here are some
thoughts…
Fool the eye: Sometimes warmth is a matter of perception.
Warm colours and textures
make you feel warmer so change out your decor. Try a throw so you can snuggle
under it.
Cut a rug: Cover up your bare floors with a rug.
Bake something:
Stews, roasts, casseroles and soups are made for the cold weather because they
cook at low temperatures for a long period of time and, of course, they warm
you up going down.
Drink something:
Wrap your hands around a warm mug of tea, cocoa or coffee.
Let the sun in: Open
curtains and blinds during the day.
Change your bedding:
Switch to flannel sheets, a down comforter, use extra blankets.
Clean the house: Not
only will your house be cleaner but activity will get your blood pumping.
Cover your head: It
sounds silly but wearing a hat (and socks) to bed at night, even if the rest of
you is clad in skimpy clothing, will keep you warm.
It’s muggy in here: Use a humidifier. Humid air feels
warmer.
No humidifier? Open
the bathroom door while you’re showering.
Reverse the fan: We
know that, since heat rises, running your ceiling fan in reverse will push the
warm air back down to the ground.
Do your laundry:
Nothing warms you up like clothing straight from the dryer.
It’s drafty in here:
Block drafts with weather stripping, a rolled up towel or a draft stopper.
It takes two: Snuggle up with your significant other.
Something old
fashioned: Try a hot water bottle or, before you get into bed, running a hot
pan over your sheets. Bags of rice or dried beans, warmed in the microwave, are
another option.
How to stay warm with no heating for whatever reason.
Wear layers of
clothing in real times if it is very cold then dress for the outdoors, wear a
hat and gloves.
If you have a real
fire build it up and gather the family in that room.
Block all drafts
with rolled towels, rolled newspapers or fix weather strips.
You can create a
double glazing effect by nailing up Perspex over existing windows remembering
to leave an air gap between them, remember not to bang the nails home as that
may by your only escape route in the event of a fire.
How to prevent Hypothermia
Which dulls the
brain–the most important survival tool you have to help you survival:
Seek and create
shelter from cold, wind, snow, and rain. If possible, retreat to timbered areas
for shelter construction and fire.
Nibble high energy
goods–sweets, nuts, and energy bars. Sip water kept warm with body heat. Use
solid fuel hand warmer, igniting both ends of fuel stick, which is good for
four hours of heat. Do isometric exercises to stir up body’s circulation
system.
Prevent heat loss.
Remember the body
loses heat by respiration, evaporation, conduction, radiation, and convection.
To prevent loss by
respiration, cover the mouth and nose with loosely woven or knitted wool.
To reduce
evaporation through excessive perspiration, wear clothes that breathe and are
in layers.
To avoid loss by
conduction, put a layer of over between the body and a cold, wet surface. This
insulation is particularly important if you’re already wet.
To prevent loss by
radiation, keep the head, hands, and feet covered.
To prevent loss by
convection, protect the body from the wind.
In stage one of hypothermia, the victim begins shivering, has poor coordination, slurs speech, and
shows poor judgment.
By stage two,
when the body temperature is below 95 degrees, muscular rigidity replaces
shivering, and the victim becomes more irrational and needs warmth immediately
from external sources and protection from further heat loss.
Know that the victim is the LAST to realize s/he’s in
danger
.
Surviving post
SHTF
So you will not have
to scavenge post SHTF because you already have everything you need, you have
prepped, you are OK, Well maybe, maybe not.
Even if you’ve been
prepping for years, it’s still possible you forgot a few things. But even if
you didn’t, you could still end up in a situation where you need something you
never thought you’d need.
What if one of your
group becomes pregnant or a parent with a small child joins your group? You may
have to go looking for baby food, nappies etc.
What if your
prescription medications are lost or destroyed? You may have to go looking for
replacement meds. What if vital equipment is damaged? What if you need parts
for your shelter or vehicle? These are just a few possibilities off the top of
my head. There are dozens more situations you won’t think of until you’re in
them.
The point is, you
may have no other choice but to scavenge for supplies after the SHTF. If
someone’s life is on the line, you’ll have no choice.
Send a Scout
If you know the area
you want to search, it’s a good idea to send a scout with binoculars, a radio,
and a gun. Scouts should watch the area for a few hours to make sure no one is
living there and that there is no one lying in wait.
You might think I am
going over the top here but some people become very dangerous when there are no
police to keep them in check. The last thing you want is to get robbed or
possibly killed while scavenging for supplies.
The radio is so your
scout can stay in touch. If the area is compromised or not worth the trouble,
the group’s leader can instruct the scout to return or to check another area.
This is another good reason why you should have a CB radio as part of your
preps.
If you lose contact
with your scout, you’ll know something is wrong and can send reinforcements.
But the reinforcements need to be careful not to wander into a trap. The
purpose of the scout’s gun should be obvious.
When surveying the
area, the scout needs to note any obstacles that might make the area more
trouble than it’s worth.
Examples include
barbed wire fences, high walls, ditches, streams, and so forth. All these
things might make it too difficult or dangerous to lug back supplies.
Also check for
vehicle access as this would speed the operation up.
The scout should
also note whether any buildings in question have been damaged by things such as
bombs and or looters etc. You don’t want the stairs you’re climbing to collapse
or a ceiling to fall on your head while you’re digging through rubble.
You and your group
will have to weigh the costs versus the benefits and the risks versus the
rewards before searching an area.
Make a Plan
Once you’ve decided
where to go and what to look for, you’ll have to decide who to send. Never send
someone alone. He or she could twist an ankle or something and need help
returning to camp. Also, there could be heavy obstacles or supplies that
require at least two people to move. And remember, one person is far more
likely to be robbed or killed than a group of people.
Of you should send
several people, but that depends on how many you can spare. You don’t want to
leave children alone at your camp.
Everyone who goes
should bring a sturdy backpack along with several empty bags (cloth, mesh, or
even rubbish bags for light stuff), work gloves, a multitool, a good knife, a
flashlight, a gun, a face mask, and goggles.
Those last two are
in case the location’s air is full of dust, smoke, or toxic chemicals. At least
one person in the group should also have a crowbar. And if you need fuel, don’t
forget to bring a siphon and a fuel container
If you have several
areas to search, you’ll have to decide the order in which to search them.
It’s better to start
farther out and work your way back toward camp so you don’t waste energy carrying
supplies farther than necessary. But if you know the heaviest items are going
to be in a particular place, you might want to go there last.
If scavenging your
area is going to take several days or weeks, you should get a map and mark the
locations you search so you don’t accidentally visit the same place twice.
Where to Look
You should look
everywhere! Here are some possible suggestion of places to search and what you
may find within them.
Car repair garages– You have a better chance of finding the part you need here than in a
department store. It’s true now, and it will be true after the SHTF, too.
Cars – You’ll want to check the glove box, under the seats, and in the
boot for snacks, tools, and other useful items.
Parts of the car
itself might prove useful, too. The mirrors could be used for signalling, the
wiring for cordage, the upholstery for bedding and insulation, the battery for
power (if someone in your group is mechanically inclined), and of course the
engine parts if you need them for your own vehicle.

Food warehouses – Most people will aim for the shops first, so it will be a little
longer before the warehouses are picked clean. Even then, there may be a few
things that were overlooked. Also check the lorry trailers. You may find
non-perishable foods and other supplies.

Industrial rubbish bins – It won’t be fun, but you might find some hidden treasures in them.

Fire stations
– You may find food, supplies, and clothing. Plus, the fire engine has a tank
with hundreds of gallons of water. It will need to be filtered, though.

Petrol Stations – These will probably be picked clean, but you never know.

Shops – These
will probably be picked clean, too, but you may find food in less obvious
places such as under shelves and behind displays. Also check the bathrooms, the
offices, the stock room, and the loading bay.

Hospitals
Obviously these should have lots of clothes and medical supplies.

Houses
Check everywhere–rooms, garage, basement, attic, back garden, sheds, the garden
if there is one, etc.
The water heater has
up to 70 gallons of drinking water. Better yet, look for houses with swimming
pools. Also keep an eye out for metal mailboxes which can be converted into
woodstoves.

Manufacturing Facilities – They may have fuel, batteries, tools, and first aid supplies.

Marinas
Check abandoned boats. They usually have supplies like emergency rations,
communication equipment, fishing equipment, ropes, fuel and possibly guns.

Office Buildings – Check break rooms for vending machines and check desks for snacks and
small tools. There should be fire extinguishers in most rooms and cleaning
supplies in the care takers room.

Pawn Shops If
you’re lucky you’ll find weapons, ammo, and other miscellaneous gear.

Pet Stores If
your pets are still okay, a pet store might make it possible for you to keep
feeding them without giving up any of your own food. You could also eat it
yourself, but I wouldn’t recommend that unless you’re really desperate.

Restaurants
These will probably be empty, but check anyway. There may be a few tins or bags
of food that were overlooked. Anything that was in the freezer will have gone
bad, though. But there may still be pots, pans etc.

Retail Stores
– Consider grabbing some non-electric entertainment such as books, cards, board
games, sports equipment, clothing etc.

Schools
There’s a lot to be found in schools–tools, fire extinguishers, first aid kits,
cleaning supplies, and possibly food in the cafeteria.

Self-storage Facilities – If you have time to pry open all of them, it might be worth it. You
probably won’t find any food or perishable items, but there’s a chance you’ll
find some clothes or useful gear and equipment.
Hopefully you’ll
never have to go digging through any of these places, but you should prepare
for the possibility. Good luck.

What is EMF and
Why You Need to Know about EMF Health


What is EMF?


EMF is quickly
becoming a household word because it IS affecting our health and it’s
everywhere.


There is plenty of
information ‘out there’ stating EMF’s aren’t harmful, but I am not sure. Here
is the truth about EMF dangers stated in very simple terms and the best EMF
protection.


What is EMF?


EMF stands for
electromagnetic field. Everything God created has its own electromagnetic
field. Additionally, everything man makes has an electromagnetic field (i.e.,
electronic technology). It is a measurable type of energy, and for the human
body the EMF frequencies truly are the life of our cells.


Electromagnetic
radiation is the energy projected from the EMF’s. Just as there are good fats
and bad fats for our body and good sugars and bad sugars for our body, so there
are good/safe EMF’s and bad/harmful EMF’s for our body.


What are the
short-term symptoms from wireless Smart Meters?


Symptoms from the
radiation emitted by wireless Smart Meters are: headaches, dizziness,
short-term memory loss, a fuzzy head, irritability, itchiness, aches, sleep
disturbance, digestive problems, heart-rate changes, and many more.


Both children and
adults can suffer.


How many people are
likely to be ill from wireless Smart Meters?


People’s exposure to
wireless Smart Meter radiation varies considerably between properties.


Therefore the number
of people affected by short-term symptoms will also vary according to
individual conditions.


Surveys suggest that
about 30% of the population are slightly allergic to radio exposure, usually
without knowing it, 3% moderately, and under 1% severely. Is the number people
suffering from Electro-sensitivity rising or falling?

 

Doctors around the
world report a steady increase in the number of people being sensitised.
Some scientists
estimate that up to half the population could be sensitised to some extent by
2017 to 2065,
depending on the growth in electro-pollution, including wireless Smart Meters.
So what do the WHO
and scientific studies say about Electro-sensitivity?
In 2000 the Nordic
Council of Ministers categorised “El-allergy” as IDI-10-R68. In 2005 the
WHO stated that the
symptoms are “certainly real” and it can be a “disabling condition”.
Increasing numbers
of studies show a link between EM exposure and autonomic responses.
What are the
long-term health problems from wireless Smart Meters?
Long-term or
high-level exposure to similar radiation is linked with cancers and
neurological diseases.
UK wireless Smart
Meter trials began in 2009 so there are no long-term studies.
What do the WHO and
scientific studies say about wireless Smart Meters?
In 2011 the World
Health Organisation’s IARC classified radiation such as from wireless Smart
Meters as a 2B possible carcinogen.
Mobile phone
radiation and Wi-Fi change brain functions and can harm male fertility. This
radiation is linked with neurological diseases and cancers.
How do wireless
Smart Meters cause ill health?
Electromagnetic
radiation can affect the autonomic nervous system, protein expression and the
thyroid. Mechanisms include calcium efflux at ion cyclotron resonance on cell
membranes, reduced melatonin, mast cell degranulation, free radicals, DNA effects,
biogenic magnetite, cytochromes and metal implants. Some genetic variants are
more sensitive to EM radiation.
Smart meters.  So-called smart electrical meters are a newer
threat, and a bad one.  These are new
electrical meters that are being installed on homes and businesses.
Instead of requiring
a person to read the meter, the meter contains a radio transmitter that sends
the data directly from the home to a central location.  This requires a fairly powerful radio
transmitter that is located right at your home and work place.
Even more sinister
is the fact that these devices may transmit up to 10 frequencies, day and
night, which seem to be particularly harmful for some people.
Some would say they
are weaponized, meaning they are very harmful for some people to be around or
even close to.
However, even if you
refuse it for your home, your neighbours may have one that is broadcasting
right into your home.  Also, your place
of work may have one, as well.  Laws must
be changed to stop the implementation of these devices, which are far too
powerful to be placed close to human populations.
How similar are
health effects from radio frequency and from ionising radiation?
“Electrosmog ELF
changes are similar to ionizing radiation from Chernobyl or Fukushima’s
ionizing radioisotope particles, with health deterioration and behavioural
problems, premature illness and death.”
The Four Forms of
Electromagnetic Radiation
The four forms of
electromagnetic radiation include:
Electric – Anything
having an electric field including power lines that transport it.
Magnetic – Anything
having a magnetic field which could come from an electric source or from a
motor or engine.
Wireless/RF/Wi
Fi/Microwave – Anything that communicates with a wireless signal using radio
frequency, microwave, wi fi, etc.
Ionizing – Includes
gamma rays, UV rays and X-rays.
All forms of
electromagnetic radiation that is different from the human bodies is bad for
body exposure and would include:
THERE ARE NO SAFE
LEVELS OF IONIZING RADIATION. ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON
RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION, THE RECOMMENDED ANNUAL DOSE LIMIT FOR THE GENERAL
PUBLIC IS 1 MSV.
Ionizing EMF
Emissions Facts – Even low dose exposure causes damage to living tissue
including cancer, tumours and genetic (DNA) damage. Radon (vapor from uranium
decay that comes up out of the ground) in homes is the second leading cause of
lung cancer after smoking and second hand smoke.
Like all radiation
you can help to protect yourself from its effects. The only two known solutions
are Distance and Shielding.
There are many, many
supplements, substances, alternative medicines if you wish that have a proven
track record in dealing with the effects on the human body of EMF.
I however am not
qualified to comment on them or the doses to take. You will find the internet
full of site that know more about them than me.
I will be covering
the type of detection meters that you can buy and how to use them in later
shows.

 

Survivalist Thoughts
Those of us who’ve figured things out to various and lessor
degrees, realize the need to prepare for a time in the not too distant future
when the society we’ve become accustom to will no longer be functional.
Let’s pause a moment and savour the meaning of what I just
said. Some people who have not really paused to consider the true ramifications
of a societal collapse, look forward to these times with an almost naive glee.
Visions of “Red Dawn,” fire fights with well-armed
but incompetent troops, camping out and feasting on venison seem to figure
heavily in these ill-conceived fantasies.
Let’s explore some of these myths. Anyone who has spent any
time in the wilderness or in actual combat knows that running and gunning is
the option of “LAST” resort!!!
When things get down to running and gunning your prospects
for long term survival have just become tragically thin. Even elite forces such
as the Navy Seals, try to avoid “running and gunning.” They operate
from a base.
They are inserted, do their jobs and are extracted back to
the safety of their base. In the scenario so often fantasized, it would be like
being permanently behind enemy lines with no support, no hope of extraction and
no supplies. Could you survive? Some could, but they are few and far between.
Let’s explore the notion of living off the land. The reality
is, there isn’t enough game in the UK, to support a group of any size for any
length of time. By the way, you’ve got to figure you’re not going to be the
“ONLY” person or group out there fighting for the limited resources.
Small game? How many rabbits will you have to kill to feed
yourself per day? Per week? How about your family? You’re going to run out of
rabbits pretty quick in whatever area you happen to be in. Fishing? That’s a
good plan if you’re near a body of water. But again, you’re not going to be the
only one with that idea.
Suppose you have a good day and harvest a deer, or twenty or
thirty fish, how are you going to preserve the meat? You’re probably aren’t
going to be lugging around a fridge or a freezer.
What about items you take for granted, like toilette paper?
How much are you going to carry with you on a bug-out? There are many things to
consider. The closest description of the bug-out experience is the Mountain Man
life style. However, it’s important to note, even the “Mountain Men”
had to come back to society for supplies every so often.
When you begin to consider all the ramifications of
“bugging-out,” the magnitude of what you’re attempting begins to
become clear.
Of course all this becomes a moot point if you become stuck
in a traffic jam trying to leave the city, or if you get rounded up at an
unexpected road block. A simple rule for survival in these circumstances is,
look at what everybody else is doing, and don’t do it!
Let’s be smart. The best place to be at in a survival
situation is your home. Your home should be your survival retreat! If it’s not,
make it into your survival retreat.
If it’s not suitably located, buy one or build one that is.
A well-conceived home location can become a survival retreat with some work and
planning.
The two most powerful assets you can have are storage and
concealment. If you want to understand survival, study the masters. The animal
kingdom is without exception the best place to learn survival.
Almost all animals, as a first line of defence use
concealment or camouflage. Even predators such as tigers, cheetahs and leopards
use camouflage to assist in their survival. How can we profit from this
strategy?
The most important thing we can do as survivalist is to
“NOT” draw attention to ourselves. A friend of mine once suggested we join an
“intentional” community of likeminded people and live in a rural
communal setting. Visions of Waco and Ruby Ridge immediately sprang into my
mind. I told this friend I’d rather live next door to the local mayor. The
likelihood of them taking tanks through the Mayors garden to get to me would be
extremely slim.
In essence, “bugging-out” is like leaving the
safety of the herd. If you’ve ever seen predators hunt animals in the wild, the
first thing they do is cut them off from the protection of the herd. Then they
descend on them and rip them to pieces, while the rest of the herd looks on
grateful that it’s not them being ripped to pieces.
They’ve even gone so far as to justify what happened by
saying these people were extremist. This is very much like what happens in the
animal kingdom. Only the sickly and diseased fall prey to the lion. Hence, if
people are attacked by our government… they must be politically sick.
Too many times we trade the illusion of security for
reality. The reality is, everything is governed by chance and probability. Our
goal should be to turn a low probability of survival into a high probability of
survival.
Being a survivalist is a way of life. Is your home hardened?
Is it stocked and supplied? Are you constantly thinking of ways to manufacture
more of the things you go to the store and purchase? If your mate doesn’t sew,
do you?
Could you make a serviceable outfit out of cloth or fabric?
Or will you be reduced to foraging for garments if TEOTWAWKI comes in our life
time? It certainly looks like it’s just around the corner… Being able to
“Bug-Out” is good, but it should never become your primary survival
strategy!
If you don’t have a hardened place to “Bug-Out”
to, you’re probably wasting your time. Your best bet is to harden your home.
Don’t blow your cover by bragging about your supplies, in
fact be extremely cautious about who you allow into your home. If things blow
up, you don’t want someone who’s seen and noted your food stores, showing up on
your door step with their family asking to share what you’ve set aside through
your hard labour and sacrifice.
The best neighbours are those that mind their own business.
Mind yours and insist they mind theirs. You want to develop a support network
of people who not only believe the way you do… but who believe strongly
enough to act on their beliefs. In a survival situation everyone must pull
their own weight.
UK Self Defence Items
Being in some US states it must be nice to be able to carry
a concealed firearm with you wherever you go to be able to protect
yourself and your family from any of the millions of crazy people in the world
who don’t have your best interest in mind. Unfortunately, I live in the UK were
it is illegal to carry any weapon.
Even if what you do carry is not a weapon and you use it to
defend yourself it will then be classes as a weapon, how stupid is that?
Some governments have decided that it is up to only a chosen
few to be able to do that and if you’re not lucky enough to be one of those
chosen few, you need to hope that you happen to have one in the room if
something happens – and hope they can take care of it on their own.
The chosen ones generally wear uniforms and I believe it to
be a very dangerous thing if the only ones with the weapons are the police.
As they say, when
seconds count, cops are just minutes away.
Luckily, there are many items that you can carry in public,
and into pretty much any establishment. These items also don’t draw attention
to yourself, in fact they are carried in open sight.
Newspaper/magazine
This is probably the most inconspicuous weapon of the group
but with some training it can be extremely effective. It’s an improvised weapon
that’s been taught to Special Forces and intelligence operatives for
generations.
The key is rolling it up tight and holding it in the right
spot. If you roll it toward the fold, you won’t have all the pages layered out
alongside it so it’ll hold up better. You can also pre-roll it and keep it
tight with rubber bands too, which would make it very effective, but now you’re
starting to lose the inconspicuousness of it.
Torch/Flashlight
I like the Elzetta ZFL-M60 Tactical Weapon-Grade LED Torch
which has a strike bezel in the front that would allow you to dig into an
opponent while striking them.
I think that would definitely stop someone if you got hit by
it. The problem is, that will also draw attention to you and some places don’t
allow them because they consider them weapons – and rightly so; there is no
other use for that tip than as a weapon.
The truth is, however, you don’t need that tip. Any torch of
the right size can be used just as effectively without it. Just as with the
newspaper, it’s all about where you strike.
Some of them have a mode where you can ‘disorient’ an
attacker with a strobe light and a good torch has a setting were you can chose
strobe or beam from the off.
The best ones to get will be ones that will extend out both
ends of your hand while holding it so you can strike from either direction, but
will also fit in your pocket and can be easily pulled out when you need it.
Walking Stick/umbrella
A walking stick or umbrella is probably the most effective
weapon on this list. It can give you more reach, can hit harder, and can give
you more leverage than anything else I have mentioned.
Most umbrellas are terrible weapons. They break easily and
have a tendency to pop open if you shuffle them around too much. There are
exceptions though. The U-115 is just one example of an umbrella that you can
use to defend yourself effectively but won’t be typically seen as any kind of a
weapon.
It’s built very tough and is discreet. The problem with
umbrellas though is if it’s not raining or about to rain, you look a little
suspicious carrying it around.
However a sturdy walking stick can be used as a weapon
extremely well. You just have to pick one that doesn’t look like a weapon. The
key here is to find one that won’t break easily and has a heavy handle on the
end.
You can get hardwood walking sticks with brass handles
fairly inexpensively. Contrary to what you may think; the fancier something
like this looks, the less likely it is that it would be confiscated.
Nicer things aren’t seen as often as being intended for
nefarious purposes. Don’t go for something that has a skull or dragon on it.
Belt
You don’t need to have a hidden knife to use a belt
effectively. You do need to find a belt and a pair of pants that will allow you
to pull it off quickly without your pants dropping to your ankles in a fight.
A wide leather belt with a heavy buckle works well. Just
watch that the loop near the buckle doesn’t catch on the front loop of your
pants, causing it to not want to come out.
Pen
I personally carry a tactical/survival pen a lot of
times because it’s now part of my personal EDC kit. These are really useful to
have but more likely to be seen as a potential threat than a normal pen will.
The fact is though, just about any pen can be used as a
weapon. All you need is to have an inch or so sticking out of your fist as you
hold it, and then use it to poke holes in the fleshy parts of your attacker.
UK Legal Spray
In conjunction with the items I have mentioned I also always
carry a UK legal spray, mine is made by Mace in the US and is readily available
in the UK at http://stoppared.com/ it gives
you the option of flight or fight.
I would rather be judged by twelve than carried by six.
Survival Weapons
For some people, the idea of being in the wilderness without
a weapon is very scary. In fact, I am often asked, “How do you defend
yourself?” I find this question quite amusing because I am to “defend
myself against what?
Wild attacking rabbits, squirrels, or ducks?” Unless a
person is attempting to survive in a combat area, the actual need for a weapon
for personal protection varies. In most cases no weapon is needed at all,
unless it is being used to assist the survivor in getting something to eat or
in jobs around camp. I would say that in the UK the need to have a weapon for
protection against wild animals is not very great.
 Most wild animals know man, and usually try to avoid
us. Now, if an animal is rabid though, anything is possible.
So, you feel the need for a weapon? I agree it is a good
idea to have one, but mainly to kill game caught in snares, traps, or cornered.
If you feel the need for safety and security and desire to have a large weapon,
you can make those as well.
A lot of the weapons you make will depend on how and where
you ended up in a survival situation. If you are a hunter and become lost, or
in some manner are faced with survival, you may have weapons with you. Or, you
may not. A lot of different situations can occur in the wilderness. Weapons can
be lost or broken.
If you are the survivor of a plane crash, a sinking or
overturned boat, (and the boat you were on washed up on shore, you will be in
luck.) or a stranded vehicle, you may have more materials to work with.
The wings of an aircraft will provide you with shade and
protection from the sun. But, vehicles can provide you with many items to make
tools, weapons, and other needed items. The weapons you can make from wreckage
or a stranded vehicle will be limited only by your imagination. Without any
wreckage the task of making weapons is harder, but not all that difficult.
Almost anything around you can become a weapon. Those of you
who have attended self-defence classes know that a pencil, car key, bottle,
book, comb, or even a thumb can become effective weapons.
Regardless of the type of weapon you may want, you will be
limited by the sources around you. In some areas you may not have many stones,
rocks, or even wood.
In other survival situations you may not even be on land,
you may be at sea. In all cases, look around and take inventory of all of your
equipment. Survivors have used the sharp edges from a ration can to make a
crude knife to gut fish with.
Others who used a sharpened belt buckle to cut with, and
still others who field dressed small game with their teeth. You have weapons
all around you, so look for them. Keep your imagination active at all times.
One of the most handy survival weapons is a simple club. It
is very useful in killing small game and for general camp use. It is simple to
make and can be constructed of many different materials. Using a forked piece
of green limb (hard wood works the best), a large rock or piece of bone, and
some vine, wire, or rope, you can make a club in next to no time.
Make sure the limb has a Y section on it and fit the rock
into this section, then secure the stone or bone in place using wire, rope,
cord, vine, or wet rawhide. Wet rawhide is the best because it will shrink as
it dries and holds the stone securely in place
A simple knife for stabbing with can be made from pieces of
bone or from an antler. Just break off or locate a piece that is large enough
to hold securely and has a sharp point. While you will not be able to cut with
it, it can be used to stab with. Or, you can use a sharp tipped piece of
wood.
If you need a knife to cut with, consider using sharp edged
bones, hard stone, metal from a wreckage, wood, or even glass for the blade. In
a survival situation you may have to use what you can find to make tools and
weapons with.
Almost any sharp edge from any hard material can be used. If
you want to take the time to make an affective knife. Find a piece of green
hard wood, split it slightly, insert your blade, and then wrap the handle tightly. Once again, wet rawhide
makes the best wrap because it shrinks when it dries and will hold the blade
firmly in place.
Another weapon that is easy to make is a spear. It is very
useful in killing any game you don’t want to touch or get too close to.
It could be what I call an injury causing animal. With
injury causing animals remember horns, antlers, teeth, fangs, and hooves can
all cause injuries.
A spear can be made as simply as sharpening the end of long
green piece of wood and hardening it in a fire. Or, you can attach a blade
point using the same types of materials you used for your knife blade.
And, the spear point can be attached exactly like your knife
blade was, using wire, vine, string, cord, or wet rawhide. An easier way to
attach a point to a spear shaft is to simply tie it one. Place a knife parallel
to and tightly up against the shaft of the spear. Then lash it on securely.
Two more weapons that you can make, and use mainly against
small game, are the catapult and bola.
For the catapult you start by cutting a Y shaped piece of
green wood, cutting two strips of rubber (from a tire or rubber tubing) about
eight inches long, and a pouch that can be made from cloth or leather.
Secure the two strips of rubber on both sides of the Y on
the wood near the top, tie the pouch to the open ends of the rubber strips, and
you now have a weapon. You can use small pebbles as ammo. And with practice you
can procure a bird or rabbit for dinner. A hint here, use two or three small
pebbles when you shoot (makes it more likely to hit the target).
The bola is much more difficult to use but is simple to
make. Tie all three ends of the pieces of string or cord parachute 550 cord is
best together at one end. At the other ends, tie a stone on each piece of line.
You now have three cords with a stone on each end that meets
and is secured at the other end. To use the bola, grasp the tied end, twirl it
over your head, release it toward your target. Once you release the bola, it
opens up and covers a very wide path.
While it is very effective against birds, it can also wrap
around the legs of larger game and trip it. Then, using your newly made spear
and knife, you can kill it and process the meat.
While the making and using of primitive weapons takes some
time, it can be done. I suggest using your spear to stab with, not throwing. If
you only have one spear and your throw it, what do you do if the animal turns
on you? Do not throw the only weapon you have available, keep it in your hands.
Plus, depending on the type of blade your spear has, you may
break it. These same weapons were used by early man many years ago and they
were deadly in the hands of a person who knew how to use them. The Native North
Americans kept their families alive with such weapons by providing both food
and protection. If others can do it, so can you.
There are unlimited sources around most survivors to use as
weapons. Keep in mind that some of these sources may not be recognized as such
by most survivors. Bone, glass, and rough metals, stones, antlers, horns, and
other materials can be modified for use as weapons. Keep your survival mind
active and evaluating all material at hand.
I realize there may be many more different types of weapons
made from natural materials, but as usual, my purpose is to get you thinking.
I want you to think about making weapons from materials you
have on hand. Some of the weapons I have explained can of course be made in
many different, and perhaps better ways.
Which Survival Knife
When one thinks of survival knives, images of Rambo come to
mind, as the name Survival Knife was actually coined after his film First
Blood.
Let’s look at those knives and see the pros and cons. I will
be focusing on single edge fixed blade knives because of the safety and
function factors that should be addressed in a survival situation.
Most of these Survival Knives are large, Bowie style
blades with hollow handles and saws on the spines. 
Movies like Rambo made them popular and mass production and
a cheap price kept them popular. But trust me; there is a reason for the low
price.
First let’s look at the handle construction. Hollow handles,
for the most part, are all fad and a huge “no no” in the survival
world.
Don’t get me wrong, there are 1 or 2 custom makers that take
the time and use the right materials to make these knives work well like the
LMF II Survival Knife by Gerber.
This is not so in cheap mass production knives. Most are
held together with a single nut or rolled pin and they call it good.
Trust me, they will fail. Just take one on a camping trip
and try to build a shelter with one like I did. 10 chops and that was all she
stood..
So for the most part, unless you have to have a hollow
handle, let’s stick to a full tang with a comfortable, secure handle. You won’t
be sorry
Next let’s look at the blade. Once again double edge is a
big danger in a survival situation. You can’t afford the risk in the
woods.
A large blade can, and will, do everything a small blade
can do plus more.
Survival requires a lot of chopping, and large weight
foreword blades with a thick spine cut your work in half. That’s why machetes
are a huge part of outdoor life in many tribes around the world.
The saw back spine on early aviator knives were made for
aircraft escape, and found their way onto all outdoor knives mainly for looks
than for function.
It has been my experience that they don’t work that well on
wood, and it’s easy to pack a nice saw in a small survival kit. So if you
decide to stay with a small blade, you will have a saw to make up for it.
Blade steel is best left up to the person and situation. Air
crew may want to stick with the 499 Air Force Survival Knife – Ontario Knife
Company Stainless versions that require less maintenance.
But on the other hand, they are harder to sharpen in the
field. I like a blade with a high Carbon content. It takes more care and
maintenance, but the trade-off for a scalpel sharp edge that’s easy to keep is
worth it.
In both cases it is best to learn to sharpen your blades and
keep a sharpener with it at all times.
I really prefer the Chris-Caine Companion do some
homework and decide for yourself what would be best for you.
As with any tool, you £5.00 Wally World blade won’t last
long under stress. Remember your life is on the line. That being said, let’s
look at the specs of a good survival knife.
A quality survival knife has to feature high quality construction
with a reasonable. Put that into a full tang knife with a comfortable secure
handle, along with a good sized thick blade for chopping, with the right steel
for you and round it out with a usable sharpener and you’ve got yourself a nice
survival companion.
Now let’s put it in a package. Leather sheaths have been
around for a long time, and they work well. In many cases it is better to find
a sheath the fits securely that is made of a strong webbing and lined with a
thick plastic or better yet Kydex insert.
This will help protect you and your knife for years to come.
They usually hold up well in all conditions. Try to make sure it has a drain
hole so no water or dirt stays on the blade.
As a final thought, when you decide on a survival knife, be
sure and use it. I have seen too many sit in kits or on shelves and when the
time comes for the survivor to use it, they don’t know how.
Get in touch with your blade until it becomes an
extension of your arm. 
Safety is the key in all things survival. With a little
preparation and practice, you will come to trust your blade and yourself in any
situation.
BREAK

 


Camping is not
camping without a fire?



A fire means heat,
light, and life. To many people, a campsite with no fire is just not camping. A
campfire means self-sufficiency, survival, and comfort.


The ability to enjoy
an outdoor adventure with alternate heat and light sources greatly expands your
opportunities and allows a more self-sufficient experience. The development of
lightweight, very efficient camp stoves has eliminated the real need for a fire
in most circumstances so it is now a choice to use a fire or a stove.


Why Have a Fire?


Warmth – a
fire warms you on a cold camping trip, but there are much better ways to stay
warm. Bringing appropriate clothing and having healthy food means less need for
fire. Campfire heat is useful for drying clothing and warming water to put in a
bottle in your sleeping bag to make it more comfortable.


Cooking
whether it is boiling water or cooking meat, a fire is used to prepare food for
consumption.


Entertainment
– watching the flames is relaxing and telling stories around a fire is a great
way to complete a strenuous day in the woods.


Campfire Alternatives
On any outdoor adventure, a source of heat for emergencies is required. You
should always be prepared to start a fire in a survival situation. But, a backpacking
stove
is a great alternate source of heat from the campfire. Stoves have
many benefits over fires:


Fast – stoves have
nearly instant, ready-to-cook heat. No waiting for the fire. They also
extinguish immediately.


Clean – stoves have
no smoke and leave no ash or partially-burned wood. They do not create soot on
pots.


Safe – the risk of
wildfire is nearly eliminated with stoves.


Consistent – stoves
work at nearly any elevation, temperature, and elevation.


Choosing Fire or Stove
Before heading out on a wilderness adventure, it is a good idea to decide
whether campfires or stoves will be used for each day of the trip.


It may be decided to
have campfires some days and stoves on others. Some things to consider when
making the decision include:


Fire Danger – what
will the wind conditions, humidity, and vegetation dryness be like for the
location and season?


Fire Restrictions –
contact the local land managers to find out what types of fires are allowed in
the area.


Fuel Availability –
is there adequate fuel so fires will not deplete or impact the resource?


Group Skills – is
everyone in the group able to safely build and tend fires?


Menu – will the food
the group takes cook better over a stove or fire?

 

Leave No Trace Campfires
Once the decision is made to have a fire, the expertise of minimizing its
impact comes into play. There will be an impact to the area from any fire, but
there are many ways to reduce and disguise the impact.
Use existing fire
rings – in an established campsite, use the fire ring
If there is no fire
ring, do not make one. Instead, build a mound fire.
Build small fires –
create a fire just large enough to cook the food. Feed it fuel as needed.
Burn all wood to ash
– stop adding fuel to the fire well before bed-time or departure time so it has
time to burn itself out. This prevents having chunks of partially burned wood
to disperse.
Gather firewood
carefully:
Use wood that is
down. Leave limbs on standing trees, even if they are dead limbs.
Use wood that is smaller
around than an adult’s wrist. It should be broken by hand – no saws or axes are
needed.
Leave larger logs
and limbs for habitat and to decompose into the soil.
Clean up after the
fire:
Scatter unused wood
as naturally as possible.
Push unburned ends
of wood into the fire as it burns down so it is all consumed.
When the coals have
burned to ash, soak well with water and make sure it is completely out. Use
water rather than dirt to put out the fire.
Collect the cold ash
and scatter it over a large area well away from the camp site.
Fires built on the
ground overheat the organic soil and kill the creepy crawlies living in it. It
may take a very long time for anything to grow in the spot where a fire was
built.
An established fire
ring is a sacrificed spot in which fires are accepted to prevent destruction of
other areas.
In the absence of fire rings, rather than creating a fire directly on the
ground, it is better to insulate the organic soil from the heat of your fire by
using a camp stove, fire pan, or mound fire.
Fire Pans
A collapsible fire pan is a good way to have a campfire and greatly reduce its
impact. A metal pan with 3-inch sides perched on 4 or 5 stones allows a fire
without scorching the soil underneath.

Mound Fires
Another way to insulate soil is to cover it with a few inches of mineral soil
and build a fire on that. Mineral soil is found underneath the top layer of
rich, darker, organic soil. Mineral soil, sand, or gravel do not have the
thriving life in them that organic soil has so a fire on that material is ok.
To make a mound fire, follow these steps:

With a small shovel
or trowel, gather sand or mineral soil into a bag. Good places to look are the
root ball of a blown-down tree or a dry river bed. The bag can be a stuff sack
turned inside out to keep the inside clean.
Lay a ground cloth
on the spot where the fire will be built. This makes clean up easier. Some
sparks will land on the cloth and it will be worn and dirty from the ground so
use something sturdy and expendable.
Pour the sand onto
the ground cloth. Flatten the top of the pile so the mound is at least 4 inches
thick and bigger around than what the fire will be.
After cleaning up
the campfire, return the soil to its original location and clean away any
spills at the fire site.
Tips on Minimizing Campfire Impact
Prepare the group’s
expectations so they are aware of what fires will be used.
Practice with the
stoves being used so everyone is competent in their use.
Take advantage of
weather information for last minute planning.
Take along a few
candles. Use these in place of a campfire in your evening meeting place.
The stars and
darkness are a fun change from a campfire and storytelling can be more
exciting.
Minimizing Campfire Impact is Important because:
Fires are
potentially the most dangerous and expensive impact we might have
It is the only LNT
principle aimed to control consumption of resources.

 


Hand Sanitizers
and Ebola – What You Need to Know


Ebola is a rare
(worldwide) but common viral disease in some West African countries which
causes bleeding inside and outside the body. Symptoms may appear anywhere from
2 to 21 days after exposure to the virus. Common Ebola signs and symptoms
include


Fever (Body temperature
greater than 38.6°C or 101.5°F)


Severe headache


Muscle pain


Weakness


Diarrhoea


Vomiting


Abdominal (stomach)
pain


Unexplained
haemorrhage (bleeding or bruising)


In the past few
weeks, cases have dramatically increased, with widespread and intense
transmission. In view of this, people have adopted many ways of preventing
infection and the use of hand sanitizers is no exception.


Hand Sanitizers


Washing the hands
with water and soap is always the best way to reduce the number of microbes on
them. Soap and water are not always available, as people are mostly always on
the move, hence the use of a portable alternative- hand sanitizers.
A hand sanitizer or hand antiseptic is a supplement or alternative to hand
washing with soap and water. Antiseptics are antimicrobial substances that are
applied to living tissue or skin to reduce the possibility of infection,
inflammation and decomposition of proteins (putrefaction).


 Many sanitizer preparations are available
including gel, foam and liquid solutions.
The active ingredient in most hand sanitizers is alcohol. The level of alcohol
varies between 60% and 85%. Alcohol rub sanitizers kill most bacterial, fungi
and stop some viruses.


Alcohol rub
sanitizers containing at least 70% alcohol kill 99.99% of the bacterial on
hands in one minute of application (you need contact time). Very high alcohol
(90%) sanitizers have very high veridical (virus-killing) activities against
many different kinds of viruses but are highly flammable and irritating to the
skin with prolong use.
Do Hand Sanitizers Stop Ebola?


Though some
sanitizers stop the activities of some viruses, only Supernova, an alcohol-free
sanitizer, provides immediate germ protection against Ebola. In addition to
washing of the hands frequently the following precautionary measures are highly
recommended;


Avoid areas of known
outbreaks, 


Avoid contact with
infected people


Avoid eating wild
meat


Use gloves and other
protection

 

Do not handle
remains of those who died from Ebola.
I think avoiding
people suspected to be infected with the Ebola virus is the best way to avoid
becoming a victim, this means planning to bug-in.

Firstly let’s look at the facts about Ebola, Ebola has
killed around 5,000 up to now and each time a suspected case arrives in the
West on a plane the system wants to trace everyone who could have come in
contact with the victim

 

The World Health
Organisation


I had a look at the WHO website and they say Influenza
occurs globally with an annual attack rate estimated at 5%–10% in adults and
20%–30% in children. Illnesses can result in hospitalization and death mainly
among high-risk groups (the very young, elderly or chronically ill).


Worldwide, these annual epidemics are estimated to result in
about 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness, and about 250 000 to 500 000
deaths.


That is each and
every year, do they call that a pandemic, NO?


The system does not and never has tried to trace anyone who
could have come in contact with a victim who has died of the flu.


So what is going on?


I do not actually think that Ebola is the threat, I actually
think it is the vaccine that is the threat, and once they have us scared enough
and in fear of infection then we will blindly queue for the all saving jab,
well not this guy thank you very much.


Many scientists agree with what I have just said, while
other scientists claim that Ebola has been weaponised as a depopulation Bio
weapon, In any case these are my thoughts and you may or may not agree with me,
and that is OK.


With that in mind I wish to cover the Ebola subject on this
show plus the usual mix of interesting subjects on prepping and survival.


Ebola Pandemic
Kits


I cannot understand
why the infected areas are not under total quarantine and everyone confined for
21 days before being tested before travelling from that area.


I think it is now accepted that we will see Ebola infected
people here in the UK therefore I
thought you might like a list of things to have on hand in case a
government ordered quarantine, or a personal decision by you to seal yourself
off from society.


Supplies to have on hand:


 


N95 medical masks – at least 3 per person. “95” means that they keep out
95% of the airborne particles.


Contact a local medical supply store, or order online.
Cheaper if ordered in bulk but remember these will disappear quickly from the
shelves in a pandemic.


 

Liquid hand soap


 

Hand sanitizer (one for every family member)


 

Household bleach


 

Disinfectant wipes (plenty)


 

Rubbish bags (plenty as there may be limited rubbish collections)


 

Laundry detergent (if someone in your family is ill, you will be doing plenty of
washing)


Kleenex tissues (not fabric handkerchiefs


Toilet paper


Paper towels – Use instead of hand towels


Disposable nappies for children


Disposable latex gloves or other reusable gloves that can be disinfected





 

A supply of your prescription medications (in case you are
too sick to go out), non-prescription drugs, and other health supplies,
including pain relievers, stomach remedies, cough and cold medicines, fluids
with electrolytes, vitamins, rubbing alcohol, and thermometers.


 

Have a 2-week to 3-month supply of food at home (outside food may be difficult
to obtain or you may not be able to get out if you are ill).


 

To be honest the only way to ensure that you do not get
infected with Ebola is to isolate yourself from everyone else. Now we as
preppers are better off that non-preppers as we have food, water and other
essentials already and therefore we can simply lock the doors and bug-in.



I have found an American company that sell what they call
Quick Pandemic Kits for $12 they are wear and dispose and designed for people
like us who have to mix in areas with crowds. They are not designed for health
workers the company is http://www.contagionsurvival.com/pandemic_quickkits.htm




How to Make a
Survival Heater


Getting stranded in
your car can be a dangerous possibility, being stuck in your home during a
power cut can be equally as dangerous without the ability to heat your
surroundings. Therefore I suggest that you plan now to have the ability to
provide that lifesaving heat.

This is the equipment you will need


A small empty metal
tin: You want this to be slightly taller but thinner than a standard roll of
toilet paper. My can of choice is an unused 1 quart/ 2 pint paint tin found in
most DIY shops. You can also use an empty food tin that is the same size.


A larger metal tin
that can easily accommodate the first one: I use a 1 gallon unused paint tin
(again found in most DIY shops). Another option is a coffee tin or a metal
bucket and so on.


Some type of lid
that can be placed over the larger tin: I also like to get a lid for the
smaller can which I will explain later.


Toilet
paper (unscented)


Six bottles of 70 to
91% isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) seen on Ebay £2.229 for 500ml


Matches or some
other fire starter


This is what you do


Prepare the toilet
paper: The first step is to take out the central cardboard tube from the toilet
paper roll, leaving only the paper behind.


Squeeze the paper
into the smaller tin: Next you’ll want to squeeze and roll the paper into the
smaller tin. If the tin is so small that a full-size paper roll has no chance
of fitting inside it, then you can remove some of the external sheets (just
like you would if you were going to the bathroom) until it does squeeze into
the tin. It’s important that it fills up the entire volume of the can.


Add the fuel: If you
are now ready to use it, simply add the alcohol until the toilet roll inside
the can is completely saturated. One of the benefits of using a 1 quart/2 pint
paint tin is that you can store the stove with the fuel already added by
placing the air-tight lid over the can. This saves space and allows you to have
more fuel available. The lid can also be used to control the output of the
flame.


Place the smaller
tin into the larger one and position it in your car or room to be heated: The
larger tin provides an insulating barrier and some protection for passengers
and your car. You’ll also want to position it in a place that’s far enough from
anything combustible. Use the palm check. Put the back of your hand against the
surface you’re worried about and if you can’t keep your hand there without
burning it then it’s either to close or you’ll need to adjust the flame.


Light the stove:
First, open a window just a crack to provide some airflow and then carefully
place a match (or throw some sparks using a firesteel) onto the saturated
toilet paper and viola! You’ve got yourself a burning stove.


Use caution in
lighting as it will combust very quickly. It’s best to partially cover the
smaller tin with a lid to decrease the size of combustion (you can always
increase it later).


Controlling the Burn Rate


You may notice if
you follow the steps above, that a pretty sizable flame results from having the
smaller tin’s opening completely exposed. While this is fine if you want to
warm up faster, it does tend to go through the fuel fairly quickly and is not
so efficient.


A better way is to
partially cover the smaller tin with a lid. Or if you used a 1 quart/2 pint
paint tin, you can make a small hole (about the size of a 10p piece) in the lid
it comes with and place that on top of the can. Both of these methods control
the burn rate and allow the stove to provide a constant heat.


Another option is
instead of completely saturating the toilet roll you can pour just a few ounces
of alcohol on the paper and regularly add more as it burns up. This will also
control the size of the flame and conserve fuel. I prefer to use the lid method
over this one, since you don’t have to regularly add alcohol (it’s nice to
sleep for a stretch of time and not have to regularly add fuel)


A Word on Carbon Monoxide


I’m sure by now many
of you are thinking, “What about the dangers of carbon monoxide?”


Carbon monoxide is
produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds. “Partial
oxidation” is just a big word for what happens when combustion (fire) takes
place in an area where there isn’t much oxygen. This is most apparent when one
operates a generator inside a home or if their wood stove is improperly vented.

 

In the case of this
alcohol stove, while there is risk of carbon monoxide emissions (rubbing
alcohol contains carbon: C3H7OH) the risk is very minimal. Opening your window
slightly should provide sufficient oxygen for a clean burn.
If you still are
concerned about it, I would recommend purchasing a battery-operated carbon
monoxide alarm and turning it on (putting in the batteries) when running the
stove. This will provide you ample warning should there be an issue.

 

How to Make
Char cloth

Fire making is a basic survival skill that must be learnt
then practiced regularly or you could find yourself stuck in the wilderness
without a way to boil your water or cook your food.

In order to make a fire, it’s more than just making a spark
from a magnesium firesteel, fire piston, flint and steel, or a flame from a
lighter. You need that ignition source to easily catch on to something that’ll
burn long enough for the kindling to catch, which is supposed to burn long
enough for your fuel wood to burn. That something is called Tinder.

The components of a good tinder are:


  • you
    have it with you or can find it when you need it
  • it
    catches fire easily in whatever weather or environment you’re in
  • it
    burns long enough to catch your kindling on fire

 


I have to say that having one of Bushcraft tools fire
pistons I recommend Char Cloth. Technically, char cloth is an addition to your
tinder stock.


So what is char
cloth I hear you ask?


Char cloth is an organic material (like cotton) that has
been heated enough that all (most) of the gasses inside have left but has been
protected from burning itself up.


When something burns, it’s actually a chemical reaction with
oxygen or a similar gas. When something like wood or cotton burns, chemicals
like carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide are
released into the air.


If you heat up something like cotton to a certain point and
don’t let oxygen into the area for it to burn, the gasses will be released but
the material itself won’t combust. That’s essentially all you need to do to
make char cloth in theory, but let’s look at how you make it.


How do you make
charred cloth?


The simplest prepper method of making char cloth is to take
something like pieces of cotton from a t-shirt or old jeans and put it into a
small tin, like an altoids tin or an air pellet tin. You can also use a tuna
tin, coffee tin etc. as long as you can seal it fairly well after you put the
material in it and it won’t burn itself up.


I wanted to make some char cloth just using stuff I had
lying around the house so instead of an altoids tin I used an old pellet tin I
had lying around.


You need the gasses to escape from the inside after they’re
released from the cotton, so you need to poke a small hole in the tin with
something like a nail. You don’t want it too big though, or oxygen will get in
and your fabric will catch fire.


I got my Gillie Kettle out and lit it and put the old pellet
tin on top then I cut a strip denim from some old jeans about as wide as the
tin is long, rolled it up and put it into the tin. The smoke was coming out of
the hole in the top of the tin, and if I was to put a flame to it, that smoke
would catch fire.


This is essentially a mini-gasifier. That gas is flammable
enough to be used in a generator or carb for an engine.


Then, you just cook the tin in the fire for a while until
you don’t see any more smoke coming out, and that’s it. Depending on how much
stuff you have, how big your tin is and how hot your fire is, it should take
anywhere from 15-45 minutes. 


Obviously, the proof is in the pudding so I took out my
magnesium fire starter that I keep in my pocket as a part of my EDC kit, and it
lit after one spark.


That’s really all there is to it. You should experiment with
different types of fabrics and different temperatures and times to heat it up
but it’s not really all that hard. You don’t even need to use cloth. Almost any
organic material should work, such as wood or plant fibres. You just need to
get all the gasses out without burning it.


Char cloth vs other tinder?


Char cloth catches so easily that just one spark will
usually catch, so not only can you place it right under your tinder bundle,
things like a breeze or damp air shouldn’t be a problem. It will burn usually
for a few minutes too, giving it enough time to catch. Because it doesn’t
give off a flame though, char cloth isn’t really going to be able to catch kindling.


Other tinder like dry leaves, grass, cat tail fluff, etc.
burns pretty well but isn’t always easy to catch from a spark. Especially if
it’s damp out.


Putting them together though, makes a powerful combination.


How to use char cloth to start a fire.

 

Char cloth catches easily but it won’t burn hot enough to
catch twigs on fire unless they’re REALLY tiny.
You also probably won’t have a lot of char cloth in your
kit. It will, however, burn enough to catch other tinder on fire. By making a
tinder bundle out of dry material that burns quickly and then putting the char
cloth in side it, you make an easy-to-light pile of stuff known as a nest that
will burn hot enough to catch twigs.
Having a successful fire started is all about sticking to
the sequence of fire starting. The spark catches the char cloth. The char cloth
catches the rest of the tinder. The tinder then catches your kindling. The
kindling catches the fuel wood and you can then boil water or cook a meal.
Nigel at www.hunters-knives.co.uk has offered
you dear listener 10% on all his products simply by using the code PREP10.
Walking Home – Survival Tips

Here are three survival (security) tips that are free, and
won’t cost you anything. 

There is a caveat though, that is you may need to force a
slight change in your behaviour and habits.

In today’s world of increasing economic woes, more
individuals are turning towards criminal behaviour as they become angrier,
looking for someone to blame, and may be downright desperate. 

You, as a ‘normal’
person, may be walking among them from time to time and you don’t even know it
or recognize it.


To a large extent, the key to avoid being victimized is to
simply be aware. Awareness consciously (and subconsciously) changes your own
behaviour such that you will be more likely to avoid dangerous situations that
could escalate into violence.


Let me define
‘awareness’ in the context of your self-security:


Well firstly you should know what is happening or has
happened in your field of travel, you should also look around you (and behind
you) while moving (walking, driving, etc) and even outside your home, make eye
contact while scanning in crowded public places.


Whether by paying attention to the news or ‘hearsay’,
understand the history of the area you are about to travel in. 


Most people over time will come to understand where the
‘bad’ areas are in their local region – areas especially vulnerable to crime.


If you are new to the area, or if traveling outside your own
area, make an effort to discover where these ‘bad’ areas are. 


A great tool to look for crime reports is on
CrimeReports.com, which shows maps dotted with crime reports in Canada, the
U.S., and the U


This simple behaviour is more effective than you may
imagine. The reason being, is that so many people do not do this, they are
ignorant to their surroundings, and are the first to become victims.


Predators look for the weaker prey. Someone who is looking
down, or who appears to be in their own little world, they are prime targets
for criminals.


Instead, you should scan around you from time to time, with
your head up straight, as you walk with purpose – shoulders back, and
confident. Not only might you avoid an unruly-looking gang of troublemakers,
but they might avoid targeting YOU.


Make eye contact while scanning in crowded public places


Making purposeful, but quick eye contact is another very
effective deterrent to a criminal. 


Here’s the reason… Most people purposely avoid eye contact
in public places.


They want to remain in their own little world and by looking
down or avoiding eye contact, they are convinced that they will remain in that
cocoon. The reality is that they are entirely wrong.


Sure, that type of behaviour may avoid unwanted conversation
that otherwise might initiate from a stranger, but that’s about it… By
occasionally scanning and making quick eye contact with others, tells any
potential criminal that you are not afraid. 


‘Quick’ eye contact simply means don’t stare. Staring will
provoke a stranger.


Is this type of behaviour simply a bunch of paranoia? Do you
have to walk around being paranoid to avoid being in the wrong place at the
wrong time? No, of course not.


Granted, for some people, learning to do these simple things
will feel uncomfortable at first – and they may feel as though they are being
paranoid. However, after a while, this will become part of you, just like being
able to carry on a conversation with someone while driving a car. It’s no big
deal…


Bolster some confidence while you’re out and about. It may
unknowingly ward off a pick-pocket, purse-snatcher, or worse criminal, without
you even knowing it happened!


Now thanks to the Managing Director Paul listeners visiting Field Leisure – The
Bushcraft & Wilderness Store

at  http://www.fieldleisure.co.uk/
can get 10% OFF by entering the code UKPRN at the checkout now Paul guarantees
next day delivery all over the UK and fast European and US delivery and that is
reassuring and refreshing too.


Quick Tips and
Tricks

Survival glue

When you are out in the wilderness, glue can
come in handy for attaching feathers to arrows or setting arrowheads. Simple
but strong glue can be made from pine sap and deer dung. The two ingredients
are heated using a tin or a hot rock. Heat up the pine sap and mix in crushed
deer dung. Stir the mixture until you have a thick paste.

While hot the
mixture is used just like you would normally use glue. Use a stick to apply the
glue as it is very hot and will stain your hands black. Not only that but it
has deer dung in it. That should give you enough of a clue not to use your
fingers to apply it.

Survival Lantern

If you find a drink can you can make a lantern
out of it. Cut a slit about an inch from the top and an inch from the bottom.
Make the cut about half way around the can. Then cut in the centre of the two
cuts to join them. The two pieces can be folded out to reflect light. The
lantern can be hung by the tab at the top of the can. In the can you can use a
small candle or you could have a small fire.


A-Frame Shelter


The A- Frame shelter is a great form of
shelter. Start by supporting a centre beam. Then branches are leaned up against
the beam to form the roof. Once you have a good solid frame, then you can start
to cover it with grass, leaves or spruce branches. Always start with your
roofing material at the bottom, and then work your way up.


This creates a
shingle effect, thus shedding rain and snow. If you are using branches, always
have the thickest part of the branch facing up so the rain will follow the
branched down. In general, the grass roof will stay dryer than the roof made
from branches because it is denser and there are more fibres for the rain to
follow down to the ground.


If you need to heat
your shelter, build a small fire approximately one pace from the front opening.
Behind the fire build a reflector wall. This is a short wall which will reflect
the heat from the fire back into the shelter. If built properly, this shelter
will keep you warm and dry.


Whenever you build a
fire near your shelter, remember that natural materials are flammable. Use
utmost precaution.


A Lean-To Shelter


The lean-to shelter is probably the simplest
and fastest shelter to construct. You need a horizontal branch which can be
tied between two trees or supported by two branches. Then branches are leaned
against the windward side to create an angled roof. The roof can than be
covered with branches grass or a tarp if you happen to have one.


 




If you need to heat your shelter, build a small fire approximately one pace
from the front opening. Behind the fire build a reflector wall. This is a short
wall which will reflect the heat from the fire back into the shelter. If built
properly, this shelter will keep you warm and dry.






Whenever you build a fire near your shelter, remember that natural materials
are flammable. Use utmost precaution.

Starting a fire

Ever wondered how the first settlers in this
great country started fire. Many of them wore a small leather pouch around
their necks. In the pouch was a rock, a striker, and a small tin. The tin
contained char cloth.






Char cloth is a natural fibre that has been chemically altered by heating in
the absence of oxygen. A piece of cotton, jute or cattail fluff is placed in a
tin with a small hole in the top. It is then thrown in a fire. Smoke will
escape from the hole in the tin. When the material stops smoking it is
finished.






Remove from the fire but do not open until it has cooled or it will start to
burn when it gets access to oxygen. After the char cloth is cooled it will
start to glow immediately when a spark lands on it. It is very hard to
extinguish once it has been ignited. The glowing piece of char cloth is then
placed in a nest of dry grass or other tinder. Blow on the tinder until it
bursts into flame.






The striker is a piece of hardened high carbon steel usually bent in a oval
shape so it is easy to hold. When a rock is struck against it a small piece of
molten metal is shaved off the striker causing what appears to be a spark. If
you can get the spark to land on the char cloth you have a glowing ember, and
the beginning of fire.

Survival Mistakes

Wilderness survival techniques are arguably a matter of life
and death. Turning into a self-sufficient survivor does not happen at the snap
of a finger. 

It takes knowledge, proper gear, and preparation. By
planning for the worst before it happens you could be saving your life and
other’s.

According to some of the top wilderness survival websites,
there are eight common mistakes that can cost you big in the wild. The first is
no shelter, which really turns into a double barrelled mistake. If you do not
have a proper shelter with you or lack the knowledge to build one with what is
around you-you might be in trouble. 

It is vital to
create a shelter that keeps you dry and limits exposure to the elements,
especially the wind.

The second biggest wilderness survival mistake is being
caught without a working navigational tool. It is easy to get turned around in
the middle of thick bushes and trees. A map and a compass are failsafe
standards any wilderness adventurer should pack.

Thanks to technology, a GPS is a handy tool as well. GPS
devices are small, compact, and generally able to work for a descent time
period if kept at full charge. Keep navigational tools with you at all
times. 


Learning how to
utilize cardinal directions by the sun and stars is also beneficial.


Another common mistake that can cost you is lack of
knowledge and preparation.  


There are five key
things you should be knowledgeable of first:


How to build shelter


How to signal for assistance


What is safe to eat and how to find it


How to build and maintain a fire


How to locate water and safely prepare it


Never underestimate the risk factor. The most innocent of
outdoor excursions-fishing, hiking, hunting-can turn into a wilderness survival
situation. Always be prepared.


Don’t be caught with the wrong clothing. A rule of thumb is
to always dress in layers, making the outer layer warmer than what you should
need. Research indicates that most hypothermia cases develop in temperatures
over 40 degrees Fahrenheit thanks to lack of proper clothing.


Water is essential
to survive. 


The problem is finding drinkable water. Waterborne organisms
can cause severe diarrhoea and vomiting, which increases dehydration. Carry a
supply of pure drinking water along with the ability to filter water by
boiling, chemical tablets, or filters.


Finally, be sure to have a signal plan and know how to
create and maintain a fire. Almost any outdoor/camping supplier has sections
dedicated to signal devices. Whistles, mirrors, high beam torches, and fire
starting devices are all easy to carry signal devices. Couple these with
learning how to create your own emergency signal by using trees, rocks, dirt,
or even snow.


Fire is vital to wilderness survival. It can warm, protect,
and heat food or boil water. You can even use it to signal for help. 


Do not underestimate learning how to make and maintain a
fire. Take time to prepare for your outdoor excursions and you will be able to
tackle whatever kinks come your way.


When it comes to survival skills, the smallest of mistakes
could have a huge impact on your ability to stay safe. 


However, there are a few things which can help to avoid
making such mistakes, and will ensure that your survival skills are as
effective as possible.


If you find your survival skills being put to the test
unexpectedly, then the natural reaction can be to panic. 


However, this is often the worst thing you can do, as you
need to be thinking as clearly as possible in such situations.


You might not be able to simply google ‘survival techniques’
whilst checking your facebook page and playing cheeky bingo, but if you have
done your research, then you will already be well prepared. 

 

You simply need to
keep a clear head, and remember all the skills which you have learnt.
Often, people panic the most when it comes to putting up a
shelter, and tend to rush the process. In actual fact, it is worth spending
extra time making sure that your shelter is safe and secure, and unlikely to
collapse without warning, OH! And water and wind proof as well.



Worms and the
Threat the Represent


Worms are generally
a problem for dogs and cats in the UK but it was not so long ago that many
parasites also frequently infected humans.
With the lowered standards
of sanitation, footwear, and general health in the aftermath of a disaster, the
worms would likely rise again to infest large portions of our population.
Depending on the kind of worm and the severity of the infection, you may feel
no symptoms at all or you may suffer from nutritional deficiencies, anaemia,
diarrhoea, and general pain in infected areas.
Although this topic
is one that makes your skin crawl, as a prepared person you must know how to
combat these bodily invaders, and how to keep them from infesting you in the
first place!
How worms infect people
Although there are
literally dozens of worms that could infect people, many of them follow certain
patterns that can help you to understand how to avoid being infested in the
first place.
Firstly, most worm
eggs are passed through faecal matter or the area around the anus in general.
This means that the primary method of preventing infection is proper washing,
toilet use, and sanitation.
Children are
particularly susceptible to worms for this reason, since they often forget to
properly clean themselves and the nutrient deficiencies common to these
infections cause them far greater developmental harm.
Secondly, the eggs
generally do not infect only people who have direct faecal contact with eggs.
Rather, the eggs are intended to travel along hands after wiping, or on
clothing or even by dust and wind.
From there, they
land on food or in water sources where they are then ingested, the eggs hatch,
and the parasites find their proper home to begin pumping out hundreds of
thousands of eggs to continue the cycle. In some circumstances, worms can also
arrive by burrowing in via tender areas of the feet or via the anus if mature
worms are found in water sources.
Finally, it can be
rather difficult to determine if a person is infected meaning that quarantine
is usually a futile effort.
The headaches,
pains, and even nutritional deficiencies caused by worms can also be caused by
other viruses and bacteria meaning that the only way to definitely determine a
worm infestation is by examining stool samples under a microscope.
Furthermore, many
worm eggs are resistant to ph changes (in order to survive passing through the
stomach when ingested), cold, and even heat in some cases making them nearly
impossible to truly eradicate. The key point here being that worm prevention is
a constant task for all people, infested and non-infested particularly during a
disaster.
Proper hand washing,
toilet use, food washing, and water sanitation will be vital to preventing worm
infestations as it is always a potential hazard for any group regardless of
location.
How to prevent infestations
As stated above,
sanitation of food and water sources is key though each will have different
sources of potential contamination.
Food, for example is
usually contaminated either by dust-borne eggs or by the dirty hands of those
who cooked and prepared the food. This makes prevention more a matter of
cleanliness on your group’s part.
Washing hands today
is often seen as a largely social thing, done for the sake of not being grossed
out by nasty hands. It is imperative that every group member understand that in
a survival situation proper washing and wiping is a matter of life and death,
and something to be taken extremely seriously.
Water taken directly
from a stream or creek can have parasitic eggs floating about in it. Make sure
you filter and boil it first!
Water, on the other
hand is usually contaminated by general nature since many animals will defecate
in or near streams and runoff will send many, many millions more eggs coursing
through rivers and lakes.
Thankfully even tiny
worm eggs are typically massive when compared to the microbes and viruses that
many filters can catch, making filtered water a necessity both for drinking and
bathing.

 

To keep the
dust-borne eggs out, cover all filtered water sources and boil water when
possible. As a final point, you should still take pains to keep faecal matter
from latrines away from water sources since adding even more eggs to the water
is only going to clog your filter faster, or infest local animals that you may
eat.

 

Finally, although
worms that infect by foot are not as common they are still present and should
be fought off diligently. Fortunately, just wearing solid shoes with good soles
can act as excellent protection. The worms mainly burrow into tender areas such
as the space between the toes, so they are incapable of penetrating even thin
rubber or foam soles much less good boots or tennis shoes. Even sandals are
better than going barefoot in a pinch!




Treating infestations




Unfortunately the
human body fares rather poorly against parasites like these since they are
designed specifically to get past your defences.



 

Generally you will
need de-worming medication that contains certain poisons and enzymes that
attack the worm allowing its corpse to be expelled properly. Generally termed
“anthelmintics”, popular meds of this type include the family
of Benzimidazoles, Ambacetin, Ivermectin, and Monepantel.
Be aware that not
all of these are necessarily intended for human use but I listed them in case
you also wished to have some on hand for meat bearing animals. I would always strongly recommend speaking to your
doctor or vet about acquiring any anti-worming medication for people or animals,
respectively.
If you cannot
actually remove them, the next best step is to prevent reinfection if at all
possible by maintaining proper cleanliness standards.
Apart from certain
worms that can live for decades most die within 2-3 years at most and mild
infections are generally annoyances at best. If constant reinfection is
permitted, however, chronic infestations can easily kill a person as they are
drained of nutrients from within or certain organs become blocked with worms.
If someone is found
to have worms of any kind, therefore, they should not be permitted to handle
any food but their own and all utensils, clothing, and bedding of theirs should
be cleaned thoroughly apart from everyone else’s.

 Worms are
nasty, but thankfully prevention is as simple as keeping everyone clean and
filtering their water thoroughly. The threat will be ever-present in a survival
situation however, so be sure you take the steps needed to prevent any
infection.

I am not medically trained and I hope I never have to become personally familiar with parasitic
infestations.
This information is
to be used during SHTF situations and other manmade or natural disasters when
real medical care is unavailable: if you have any concerns about parasites
always speak with your doctor!

 


A Rough Guide to Radioactivity


The word
radiation covers a lot of ground but in the nuclear context we’re talking about
‘ionising radiation’, which basically means streams of invisible waves or
particles with sufficient energy to knock electrons out of atoms, creating
ions, resulting in chemical changes to materials at the molecular level.


 


There are
three different types of naturally occurring radiation, designated Alpha, Beta
and Gamma.


 


Alpha
particles are the biggest and composed of two protons and two neutrons but they
are also the weakest and cannot penetrate more than a few centimetres of air
and even have trouble getting through a few sheets of paper. However, that
actually makes Alpha radiation quite dangerous — at close quarters and in very
high doses — because the particles are so big they are more likely to
interact with and cause chemical and biological changes to whatever they happen
to smash into


 


Beta
particles are essentially loose electrons or positrons, they have more
energy and penetrating power than Alpha particles and can punch through a few
millimetres of wood or metal. Like all radiation, if there’s enough of it, it
will change or damage whatever it comes into contact with.


 


Gamma
particles (or waves) are essentially high-energy photons — the same stuff as
light and the gamma radiation family also includes X-Rays. Gamma radiation has
no charge but it packs a lot of energy. However, because the particles are so
small they can pass right through matter without hitting anything, but once
again if there’s enough of it then it can and will cause chemical and
biological changes


 



Ionising
radiation  sounds like a bad thing but the fact is we are being constantly
bombarded with natural radiation, from the food we eat (Brazil nuts are notoriously radioactive),
rocks and minerals, water, air, cosmic rays from outer space and a wide range
of consumer
products
in and
around the home, from smoke alarms and fluorescent lamps to old clocks and
watches with luminous hands.


Even our
own bodies are naturally
radioactiv
e, and it’s not just the nicotine
and tar in tobacco that can kill you. In the
past sixty years there has been a small but measurable increase in the
background radiation from such things as nuclear power generation, fallout from
nuclear weapons, moreover your exposure to ionising radiation is significantly
increased if you have an X-Ray, travel regularly by air or undergo radiological
treatment.


 

 

The point
is the human race has been exposed to low level doses of radioactivity since
the year dot. We have evolved to deal with it, it may even have had a part to
play in the evolutionary process, and it’s when we get too much of it that
things can go wrong.


Scientists
can say with some certainty how much radiation will kill you outright, and the
sort of exposure that will make you sick but these tend to massively large
doses that we are never likely to encounter in our normal day-to-day lives.
When it comes to very low levels exposure no one can say exactly how much is
bad for you.




SO HOW
MUCH IS TOO MUCH?


 

Unfortunately no-one
knows. It depends on a multitude of factors including age, gender, genetic
makeup, where you live, what you
eat and needless to say, which experts you talk to. There are clear
beneficial effects and controlled exposure to high doses of ionising radiation
is a cornerstone of modern Nuclear
Medicine
; some even suggest that
small doses can be good
for you
, therapies, like those offered in
this Radon
Mine
are claimed to date back 6000
years.


Nevertheless
it is generally accepted that most of us, on average, receive a dose
of between 100 and 200 millirem (1- 2 millisievert) of radiation per year (the
millirem is a measurement of absorbed radiation dosage and 100 mrem = 1
millisievert).


We live
to tell the tale because almost all of it comes from natural sources and
it is a part of our normal environment.


 


Around 70
to 80 mrem comes from purely natural sources, as much as 11% of that from
naturally-occurring materials in our own
bodies. Apparently you will receive an 0.05 microsievert
dose sleeping next to someone for 8 hours, even porcelain
crowns and living within 50 miles
of a coal plant
 produces a measurable dose.


The rest
is man-made with the bulk of it coming from hospital and dental X-Rays and
medical treatments, 4 – 6 mrem comes from nuclear power plant emissions and
leakage and fallout from nuclear weapons plus 1 to 2 mrem from consumer
products, such as smoke detectors and so on.


 


The
internationally agreed limits for exposure to radiation for those working in
the nuclear industry is a maximum whole body dose of 5,000 mrem (or 5 rem) per
year. For the rest of us exposure levels are significantly lower.


A chest
X-Ray, for example typically gives a surface dose of 50 to 80 mrem, abdominal
X-rays can be up to 600mrem whilst a full body CT Scan can be as high as 1000
mrems. For the record a whole body dose of 500 rem will be enough to kill you,
usually within one to two weeks whilst a dose of 100 rem will cause severe
radiation sickness.




Knowledge & Training




To be
honest emergency preparedness isn’t all about storing food and water,
It’s
about knowing what to do and being ready for anything. If you don’t know what
to do in different situations you won’t last very long. You need the knowledge,
the training, and even the practice of different skills to be prepared.
What’s
the point of having supplies if you don’t know what to do with them?

 

 

What’s
the point of having canned food storage if you don’t know to rotate it? What’s
the point of having a water filter if you don’t know how to use it? Yes, all of
these examples are common sense things, but it is a real problem.

 

 

Some
other things do need more practice and knowledge however. Do you know

 

 

exactly
how to make meals from scratch, shoot a gun accurately and consistently, have
the skills of an outdoorsman and know how to catch your own food? There are
countless numbers of different skills that you can have and it would be wise to
at least learn a little of each of them.

 

 

Of course
the good skills to have are outdoor survival skills. Things that you would use
on a camping, hiking, or fishing trip, skills you would need if you were lost
in the

 

 

wilderness.

 

 

Things
like making fires, finding or building shelter, hunting and fishing, and

 

 

harvesting,
cooking, and cleaning food all could mean life or death at some point.

 

 

These
skills are not too hard to get the basic understandings of.

 

 

By no
means do you have to be a master at anything. You just need to know what

 

 

you are
doing enough to survive. Survival doesn’t mean perfection, as just getting by
works. As long as you have a basic understanding of different things and are a
well-rounded person, you will be much better off.

 

 

The
University of YouTube will teach you just about anything you want to know.

 

 

Be sure
to pass on your knowledge and things that you know to your community

 

and
group. Share ideas with them, plan, and learn from them.

 

 

They can
help you and other people will definitely know things that you don’t. Teach
your children valuable skills and imprint the ideas of preparedness on them
early so they will grow up knowing it and being familiar with it.
Don’t
overload them and make them crazy, but make sure that they realize the
importance of emergency preparedness.
Go out to
the gun range and practice, go on camping trips where you are cut off

 

from the
world, use some of your stored food. Get a sense for how life would be if you
ever needed to use your preps.

 

 

Make sure
you practice with everything you are preparing for, so when the time comes you
will know what to do.
If you
know what you’re doing it will be much easier to stay calm and in control. If
you have never done something before you may start to panic, and panic leads to
failure.
Knowledge
and training are just another form of preparation, and in the ultimate

 

quest to
be prepared, this is something that cannot be overlooked. Know what you are
doing.

 

 

Know how
to survive





How to Stop Bleeding With Black Pepper


When it comes to survival and wilderness first aid, I highly
recommend you carry a blood clotting agent with you in your first aid kit,
personally I believe that CELOX produce the best consumer available blood
clotting agent, as unlike many other brands, CELOX is also effective for people
on blood thinners such as heparin and warfarin etc. You can purchase CELOX from
Amazon. It is quite expensive, but simply put – it could save your life one
day…


If you do not have a clotting agent such as CELOX, you can
in fact use simple ground black pepper to stop bleeding quickly for small to
medium sized cuts/wounds.  Black pepper
is naturally antibacterial and makes blood coagulate quickly and stops
bleeding.



Black pepper was commonly used by soldiers in the Second
World War, and even today it is often used in professional kitchens (probably
due to its availability) to stop cuts from bleeding.

 

 


It couldn’t be simpler to use black pepper to stop bleeding
– simply pour a generous amount of ground black pepper onto the wound and apply
pressure (and bandage if necessary) and it should quickly stop bleeding (please
use common sense though as serious cuts may still require the attention of a
doctor). Note: Finely ground black pepper works best, and no, black pepper does
not sting when put on a cut!

 

 


Personally I keep some Black Pepper in my first aid kits for
emergencies, and for day-to-day and around the home, black pepper is a useful
alternative for smaller wounds.

 

 


By the way I am not a medical expert, this information is
based on my own experience and research. Please do your own research and
exercise common sense before trying this. If you have an existing medical
condition or allergy, please check that this won’t interfere with your
condition or medication.




Survival Gadgets


If your idea of a fun day or exciting holiday involves
roughing it in the wilderness, you know how important it is to have the proper
tools and equipment with you.

There are basic things you need to maintain safety and
well-being while out in the wild, and there are also some extras that make
wilderness survival less challenging and more fun. The next time you’re
planning an outdoor adventure, include some of these gadgets and tools for
emergency preparedness and survival.
Basic Survival Skills
The best tool for
survival is of course first and foremost yourself.

Make sure you know basic survival skills. The first skill in
basic survival is to ensure that a bad situation doesn’t escalate and become
worse.

To deal with an emergency situation one must be able to make
decisions, improvise and remain calm. Great for the amateur and hard-core
enthusiast, who better to learn survival tactics from than the British Army.

The SAS Survival Guide not only teaches you how to build a
fire but also how to build a fire with wet wood! Includes information on all
the basics for food, water, shelter – plus first aid, identifying edible and
medicinal plants, animals, navigation, psychology of survival, and so on.
Compass or GPS

A compass or GPS system is vital, even if you know the area.
It’s easy to get turned around when you’re deep in the wilderness and
everything starts to look the same. If you’re using a mobile phone-based GPS
system such as Compass Professional make sure you’ll have access to a signal.
Sun & Heat
Protection

You may not think that lack of sun protection can lead to an
emergency, but overexposure to heat and sun can place your health at-risk when
you’re out in the wild. In addition to having sunscreen and a hat, carry a
water purification system so you can keep hydrated with water that’s safe for
drinking.

The Weather Channel app provides all type of weather reports
including interactive maps with animated radar, weather alerts for your
locations, videos of breaking news and weather coverage and lots more.

Knowing if a storm or cold weather is coming in will help
you prepare in advance for potential weather related issues.
Torch or Headlamp

Even if you’ve made camp by nightfall, you’ll still want to
have a torch or headlamp handy to navigate around your campsite. A headlamp allows
you to remain hands-free while hiking or finding a spot to relieve yourself.

The Coleman Lantern app lets you choose from 10 different
lanterns that fill your campsite with bright, white light. It also lets you
choose how bright you want it to shine. You can use it in the car, walking at
night and reading in bed. It’s free to add to your iPhone.
First Aid Kit

A proper first aid kit is another wilderness survival
must-have; a well-stocked first aid kit will help you to be better prepared for
emergencies and natural disasters. The contents should change to match where
the kit will be stored and how it will be used.

In addition to carrying a fully stocked, compact first aid
kit, there are also first aid apps, such as GotoAID, which provide a person immediate
access to first aid information. With 420 total topics the information on
GotoAid ranges from treating a bee sting to delivering a baby.
Waterproof Matches
and Fire Starters

No matter how good you are at starting fires, there are
always times when the wood’s too wet or too green. Carry waterproof matches as
backups to your lighter and have fire starters to get the kindling going enough
to build a good fire.
Mess Kit

Carry a mess kit that serves multiple uses, such as cooking,
eating and washing your utensils. One that contains a bowl/pot, plate, cup and
eating utensils should do the trick. Food hints and recipes for mess kit
cooking can be found on-line, however when you fancy a touch of extravagance,
although costly, try the MRE which now almost reach gourmet standards.
Tarp and Blanket

A tarp is another multipurpose item that can help you
maintain your well-being while out in the wild. Use it as a tent in inclement
weather, to cover your food or as a ground cover. Bring along a thin, wool blanket
to ensure a good night’s sleep and sufficient warmth.

Knots and lashings are useful both around camp and in a
survival situation to construct an improvised shelter. A right knot can save
your life, that’s why Knot guide app, using photographs, shows you how to tie a
neat and clean knot and takes you through tying eleven most common general
knots for different situations.
Know Your Wilderness
Edibles

Even if you’ve brought sufficient food or are catching your
food out in the water or woods, you may be tempted to enjoy those luscious
berries or tasty-looking mushrooms. Before you add any wild fruits or
vegetables to your wilderness meals, check them on a wilderness edibles app,
such as Wild Edibles Database, to ensure they’re safe to eat. Even those who
consider themselves to be wilderness experts can experience mishaps in the
outdoors that can cause an otherwise exciting adventure to turn sour.

Make sure that you have the basics you need, as well as any
extra gadgets, equipment or tools. The items you bring with you will vary
depending on the season, your location and the length of your adventure. Take
time to anticipate all your needs in the wild so you can prepare accordingly.


5 More Survival
Uses of Pine Resin


Pine resin has multiple uses for survival. This sap is
produced by the pine tree to seal up cuts or damage to the tree. If you ever
find yourself lost in a wooded area, having a pine tree            will really make a difference to your survival chances.

 

 


There are many different species of pine trees but they
generally prefer open and sunny areas. They are found abundantly throughout
North America, they are also found throughout Central America and Europe.

 

 


Native Americans used pine sap for medicinal purposes. The
resin is either chewed on or made into a beverage by mixing with water. It is
known to be very effective in treating stomach ulcers and rheumatoid arthritis.

 

 


To find pine resin look for the damaged part of the pine
tree because that will be where the resin secretions are. The resin will be dry
and hardened but can be softened with heat. Look for damaged or fallen limbs
first before you purposely cut into the pine tree’s bark for the sap.

 

 


If you have to damage the tree, do it in a small area on one
side only. Also, take only as much resin as you will need and leave some on the
tree to protect the cut from boring insects.

 

 

The Survival Uses 0f Pine Resin

 

 

1. First aid.

 

 


When you’re outdoors camping or in a survival situation,
cutting accidents will almost always happen. Pine resin can be applied directly
over the wound to stem blood flow almost at once. The resin will also inhibit
the growth and spread of bacteria because of its sticky nature which denies the
bacteria the moisture it needs to survive.

 

 


Just leave the resin in place until it dries out. The resin
will close the wound up the same way stitching it up would. You may reapply
resin as needed. You can also use the sap to treat blisters, burns and
abscesses.

 

 

2. Use the resin to make shoes and other items
waterproof.

 

 


Heat the resin to liquid form and then apply it to the
material you want to make impervious to water like the lower half of your
hiking boots. You can also use resin to seal seams, repair holes in shoes,
boats or structures to prevent leaks. When heating the resin, use a deep
container to keep the sap away from open flame. Pine resin can ignite easily.

 

 

3. Light and heat.

 

 


Pine resin can be used to make a lamp. Look for a stone with
depression, a can, a shell or anything that can be filled with resin. For a
wick, use some twisted cloth. Fill the depression with the resin, lay the wick
on top and ignite the wick. The wick material will ignite the resin which will
burn like a candle. Feed more resin to maintain the flame.

 

 


To use the pine resin as a heat source, get a metal
container and punch holes in its side. Place it over the ignited resin. The
metal will absorb the heat and conduct to the surrounding area. This will not
heat a large area but you get enough heat to warm hands and feet.

 

 

4. Make glue out of pine resin.

 

 


Heat the resin to liquid form. While the pine resin is
heating, crumble some charcoal from the fire to fine powder (or as fine as you
can make them). When the resin is ready, remove from heat and stir in the
powder charcoal – the amount of the charcoal powder should be about 1/3 of the
resin’s volume. Dip a stick repeatedly in the mixture to form a ball of pitch
on the end.  Store the glue like this until it is needed. Heat the
hardened glue until pliable.

 

 


You can form fishhooks with the glue, repair holes in water
containers, repair the soles of shoes, apply feathers to homemade arrows or
harden the ends of hunting spears to keep them from splintering, etc.

 

 

5. Start a fire with pine resin.

 

 


You can use pine resin to start a fire especially in damp
conditions. Look for some hardened pine resin and some pine sticks. You will
see streaks of resin when you split the pine sticks. Lay some dried pine
needles near the resin. When you ignite the resin, it will burn long enough to
dry the  pine needles and you can add small pieces of the pine sticks
which will burn even if somewhat damp because of the resin. Once you’ve got a
sizable flame going, you can start drying out other wood.



Pine Pitch for Fire Lighting


Pine
trees are
probably one of the three best trees in the wilderness for starting a fire.
The other two (each for different reasons) are cedar and birch trees.
Pine trees have great characteristics that make it useful in a wilderness
survival scenario.
One of
the useful qualities of pine trees is that the sap (also called pine pitch)
is flammable.  It burns very well and can be added to other natural tinder
like dried pine needles to make a very effective fire starter.
Some possible
uses of different parts of the Pine Tree:
1. Pine
needles can be boiled to make a tea, which can also be doubled as an antiseptic
wash for minor injuries.
2. The
inner cambium layer of the pine tree bark can be eaten.  Although
it doesn’t taste great raw.  (Neither does the tea, for that matter, but
it is high in Vitamin C).
3. The
wood grain of the pine tree is typically straight and easy to break down
for fire wood and kindling.
4. The pine
nuts in the pine cone can be eaten.
5. Low
hanging small dead inner branches can be used for kindling in a fire.
6. Larger
dead branches hold pine pitch in the 4 to 6 inches closest to the trunk
of the tree which can be used for starting fire.  
7. The
base of a large pine tree can be used as a partial shelter in a high
snow area winter situation.  They can also partially shelter you from
rain.
8. Old
dead pine tree stumps will have shards of un-rotted wood sticking up out
of the ground that are saturated with pine pitch.
9. Bark
from a large pine tree can be used as a platform for building fire or
other tasks in the wilderness.
10. Pine
Trees attract wildlife such as squirrels for hunting and trapping.
11. Pine
pitch can be melted and infused on to a cloth, wrapped around a green stick
and used as a torch.
12. The
smell of freshly crushed pine needles (rubbed in clothing) can act as a
scent masking agent to help reduce human scent while hunting.  Be careful,
this could be a bit messy…
13. Dried
pine needles can be used as a tinder and or kindling.
There are
probably tons more uses, but those are the ones I can think of right now.

If you
need a fire and have an ignition source (lighter, metal match, matches,
etc.) then pine pitch could help you get your fire going. Try it for
yourself.


The Threat of Wild Dogs Post SHTF

I have seen with my own eyes packs of wild semi feral dogs
roaming around two very different European countries.



The first was on the island of Corfu where the tourist feeds
the pups of these dogs “they actually time their breeding to coincide with the
tourist season” and every open air restaurant had feral dogs under the tables
begging for food scraps, these dogs roam wild on the island in the winter
attacking sheep and goats.



The second time was in Italy on the Adriatic coast near the
town of Atessa where packs of wild dogs roamed industrial estates and the
outskirts of towns and villages.



This was of course pre-SHTF but imagine what would happen to
these dogs and how they would act post SHTF.



In any kind of a large-scale emergency, whether financial,
EMP or some something else that causes large scale disruptions, a lot of people
will turn their pets lose.  Now I know
that many of you will suggest that they should eat them and I am with you. 



However many of the animal loving liberals will turn their
pets lose because they won’t have the heart to kill them.  In addition if there are wide spread deaths
many animals will escape.



Now most animals don’t present too much of a problem, except
maybe around zoos or exotic animal farms, but dogs can easily go feral.  Feral dog packs are already a problem in
areas of the U.S. and Mexico.  Look at
the following from just a few news items I checked.



Mexico City killings are blamed on pack of wild dogs.  The pack of marauding wild dogs is blamed for
deaths of five people found with horrific flesh injuries.



St. LOUIS, Mo. – Ten years after a fourth-grade boy was attacked
and nearly eaten alive by wild dogs in north St. Louis, city leaders are
scrambling to make sure it doesn’t happen again.  Aldermanic President Lewis Reed is sounding
the alarm.



“I’ve witnessed packs of dogs, 10 and 15 dogs running
together, and all these dogs I’m talking about don’t have collars, they don’t
have tags, these are truly wild dogs,” he said.



Detroit, City of Strays
an epidemic of 50,000 abandoned dogs – In Detroit, packs of free-roaming
dogs have posed such a danger that a postal service spokesman said they
considered stopping mail delivery to some areas last year because carriers were
“constantly being bitten” or injured eluding vicious animals.


Maryland – Pack of
vicious wild dogs killing other dogs


Canada – Volunteers
struggle to reduce wild dog population plaguing native reserves



In appearance, most feral dogs are difficult to distinguish
from domestic dogs.  Like domestic dogs,
feral dogs come in a variety of shapes, sizes, colours, and even breeds. 



German shepherds, Doberman pinschers, and collies are breeds
that often become feral.  It is not just
pit bulls as most people think.



Feral dogs are usually secretive and wary of people.  They are active during dawn, dusk, and at
night much like other wild members of the canine family.  They often travel in packs and may have
rendezvous sites like wolves.  Travel
routes to and from the gathering or den sites may be well defined. 


Food scraps and other
evidence of concentrated activity may be observed at gathering sites.



A survey by the National Agricultural Statistics Service in
the USA in 1999 found that feral dogs were partly responsible for killing cows,
sheep, and goats worth about U.S. 37 million dollars.



Farms aren’t the only place where these animals may be
found.  Low-income, high-crime
neighbourhoods in cities like Los Angeles, St. Louis, New York, Santa Fe,
Pittsburgh, and Cleveland, are being overrun by tens of thousands of unwanted
dogs, says Randy Grim, founder of Stray Rescue in St. Louis, a non-profit
organization that saves street dogs.



We in the UK “A nation of pet lovers” have a very high
population of dogs, In April 2011 there were approximately 10.5 million owned
dogs in the UK and 39% of UK households own at least one dog.



Packs of feral dogs will be a danger to your family and
animals, in particular young children.
If they are hungry, they will stalk and hunt you. 



I strongly suggest that you have adequate fencing for
animals and the means to defend yourself and your property from packs of feral
dogs.  Methods of controlling feral dogs
include shooting, trapping, fencing and baiting.


Basic Wilderness Survival Skills
Fear – For anyone faced
with a wilderness emergency survival situation, fear is a normal reaction.
Unless an emergency situation has been anticipated, fear is generally
followed by panic then pain, cold, thirst, hunger, fatigue, boredom and
loneliness. It is extremely important to calmly assess the situation and not
allow these seven enemies to interfere with your survival.
Pain – Pain may often
be ignored in a panic situation. Remember to deal with injuries immediately
before they become even more serious.
Cold – Cold lowers the
ability to think, numbing the body and reducing the will to survive. Never
allow yourself to stop moving or to fall asleep unless adequately sheltered.
Thirst – Dehydration is a
common enemy in an emergency situation and must not be ignored. It can dull
your mind, causing you to overlook important survival information.
Hunger – Hunger is
dangerous but seldom deadly. It may reduce your ability to think logically
and increase your susceptibility to the effects of cold, pain and fear.
Fatigue – Fatigue is
unavoidable in any situation so it is best to keep in mind that it can and
will lower your mental ability. Remember that in an emergency situation this
is often the bodies way of escaping a difficult situation.
Boredom & Loneliness – These
enemies are quite often unanticipated and may lower the mind’s ability to
deal with the situation.
Building a fire is
the most important task when dealing with survival in the wilderness. Be sure
to build yours in a sandy or rocky area or near a supply of sand and water as
to avoid forest fires. The most common mistakes made by those attempting to
build a fire are: choosing poor tinder, failing to shield precious matches
from the wind and smothering the flames with too large pieces of fuel. The
four most important factors when starting a fire are spark – tinder – fuel –
oxygen.
1. Waterproof,
strike-anywhere matches are your best bet. Matches may be water-proofed by
dipping them in nail polish. Store your matches in a waterproof container.
2. A cigarette
lighter is also a good way to produce a spark, with or without fuel.
3. The flint and
steel method is one of the oldest and most reliable methods in fire starting.
Aim the sparks at a pile of dry tinder to produce a fire.
4. The electric
spark produced from a battery will ignite a gasoline dampened rag.
5. Remove half of
the powder from a bullet and pour it into the tinder. Next place a rag in the
cartridge case of the gun and fire. The rag should ignite and then may be
placed into the tinder.
6. Allow the sun’s
rays to pass through a magnifying glass onto the tinder.
Dry grass, paper or
cloth lint, gasoline-soaked rags and dry bark are all forms of tinder. Place
your tinder in a small pile resembling a tepee with the driest pieces at the
bottom. Use a fire starter or strip of pitch if it is available.
Before building
your shelter be sure that the surrounding area provides the materials needed
to build a good fire, a good water source and shelter from the wind. It is
important to keep in mind that smaller pieces of kindling such as, twigs,
bark, shavings and gasoline, are necessary when trying to ignite larger
pieces of fuel.
Gather fuel before
attempting to start your fire. Obviously dry wood burns better and wet or
pitchy wood will create more smoke. Dense, dry wood will burn slow and hot. A
well ventilated fire will burn best.
Wilderness shelters may include:
1. Natural shelters
such as caves and overhanging cliffs. When exploring a possible shelter tie a
piece of string to the outer mouth of the cave to ensure you will be able to
find your way out. Keep in mind that these caves may already be occupied. If
you do use a cave for shelter, build your fire near its mouth to prevent
animals from entering.
2. Enlarge the
natural pit under a fallen tree and line it with bark or tree boughs.
3. Near a rocky
coastal area, build a rock shelter in the shape of a U, covering the roof
with driftwood and a tarp or even seaweed for protection.4. A lean-to made
with poles or fallen trees and a covering of plastic, boughs, thick grasses
or bark is effective to shelter you from wind, rain and snow.
5. A wigwam may be
constructed using three long poles. Tie the tops of the poles together and
upright them in an appropriate spot. Cover the sides with a tarp, boughs,
raingear or other suitable materials. Build a fire in the centre of the
wigwam, making a draft channel in the wall and a small hole in the top to
allow smoke to escape.
6. If you find
yourself in open terrain, a snow cave will provide good shelter. Find a drift
and burrow a tunnel into the side for about 60 cm (24 in) then build your
chamber. The entrance of the tunnel should lead to the lowest level of you
chamber where the cooking and storage of equipment will be. A minimum of two
ventilating holes are necessary, preferably one in the roof and one in the
door.
Clothing must
provide warmth and offer protection from the elements. Layers of light,
natural fibers are best. Hats are a must, as they offer protection from both
the heat and cold. Water proof outer layers are necessary.
Equipment must be
easily manageable and promote survival in any situation. Items to carry in
your pockets may include a fire starter, waterproof matches and/or lighter, a
pocket knife, goggles, compass, small first-aid kit and some sort of trail
food.
Items for your
survival kit should be packed in a waterproof container that can double as a
cooking pot and water receptacle and be attached to your belt.
In addition to a
survival kit, a good, comfortable backpack is mandatory. Loads of about 18 kg
(40 lb.) are average. Items to include are; flashlight, extra jacket, socks
and mittens, a pocket saw, gas camp stove, first aid kit, emergency food, and
a tent and fly.
CHECK LIST
Useful items to
include on your trek are:
1. A map and
compass.
2. A large, bright
plastic bag will be useful as a shelter, signalling device or in lieu of
raingear.
3. A flashlight
with extra batteries.
4. Extra water and
food.
5. Extra clothing
such as raingear, a toque and gloves, a sweater and pants.
6. Sun protection
such as sunglasses, sunscreen, a hat and long sleeved clothing.
7. A sharp pocket
knife.
8. Waterproof
matches, a lighter and/or a flint.
9. Candles and fire
starter.
10. A first aid
kit.
11. A whistle,
flares, a tarp.
Before venturing
into the wilderness check weather forecasts and hazards.

How to Read a Compass

Navigation by way
of compass may seem daunting at first to a beginner, but this trepidation
shouldn’t stand in the way of learning to use one. In fact, once the basics
are down, a compass will be a valued friend in the back-country — one you can
always count on to help guide your steps.
This guide is meant
to be a general overview of the basics of using a compass, with or without a
map. There are only a few key things to keep in mind, and once you have
grasped these fundamentals, the realm of compass navigation will be open to
you forever.
Compass Basics
First of all, what
exactly does a compass do? In short, a compass is a fixed housing containing
a free-floating metal “needle” able to align itself to the Earth’s magnetic
field. One end of the needle will always point towards the north magnetic
pole.
An important fact
to mention here is that magnetic north is not the same as geographic north. A
map will make reference to geographic north, i.e. the North Pole, a fixed
point on the Earth’s surface, whereas magnetic north fluctuates in position
over time. This is known as magnetic declination. I’ll come back to this in a
moment.
In addition to the
floating needle, a compass may have a myriad of other features, but only a
few are really relevant to basic orienteering. The first, and most important,
is the rotating bezel on the face.
The bezel contains
the 360 degrees of a circle, or the azimuth. Another often-used term is
bearing. So the bezel allows the user to “dial-in” his or her desired
direction of travel simply by rotating the face.
Let’s say for
example that you know your home base is in a south-easterly direction, ~120
degrees of azimuth. If you wanted to make sure you travelled in that
direction, you would first orient yourself so that the red (north) end of the
compass needle is aligned with the N (0°) mark on the bezel.
Next, you would
rotate the bezel until the needle pointed to 120°. Finally, you would simply
rotate yourself so that the needle once again pointed to the N (0°) mark. And
voila, you now have your bearing.
Magnetic or Geographic?
There is one catch,
though. Remember what I said about magnetic north not being true or
geographic north? Well, the difference between the two is determined by your
location on the Earth’s surface, and it’s enough to really throw off your
bearing and put you into the nearest swamp.
Luckily, the bezel
holds the key once again. Once you know your magnetic declination, you simply
rotate the bezel according to that number. For instance, let’s pretend you
live in Seattle, and know your magnetic declination to be 16° 51′ E. In this
case, the difference is ~ +17° from true north, so we need to subtract that
from our current bearing by rotating the bezel to the right.
So with our compass
needle now pointing north again, our housing (and thus our direction of
travel) will be oriented to 343°. Confused? Not surprising.
But take heart, it
is much easier to understand once you have your compass in hand.
Finally, you might
be asking, “How do I choose the right compass for me?” While there are lots
of compass models on the market, the best ones will not be overwhelming with
features nor so bare bones that they lack even a rotating bezel.
My personal recommendation
is to go with a standard, liquid-filled orienteering compass such as that
made by Suunto or Brunton. Stay away from “button” compasses or those found
in the hilts of knives.
They are largely
inaccurate and will not help you in the long run. Once you grasp the basics
of using your standard compass, you can graduate to one with more advanced
features. That being said, as long as your compass has a rotating bezel and
can reliably point to magnetic north, you have everything you need to find
your way.

Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is a
bacterial infection that is spread to humans by infected ticks. Ticks are
small, spider shaped insects that feed on the blood of mammals including
humans.
The most common
symptom of Lyme disease is a red skin rash that looks similar to the bull’s
eye on a dartboard. However, if Lyme disease is left untreated, further
symptoms can follow, including:
A high temperature
(fever) 38C or over.
Muscle pain.
Joint pain and
swelling.
Neurological
symptoms, such as temporary paralysis of the facial muscles.
A person with Lyme disease
is not contagious because the infection can only be spread by the ticks.
Lyme disease is an
uncommon infection. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) estimates that there
are between 1,000 – 2,000 cases of Lyme disease in the UK each year.
The ticks that
cause Lyme disease are commonly found in woodland and heath land areas. This
is because these types of habitat have high numbers of tick-carrying animals,
such as deer and mice. Parts of the UK that are known to have a particularly
high population of ticks include:
Exmoor.
 The New Forest in Hampshire.
The South Downs.
Parts of Wiltshire
and Berkshire.
Thetford forest in
Norfolk.
The Lake District.
The “Yorkshire
Moors”.
The Scottish
Highlands.
Due to their
breeding patterns the tick population is at its highest during late spring
and early summer.
Ticks can also be
found in rural areas of many other countries including:
France.
Germany.
United States of
America.
Austria.
Sweden
Russia
There is a widely
held misconception that the outlook for Lyme disease is poor, and that the
condition cannot be treated. However, this is not the case.
If Lyme disease is
diagnosed in its early stages, it can be treated with antibiotics, and the
outlook for the condition is excellent. Most people will make a full recovery
within a couple of days.
Even if more
serious symptoms develop, they can usually be cured with antibiotics,
although a longer course will be required.
A vaccination for
Lyme disease was introduced in 1998, but it has since been withdrawn by the
manufacturer due to controversies over alleged side effects.
The best way to
prevent Lyme disease is to take sensible precautions when you are in areas
that are known to have a high tick population, such as:
Wear a long sleeved
shirt.
Wear long trousers
and tuck the legs into your socks.
Wear insect
repellent.
Inspect your skin
for ticks, particularly at the end of the day, including your head, neck,
armpits, groin and waistband.

How To!!!

A car could sink when falling off a bridge
or simply when there is a flash flood. Once you’re the water starts pouring
into your vehicle, do the following:
Stay calm, don’t panic.
Unfasten your seat belt. (Don’t forget
that)
Roll down your side window.
If it cannot be rolled down: break it with
a heavy object (flashlight …).
Don’t try to break the windshield, it’s
very hard to break.
Swim out and head to the surface.
Reminder: Don’t panic and forget your seat
belt on, don’t waste your time trying to save valuable possessions. SAVE
YOURSELF.
How to Survive a
House Fire
Statistically speaking, fires usually
happen between 8 pm to 8 am. So chances you will be asleep when that happens,
make sure you have smoke detectors in every room and that they’re actually
working. Follow these steps:
When you see the fire or smoke drop to the
floor and crawl down.
When you reach a door, feel if it’s hot
before touching it to avoid burning your hand.
If it’s hot, keep it closed, because it’s
protecting you from the smoke.
Try to get out of the window if living in
the lower floor. Or signal for help if otherwise.
If the door is not hot, open it and find
your exit from the house.
If your clothes catch on fire, stop where
you are. Don’t run. Quickly drop to the ground. Roll over and over. This will
put out the flames.
Call 999 or see if you can signal for help
out of the window with a white shirt or flash light.
Other tips are: prepare a wet blanket to
protect your body from burns. If there is too much smoke in the room, break
the windows to have fresh air in the room.
Plan and practice with your family before a
disaster hits.
Practice what to do with your kids when
there is a fire.
Decide a meeting place where the whole
family can meet (mailbox for example), so that if someone is not there, you
would know that person is still inside.
How to Survive a
Tornado
Tornadoes are unpredictable and
destructive; they can wipe out a whole area in a matter of seconds. About
1000 tornadoes hit the U.S every year. Knowing how to save yourself depends
on where you are. Below is what to do in 3 scenarios:
If you are in a structure (e.g. residence,
small building, school, nursing home, hospital, factory, shopping centre,
high-rise building) go to a pre-designated shelter area such as a safe room,
basement, storm cellar, or the lowest building level. If there is no
basement, go to the center of an interior room on the lowest level (closet,
interior hallway) away from corners, windows, doors, and outside walls. Place
yourself with as many walls as possible between you and the outside. Get
under a sturdy table and use your arms to protect your head and neck. Do not
open windows.
If you’re in a vehicle, trailer, or mobile
home Get out immediately and go to the lowest floor of a sturdy, nearby
building or a storm shelter. Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little
protection from tornadoes.
If you’re outside with no shelter then lie
flat in a nearby ditch or depression and cover your head with your hands. Be
aware of the potential for flooding.
Do not get under an overpass or bridge. You
are safer in a low, flat location.
Never try to outrun a tornado in urban or
congested areas in a car or truck. Instead, leave the vehicle immediately for
safe shelter.
Watch out for flying debris. Flying debris
from tornadoes causes most fatalities and injuries.
Listen to a portable radio (weather
channel), a key possession in a tornado, and wait for the official all clear.
How to remove
Ticks
Ticks may carry diseases such as Lyme and
babesiosis. You should remove the tick from your skin as soon as possible.
But make sure you follow these steps.
The best way to remove a tick is to make it
release its bite by pulling it off gently, leaving the tick and its mouth
parts intact. So try the following:
Don’t touch the tick. Use blunt curved
tweezers or a thread.
Grasp the tick by placing the most part of
its body inside the tweezers.
Start pulling firmly enough to lift up the
skin.
Hold this tension for 3 to 4 minutes and
the tick will let go.
Do not squeeze the body of the tick because
its fluids may contain bacteria or tick-borne diseases.
Do not twist or jerk the tick while pulling
upwards because this may cause the mouth parts to detach and stay on your
skin.
People who are worried about Lyme disease
can place the tick in a small plastic bag and freeze, so that if they get
sick later they can take it for lab testing.
Wash your hands and the affected area with
soap and water
Watch for signs of such as Bull’s eye rash
(Lyme disease symptom).
Making Cordage from Natural Fibres
In these modern
days in our throwaway society, cordage, whether its string, cord or rope is
taken for granted. Not much thought is given to it. A piece of string is used
and when its job is done it will probably be discarded. When a piece of
string is needed again, a fresh piece is cut from the ball and so it goes on.
However, to produce
a length of cordage in the field from natural fibres can take a significant
amount of time. Especially if a long, thin strong length of cordage needs to
be produced. There are two main methods of producing cordage, twisting and
plaiting.
Normally twisting
is used to create an initial length of cordage. Then plaiting can be used
with several of these twisted lengths to produce stronger, larger diameter
cordage (cord or rope).
Lots of different
natural fibres can be used to produce cordage. For example nettles, inner
willow bark etc. Bear in mind that the cordage produced from natural fibres
such as these are not as strong as commercial cordage which is now available.
o prevent cracking
and breaking care should be taken not to bend natural cordage too sharply
when using it in lashings or tying knots. One solution is to moisten the
cordage to improve its flexibility but, one disadvantage of this is that
water, as well as softening the natural fibres causes them to swell
increasing the diameter of the cordage. This is fine until the cordage starts
to dry out then any lashings or knots you have tied will become loose.
The outer fibres of
the common nettle can be used to produce relatively strong thin cordage.
First of all you must remove the leaves. This can be done by running your
hand from the bottom to the top of the stem. Grasp the nettle firmly and you
should not get stung. If you are worried about getting stung you can do this
process wearing gloves.
Once all the leaves
and stings have been removed you can crush the stem with the butt of your
knife then run your thumb nail down the length of the nettle to open and
flatten the stem out? Now take the stem and bend it over a finger. The outer
fibres should now be able to be gently removed from the hard inner core. The
outer fibres should then be put somewhere to dry until needed.
Take one of the
nettle fibres and hold it tightly between finger and thumb at one end of the
fibre. Then twist the fibre from the other end, rolling it over and over
until it kinks, usually somewhere in the middle.
The fibre will now
be half the original length. It will be doubled at one end. Continue to hold
this end tightly between fingers and thumb while rolling the two tail ends
around one another. When one of the tail ends ‘runs out’ add a new fibre in
and continue twisting. Continue this process until your cordage reaches the
length you require, to finish tie an overhand knot to stop the cord
unwrapping.
The roots of many
trees and plants can be used to produce cordage for example pine, alder and
birch. Luckily the best roots for cordage tend to be found near the surface
of the ground where they are thin and flexible. Using a digging stick or
spade gently dig down until a suitable root is found.
Then follow the
root along, exposing as much of its length as possible. This can sometimes be
tricky as roots tend to interlace and can sometimes be quite a complicated
puzzle. Don’t be lazy and try to pull on the root to remove it from the
ground as it’ll just snap. In general it’s best to remove the roots outer
bark but, it’s not always required. You can remove this bark by using a
brake.
A brake is a thin
stick which has a split at the end. You basically pull the root through the
split stick (brake) and this scrapes the bark off the root. Larger diameter
roots can be split in half or even quartered to produce the required diameter
cordage.
Splitting also
gives the advantage of giving cordage with a flat edge, giving a lashing more
contact area and therefore greater strength. To split a root start the split
with your knife. Then pull the two halves apart to continue the split. If the
split starts to run off centre, bend the thicker half more (at a greater
angle to the split).
Pay particular
attention when approaching knots or bends with the split as these may have to
be cut with a knife to stop them from running off.
As I mentioned at
the beginning. We tend to use cordage without a thought.
The old saying
“Easy come, Easy go” springs to mind. However, being able to produce cordage
from natural fibres is an important skill which should not be overlooked.
It is time
consuming but a skill well worth learning. One thing is for sure, after
making a reasonable length of cordage from natural fibres you will certainly
have new found appreciation for a humble piece of string.

The Neutron Bomb

Some people felt at the time that its
relatively small initial blast and large fallout was ideal for use in densely
populated areas, like Europe. Other proponents argued that deployment of the
neutron warhead could be used as a bargaining chip against the Soviet SS-20
missile which was viewed as a threat to NATO forces in Europe.
Opponents of the weapon argued that the
neutron bomb made the idea of using nuclear weapons in war more conceivable.
Because the neutron bomb would devastate the whole of a target, military
planners might not be as hesitant to use the neutron bomb as they would a
standard fission bomb.
Neutron Bomb
Timeline
Summer 1958- While conducting researching
on developing a large thermonuclear weapon, Sam Cohen introduces the idea of
removing the uranium casing from a hydrogen bomb to allow neutrons to travel
great distances and penetrate even heavily shielded armour and structures.
1961-The Kennedy administration decides
against the idea of developing a neutron bomb and introducing it into the US
nuclear arsenal because it may jeopardize the moratorium on nuclear testing
being observed by the US and Soviet Union.
1961-The Soviet Union breaks the moratorium
on nuclear testing allowing the US to proceed with developing the neutron
bomb.
1962-The first neutron device is
successfully tested.
1970s-The Carter administration proposes
modernizing the US nuclear arsenal by installing neutron warheads on the
Lance missiles and artillery shells planned for deployment in Europe.
1977-West Germans realize their country
will likely be the battleground for use of the neutron bomb and begin hotly
debating whether or not the weapon should be allowed on their soil.
1978-Succumbing to international and
domestic pressure, President Carter decides to defer deployment of the
neutron bomb, conditional to Soviet restraint in military production and
force deployments.
1980-France announces that it has tested a
neutron device.
1981-President Reagan re-authorizes the
production of neutron warheads for the Lance missile and an 8-inch artillery
shell, but because of strong opposition in Europe, he orders that all neutron
weapons be stored in the US with the option to deploy overseas in the event
of war. The USSR announces that it too has tested neutron weapons, but has no
plans of deploying them.
1982-France begins production of the
neutron warhead.
1986-France announces it will abandon the
production of neutron warheads because of internal and external political
pressure.
Definition of the
Neutron Bomb
“Also called ENHANCED RADIATION
WARHEAD, it is a specialized type of small thermonuclear weapon that produces
minimal blast and heat but which releases large amounts of lethal radiation.
The neutron bomb delivers blast and heat
effects that are confined to an area of only a few hundred yards in radius.
But within a somewhat larger area it throws off a massive wave of neutron and
gamma radiation, which can penetrate armour or several feet of earth.
This radiation is extremely destructive to
living tissue. Because of its short-range destructiveness and the absence of
long-range effect, the neutron bomb would be highly effective against tank
and infantry formations on the battlefield but would not endanger cities or
other population centres only a few miles away.
It can be carried in a Lance missile or
delivered by an 8-inch (200-millimetre) howitzer, or possibly by attack
aircraft. In strategic terms, the neutron bomb has a theoretical deterrent
effect: discouraging an armoured ground assault by arousing the fear of
neutron bomb counterattack.
The bomb would disable enemy tank crews in
minutes, and those exposed would die within days. U.S. production of the bomb
was postponed in 1978 and resumed in 1981.”
How to Make
Char cloth
Fire making is a basic survival skill that must be learnt
then practiced regularly or you could find yourself stuck in the wilderness
without a way to boil your water or cook your food.
In order to make a fire, it’s more than just making a spark
from a magnesium firesteel, fire piston, flint and steel, or a flame from a
lighter. You need that ignition source to easily catch on to something that’ll
burn long enough for the kindling to catch, which is supposed to burn long
enough for your fuel wood to burn. That something is called Tinder.
The components of a good tinder are:
  1. you
    have it with you or can find it when you need it
  2. it
    catches fire easily in whatever weather or environment you’re in
  3. it
    burns long enough to catch your kindling on fire
I have to say that having one of Bushcraft tools fire
pistons I recommend Char Cloth. Technically, char cloth is an addition to your
tinder stock.
So what is char cloth I hear you ask?
Char cloth is an organic material (like cotton) that has
been heated enough that all (most) of the gasses inside have left but has been
protected from burning itself up.

When something burns, it’s actually a chemical reaction with
oxygen or a similar gas. When something like wood or cotton burns, chemicals
like carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide are
released into the air.

If you heat up something like cotton to a certain point and
don’t let oxygen into the area for it to burn, the gasses will be released but
the material itself won’t combust. That’s essentially all you need to do to
make char cloth in theory, but let’s look at how you make it.
How do you make charred cloth?
The simplest prepper method of making char cloth is to take
something like pieces of cotton from a t-shirt or old jeans and put it into a
small tin, like an altoids tin or an air pellet tin. You can also use a tuna
tin, coffee tin etc. as long as you can seal it fairly well after you put the
material in it and it won’t burn itself up.
I wanted to make some char cloth just using stuff I had
lying around the house so instead of an altoids tin I used an old pellet tin I
had lying around.
You need the gasses to escape from the inside after they’re
released from the cotton, so you need to poke a small hole in the tin with something
like a nail. You don’t want it too big though, or oxygen will get in and your
fabric will catch fire.
I got my Gillie Kettle out and lit it and put the old pellet
tin on top then I cut a strip denim from some old jeans about as wide as the
tin is long, rolled it up and put it into the tin. The smoke was coming out of
the hole in the top of the tin, and if I was to put a flame to it, that smoke
would catch fire.
This is essentially a mini-gasifier. That gas is flammable
enough to be used in a generator or carb for an engine.
Then, you just cook the tin in the fire for a while until
you don’t see any more smoke coming out, and that’s it. Depending on how much
stuff you have, how big your tin is and how hot your fire is, it should take
anywhere from 15-45 minutes.
Obviously, the proof is in the pudding so I took out my
magnesium fire starter that I keep in my pocket as a part of my EDC kit, and it
lit after one spark.
That’s really all there is to it. You should experiment with
different types of fabrics and different temperatures and times to heat it up
but it’s not really all that hard. You don’t even need to use cloth. Almost any
organic material should work, such as wood or plant fibres. You just need to
get all the gasses out without burning it.
Char cloth vs other tinder?
Char cloth catches so easily that just one spark will
usually catch, so not only can you place it right under your tinder bundle,
things like a breeze or damp air shouldn’t be a problem. It will burn usually
for a few minutes too, giving it enough time to catch. Because it doesn’t
give off a flame though, char cloth isn’t really going to be able to catch
kindling.
Other tinder like dry leaves, grass, cat tail fluff, etc.
burns pretty well but isn’t always easy to catch from a spark. Especially if
it’s damp out.
Putting them together though, makes a powerful combination.
How to use char cloth to start a fire.
Char cloth catches easily but it won’t burn hot enough to
catch twigs on fire unless they’re REALLY tiny.
You also probably won’t have a lot of char cloth in your
kit. It will, however, burn enough to catch other tinder on fire. By making a
tinder bundle out of dry material that burns quickly and then putting the char
cloth in side it, you make an easy-to-light pile of stuff known as a nest that
will burn hot enough to catch twigs.
Having a successful fire started is all about sticking to
the sequence of fire starting. The spark catches the char cloth. The char cloth
catches the rest of the tinder. The tinder then catches your kindling. The
kindling catches the fuel wood and you can then boil water or cook a meal.

Can We Catch Parasites from Foraged Foods?

Foraging for food in the wild is in. Let’s be honest; it’s
never really been out. Nothing tastes more exotic than a tender spring
fiddlehead cut by the river and steamed right away. Who wouldn’t reach for a
plump ripe blackberry at the edge of the trail, or a low-hanging apple in the
autumn?
I suppose you could say that recent interest in edible wild
plants and wild meat has, however, made foraging fashionable.
Is foraging safe? Articles about foraging often focus on
identification of wild plants, when to pick them, and what species to avoid.
It’s true that whether or not a mushroom or green is poisonous is of more
immediate concern than whether it might transmit a parasitic disease, but
organisms like parasites rank high in food safety issues too.
So can We Catch
Parasites From Foraged Foods?
Think back to the days before plant and animal
domestication; our distant forebears were hunter-gatherers. They foraged for
everything, and this was how they acquired most of their parasites (those that
they weren’t sharing directly person to person, such as lice).
Picking up parasites from contact with soil, drinking water,
and the wild foods that they ate was the norm. Make no mistake, those parasites
haven’t gone away; so far as I know science does not record any instance of a
parasite infectious to humans going extinct.
If anything, we have made things worse. Domesticating crops
and animals has given a lot of parasites unprecedented opportunities, but dense
human populations, large numbers of domestic animals, and our environmental
impact have changed things in the wild as well. For example:
All surface waters, everywhere, should now be considered
contaminated by intestinal protozoa of humans and cattle.
Human communities in North America support unusually high
populations of raccoons, carriers of a deadly roundworm.
Roaming and feral house cats have contaminated soils
worldwide with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii.
Migrating humans have spread lots of parasites to places
where they were formerly not found.
Where droppings from grazing animals wash into streams,
liver fluke larvae infest watercress.
Foraged Food and the
Risk of Parasitic Diseases
While studies of the risk of parasitic disease faced by
foragers as a group may be lacking, mountains of literature document the risks
of eating and drinking, and even walking, in the wild.
The risk you face while foraging for wild food depends a lot
on what you’re looking for, and where you’re looking for it. Eating wild
animals can be the source of diseases such as trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, and
intestinal flukes and tapeworms.
Plants may be contaminated with human or animal faeces, or
they may harbour larval forms of parasites. In some places, picking up a
zoonosis – a disease of animals – is the major worry; in others, parasites of
humans are more common.
In tropical developing countries, sanitation is often poor
and faecal contamination of the environment intense, let’s be honest outside
toilets are merely one of the places where we accidentally sow the seeds of
wild plants that we eat.
These outside toilets
are also good places to pick up parasitic infections; forage there at your
peril.
In industrialized countries, wild plants are relatively safe
as long as they are not contaminated with animal droppings (although, here too,
aquatic plants such as watercress may transmit liver fluke) as I have
mentioned.
Pick with clean hands, leave anything questionable, and wash
thoroughly. If you want to eat anything raw, wash it with running potable
water.
Thorough cooking will kill just about everything, but be
careful to clean surfaces that have come in contact with the uncooked food.
Wild animals can carry nasty parasites in both meat and faeces so, again, cook
well and clean thoroughly (and don’t feed raw trimmings to the family dog).
Foraging for
Parasites
No discussion of foraging and parasites is complete without
noting that, in many cultures, people deliberately forage for parasites.
Some fish, and shellfish such as oysters, are particularly
tasty when infested with certain parasites; pea crabs, parasites of oysters are
eaten as gourmet foods in North America. Robin Overstreet describes tasty
caterpillars, nut-like botfly and warble fly larvae, fried “sweet meat” (liver
flukes) from deer, and both fish and mammal tapeworms eaten raw, among other
things.
Thus, in the true spirit of foraging in the wild, when we
come across a parasite, the first question is “will it hurt me?” and the second
is “can I eat it?”

Survival Page Three

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What to do if a Nuclear Disaster is Imminent
This guide is for families preparing for imminent terrorist
or strategic nuclear attacks with expected severe destruction and widespread
radioactive fallout.



IF ONLY A ‘Dirty Bomb’ Attack was to happen and not the
vastly more devastating nuclear weapon blasts I will discuss in a minute.



You can expect localized and downwind contamination from the
explosion and dispersed radioactive materials. If you are near enough to see or
hear any local bomb blast, assume that it includes radiological or chemical
agents.


You should move away
from the blast area as quickly as possible.



If the wind is blowing toward you from the direction of the
blast, travel in a direction that keeps the wind to your left or right as you
move away from the blast area. If possible cover your face with a dust mask or
cloth to avoid inhaling potentially radioactive dust.



Upon reaching a safe location, remove your outer clothing
outside and shower as soon as possible. Refer to local news sources for
additional instructions about sheltering or evacuation. The government is
better prepared to direct and assist the public in a ‘dirty bomb’ incident,
unlike an actual nuclear weapon attack.


IN EVENT OF NUCLEAR
WEAPON ATTACK!



In a national crisis of imminent nuclear weapon attacks,
read all the way through this guide first.



(It will be on my website for all to see)



THEN TAKE EFFECTIVE PROTECTIVE ACTION WITH CONFIDENCE…
FAST!


Should you stay or
go?



You must decide FIRST if you need to prepare where you are,
or attempt evacuation. The nature of the threat, your prior preparations, and
your confidence in your sources of information should direct your decision.



If you are considering evacuation, your decision requires a
very high confidence that it is worth the risk. You do not want to get stuck
between your current location and you’re hoped for destination, as there will
probably be no easy getting back.



If you fail to get to your destination, you may be exposed
without shelter, in a dangerous situation with little effective law
enforcement, perhaps among panicked hordes of refugees.


Whatever supplies you
have may be limited then to what you can carry on foot.



IF you are in a big city or near a military target, AND you
have relatives or friends in the country that you know are awaiting you, AND
the roads between you and them are clear, AND the authorities are not yet
restricting traffic, AND you have the means and fuel, evacuation may be a
viable option for a limited time. DO NOT attempt evacuation if all of the above
is not clearly known, or if the situation is deteriorating too quickly to make
the complete trip.



You do not want to get stuck and/or become a refugee being
herded along with panicked masses. If evacuation is truly a viable option, do
not wait – GO NOW!



Do so with as many of the supplies as possible. Better to be
two days too early in arriving than two hours too late and getting snagged
mid-way, potentially exposing your family to a worse fate than having stayed
where you were. Because of the very real danger of getting caught in an
evacuation stampede that stalls, I think almost all families will be better off
making the best of it wherever they currently are.


WHAT YOU NEED TO DO
FIRST



Because time is of the essence, you need to first delegate
and assign to different adult family members specific tasks so they can all be
accomplished at the same time. Your first priorities to assure your family
survival are Shelter, Water, and Food/Supplies. While some are working on the
water storage and shelter at home, others need to be acquiring, as much as
possible, the food and supplies.


FOOD/SUPPLIES



Because much of the food and supplies required may quickly
become unavailable, quantities restricted, and/or the streets and stores may
become un-safe soon, you need to assign someone NOW to immediately go to the
stores with that list! Get cash from the bank and ATM’s first, but try and use
credit cards at the stores, if at all possible, to preserve your cash.


WATER



With one or more adults now heading to the stores with the
list, those remaining need to begin storing water IMMEDIATELY! Lack of clean
water will devastate your family much more quickly and more severely than any
lack of food.



Without water for both drinking and continued good sanitary
practices in food preparation and for bathroom excursions (which will
inevitably be much less sanitary than normal), debilitating sickness could
rampage through your household with little hope of prompt medical attention.


That is a highly
likely but an avoidable, disaster, ONLY IF you have enough water.



Every possible container needs to be filled with water RIGHT
NOW! It will be very hard to have stored too much water. When the
electricity/pumps go down or everybody in your community is doing the same
thing, thus dropping the water pressure, that’s it, what you’ve got is all you
might be getting for a very long time.



Empty pop bottles (1-3 litre) are ideal for water storage,
also filling up the bathtub and washing machine. (Remember, later you’ll have
some in your hot water tank.) If you have any kiddie pools or old water beds,
pull them out and fill them up, too. Anything and everything that’ll hold water
needs to be filled up quickly RIGHT NOW!!



One of the shopping items should be rubbish bins and liner
bags which you’ll also use for storing water. If you can’t get any more new
bins, you could clean out an existing rubbish bin and scrub it throughout with
bleach, then put in a new rubbish bag liner and fill it with water.



Choose well where you fill up your rubbish bins with water
because they won’t easily be moved once full and many of them together could be
too heavy for some upper floor locations. Ideally, they need to be very near
where your shelter will be constructed and can actually add to its shielding
properties, as you’ll see below. BE ASSURED, YOU CANNOT STORE AND HAVE TOO MUCH
WATER! Do not hesitate; fill up every possible container, RIGHT NOW!


SHELTER



The principles of radiation protection are simple – with
many options and resources families can use to prepare or improvise a very
effective shelter. You must throw off the self-defeating myths of nuclear
un-survivability that may needlessly seal the fate of less informed families.



Radioactive fallout is the particulate matter (dust)
produced by a nuclear explosion and carried high up into the air by the
mushroom cloud. It drifts on the wind and most of it settles back to earth
downwind of the explosion. The heaviest, most dangerous, and most noticeable
fallout, will ‘fall out’ first close to ground zero. It may begin arriving
minutes after an explosion.



While the smaller and lighter dust-like particles will
typically be arriving hours later, as they drift much farther downwind, often
for hundreds of miles. As it settles, whether you can see it or not, fallout
will accumulate and blow around everywhere just like dust or light snow does on
the ground and roofs. Wind and rain can concentrate the fallout into localized
‘hot spots’ of much more intense radiation with no visible indication of its
presence.



This radioactive fallout ‘dust’ is dangerous because it is
emitting penetrating radiation energy (similar to x-ray’s). This radiation (not
the fallout dust) can go right through walls, roofs and protective clothing.



Even if you manage not to inhale or ingest the dust, and
keep it off your skin, hair, and clothes, and even if none gets inside your
house, the radiation penetrating your home is still extremely dangerous, and
can injure or kill you inside.



Radioactive fallout from a nuclear explosion, though very
dangerous initially, loses its intensity quickly because it is giving off so
much energy. For example, fallout emitting gamma ray radiation at a rate of 500
R/hr (fatal with one hour of exposure) shortly after an explosion, weakens to
only 1/10th as strong 7 hours later. Three days later, it’s only 1/100th as
strong, or as deadly, as it was initially.



That is really very good news, because families can readily
survive it IF we get them into a proper shelter to safely wait it out as it
becomes less dangerous with every passing hour.



What stops radiation, and thus shields your family, is
simply putting mass between them and the radiation source. Like police body
armour stopping bullets, mass stops (absorbs) radiation. The thicker the mass,
the more radiation it stops. Also, the denser (heavier) the mass used, the more
effective it is with every inch more you add to your fallout shelter. The
thickness in inches needed to cut the radiation down to only 1/10th of its
initial intensity for different common materials is: Steel 3.3″, concrete
11″, earth 16″, water 24″, wood 38″, etc. The thickness
required to stop 99% of the radiation is: 5″ of steel, 16″ of solid
brick or hollow concrete blocks filled with mortar or sand, 2 feet of packed
earth or 3 feet if loose, 3 feet of water.



You may not have enough steel available, but anything you do
have will have mass and can be used to add to your shielding – it just takes
more thickness of lighter wood, for example, than heavier earth, to absorb and
stop the same amount of radiation. Increasing the distance between your family
and the radiation outside also reduces the radiation intensity.


The goals of your
family fallout shelter are:



To maximize the distance away from the fallout ‘dusting’
outside on the ground and roof



To place sufficient mass between your family and the fallout
to absorb the deadly radiation



To make the shelter tolerable to stay in while the radiation
subsides with every passing hour.



While a fallout shelter can be built anywhere, you should
see what your best options are at home or nearby. Some structures already
provide significant shielding or partial shielding that can be enhanced for
adequate protection.



If you do not have a basement available, you can still use
the following techniques in any above ground structure, but you’ll need to use
more mass to achieve the same level of shielding. You may consider using other
solid structures nearby, especially those with below ground spaces, such as
commercial buildings, schools, churches, below ground parking garages, large
and long culverts, tunnels, etc..



Some of these may require permissions and/or the acquiring
of additional materials to minimize any fallout drifting or blowing into them,
if open ended.



Buildings with a half-dozen or more floors, where there is
not a concern of blast damage, may provide good radiation protection in the
centre of the middle floors. This is because of both the distance and the shielding
the multiple floors provide from the fallout on the ground and roof.



Bottom Line: choose a structure nearby with both the
greatest mass and distance already in place between the outside, where the
fallout would settle, and the shelter inside.



If you have a basement in your home, or at a nearby
relatives’ or friends’ house that you can use, your best option is probably to
fortify and use it, unless you have ready access to a better/deeper structure
nearby.



For an expedient last-minute basement shelter, push a heavy
table that you can get under into the corner that has the soil highest on the
outside. The ground level outside ideally needs to be above the top of the
inside shelter. If no heavy table is available, you can take internal doors off
their hinges and lay them on supports to create your ‘table’.



Then pile any available mass on and around it such as books,
wood, cordwood, bricks, sandbags, heavy furniture, full file cabinets, full
water containers, your food stocks, and boxes and pillow cases full of anything
heavy, like earth. Everything you could pile up and around it has mass that
will help absorb and stop more radiation from penetrating inside – the heavier
the better. However, be sure to reinforce your table and supports so you do not
overload it and risk collapse.



Leave a small crawl-through entrance and more mass there
that can be easily pulled in after you to seal it up. Have at least two gaps or
4-6″ square air spaces, one high at one end and one low at the other.


Use more if crowded
and/or hotter climate.



A small piece of cardboard can help fan fresh air in if the
natural rising warmer air convection current needs an assist moving the air
along. This incoming air won’t need to be filtered if the basement has been
reasonably sealed up, however any windows or other openings will require some
solid mass coverage to assure they stay sealed and to provide additional
shielding protection for the basement.



With more time, materials, and carpentry or masonry skills,
you could even construct a more formal fallout shelter, such as the lean-to
shown to the right, but you should pile up much more mass than what little is
shown here.



An effective fallout shelter constructed in a basement may
reduce your radiation exposure 100-200 fold. Thus, if the initial radiation
intensity outside was 500 R/hr (fatal in one hour), the basement shelter
occupants might only experience 5 R/hr or even less, which is survivable, as
the radiation intensity will be decreasing with every passing hour
.
Next time I will look
at further home shelters and suggested supply lists.
Britons Must Dig for Survival
 



Farming Minister David Heath has urged families to grow
their own to cope with food shortage crisis



The Government is promoting the famous WWII slogan ‘dig for
victory’



Our fruit prices up almost 11% since March 2012, vegetables
7% higher



And farmers warn Britain is running out of wheat after year
of bad weather



Families have been told they will have to grow more of their
own fruit and vegetables to cope with food shortages.



Mr Heath warned Britain could not rely on cheap imports to
meet its food needs.



Disruption to the food chain triggered by disease, conflict
or bad weather hitting harvests would drive prices even higher.



Britain is on the verge of running out of wheat after a year
of terrible wet weather, with more than 2million tonnes lost in last summer’s
deluge.



Farmers have also struggled to sow crops for the 2013
harvest, which is already predicted to be 25 per cent down on potential
production.



Households will have to consider becoming more
self-sufficient to limit the impact of high costs and bare shelves, Mr Heath
warned.



He said: ‘with an increasing population, increasing demand
not just in this country but across the



World, we are going to have to increase food production. We
made a huge mistake a few years ago when the idea got around that we didn’t
need to produce in the agricultural sector any more, that we would be able to
buy our way through whatever was necessary to feed the country.



Once we used to “dig for victory”. There may come a time
soon when we need to “dig for survival”.’



New inflation figures published today show how food prices
have impacted on the cost of living.



While the headline Consumer Prices Index figure remained
unchanged on 2.8 per cent, a detailed breakdown showed how food costs have
leapt in the last year.



Bread and cereals have risen by 3.6 per cent, meat 2.4 per
cent and items like sugar, jam and chocolate were 4.1 per cent year-on-year.



Mr Heath told the Daily Telegraph that that the idea of the
public ‘digging for survival’ was ‘not overstating it by a lot’.



He added: ‘We need to be able to produce enough to deal with
the requirements in this country. Food security is going to be an issue of
increasing relevance.



‘There is nothing that provides more classical insecurity
across the world than not being able to feed populations adequately so we need
to be aware of that and we need to respond to it.’



He suggested that the use of genetically modified crops
could be significant in securing food supplies in the future.



Well Mr Heath there you are wrong as nobody wants
scientifically designed and mucked about food. But we have and we will provide
for our families not because you say so, but because it is the right thing to
do.

Remaining
Daylight on Your Fingers

Is it time to stop and scrounge for shelter or is it better
to keep trekking? Use this simple trick to measure the remaining daylight.
Remember to allow yourself at least two hours to set up camp before the sun
goes down.

 

Count the finger widths between the sun and the horizon.
Each finger is equivalent to fifteen minutes, with each hand totalling an hour.
When the sun dips low enough that only two hands fit It’s time to search for a
suitable campsite and assemble a shelter:
(A caveat: if you’re near the poles,
the sun will hover over the horizon for a longer period of time, giving you an inaccurate
reading.

 

 

NBC Questions, Answers and Information
1) I would like to know how long is the duration of a NBC
Filter (Standard 40mm NATO Thread) before the filter begins to lose
effectiveness after being exposed to Nuclear, Biological and Chemical
contaminants?
Answer …Change every 48 hours minimum….24 is best
2) I would like to know if the Concentration of all
Industrial and Warfare compounds is low then would this increase the duration
of the NBC Filter?
Answer …Yes but industrial compounds like CHLORINE GAS and
AMMONIA or even Carbon
Monoxide are not filtered by ANY NBC type gas mask available
today. You would have to have a bottled air source pack to work in these environments
such as what the firemen used or even a scuba type setup. Biological and
Chemical agents are spread by mist dispersion, Tiny droplets…Not a gas at
all! That’s why the “GAS MASK” works
3) I would like to know how could I find out the right time
to change and replace the used NBC Filter with a new NBC Filter.
Answer… Right before you expect to see problems like a
chemical attack….When the SHTF you will have a little time….hear of stuff
happening….of course if they drop a bomb on you then you don’t have a
problem!
After the SHTF… a Chemical attack is usually short lived
and over a small area before weather and winds disseminate the chemical agent.
It would be fairly easy to go a mile INTO the prevailing winds to escape the
area safely if you needed to change filters
4) I would like to know the proper decontamination procedure
if the gas mask and NBC suit was exposed to Nuclear, Biological and Chemical contaminants.
Answer …The gas mask can be washed in warm soapy water
after removing the filter and valves and air dried….The suit has to be
replaced as laundering may remove the agents but will also remove the charcoal
liner material that protects you as well.
During the cold war I did a few studies and after a lot of
figuring I came up with the idea to wear a rain suit over our NBC suits …Rain
suits were disposable and cheap if you got an agent on them…..then we could
just air out the NBC suits. This is not a good alternative if the weather is
very warm and you won’t be moving out of the contaminated area for hours! You
will get heatstroke!
Note…Most Biological contaminants only last a few hours
exposed to air at the most. Anthrax is one of the “WILD” biological
agents and you could just leave the area…it will die out over a few days. BTW
ANTHRAX is found in many forms in the wild on a lot of tree’s and can cause
minor rashes to people that work in the lumber industry regularly (Lumberjacks
/ Tree workers)
Best advice is to
LEARN….
NBC LINKS
http://www.nbc-links.com/
Great Info!
https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/…ok/cbrbook.htm
Now the LEARNING
LINKS!
http://www.enlisted.info/field-manua…handbook.shtml
The NATO HANDBOOK
online
http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/do…/fm8-9/toc.htm
http://www.gordon.army.mil/SAMC/Down…ctionFM3-4.pdf

 

Survival and Stress
We’ve all commented at one point or another about having a
stressful day. But most of us don’t have a clue as to how debilitating stress
can be especially in survival situations.
To reduce its impact and to increase the chance of survival
in the wilderness, it’s important to not only understand stress but to also
overcome it. The environment, your physical and mental condition, and the
availability of materials all affect the amount of stress you will have to
manage.
Environment Stress
There are three environmental factors that will directly
impact you in a survival situation. They are the climate (temperature,
moisture, and wind), terrain (mountainous, desert, jungle, arctic), and life
forms (plants and animals).
At first glance these obstacles may seem insurmountable and
history has provided plenty of examples of people perishing as a result of
unfavourable environmental conditions.
Still, there are other stories of survivors that
successfully adapted to the given conditions or travelled to another location
that was better equipped to meet their needs so we know it can be done.
Understanding how the environment might affect you is the
first and necessary step to overcoming the unpredictable hardships of nature.
Physical and Psychological Stress
Both the physical and psychological stresses of survival
will directly affect your outlook of your situation. If you’re not careful, you
may lose all hope virtually guaranteeing your death. These stresses may also
end up dictating the order in which you meet your needs which is not the ideal
way to prioritize.
Instead, it is important to make decisions based on logic
and not emotion.
Physical stresses are brought about by the physical
hardships of survival. Overcoming them requires proper preparation. The six Ps
provide a good rule for all wilderness travellers: prior proper preparation prevents
poor performance.
So what does preparing mean? It involves the following:
ensuring that your immunizations are up-to-date, staying well hydrated both
before and during any outback adventure, and being physically fit prior to
traveling into the wilderness.
The amount of time a survivor goes without rescue will have
a significant impact upon his will or drive to survive. As time passes, the
survivor’s hopes of being found ultimately begin to diminish.
With decreased hope comes increased psychological stress.
This sort of stress is much more insidious than other forms and you need to be
on the lookout for it.
The basic stresses that will affect you, the survivor,
psychologically are as follows: pain, hunger and thirst, heat or cold, fatigue,
loneliness, and fear.
Overcoming Survival
Stress
The most important key to surviving is the survivor’s will.
The will or drive to survive is not something that can be bought.
However, your
will is directly affected by the amount of stress associated with a survival situation.
Prior preparation, keeping a clear head and thinking
logically, prioritizing your needs, and improvising all will help alleviate
some of this stress.
When a problem arises, remember the acronym STOP:
S: Stop – Clear your thoughts and focus on the problem.
T: Think – Identify practical solutions. Consider each in
detail.
O: Organize – After looking at your options, pick one.
Develop a step-by-step plan from beginning to end.
P: Proceed With Your Plan – Be flexible and make adjustments
as necessary.
Methods of Fire Lighting
Primitive igniters are those attributed to our early
ancestors.
Flint and Steel
The direct spark method is the easiest of the primitive
methods to use. The flint and steel method is the most reliable of the direct
spark methods. Strike a flint or other hard, sharp-edged rock edge with a piece
of carbon steel (stainless steel will not produce a good spark).
This method requires a loose-jointed wrist and practice. When
a spark has caught in the tinder, blow on it. The spark will spread and burst
into flames.
Fire-Plough
The fire-plough is a friction method of ignition. You rub a
hardwood shaft against a softer wood base. To use this method, cut a straight
groove in the base and plough the blunt tip of the shaft up and down the
groove. The ploughing action of the shaft pushes out small particles of wood
fibres. Then, as you apply more pressure on each stroke, the friction ignites
the wood particles.
Bow and Drill
The technique of starting a fire with a bow and drill is
simple, but you must exert much effort and be persistent to produce a fire.  
You
need the following items to use this method:
Socket.The
socket is an easily grasped stone or piece of hardwood or bone with a slight
depression in one side. Use it to hold the drill in place and to apply downward
pressure.
Drill. The drill
should be a straight, seasoned hardwood stick about 2 centimetres in diameter
and 25 centimetres long. The top end is round and the low end blunt (to produce
more friction).
Fire board. Its
size is up to you. A seasoned softwood board about 2.5 centimetres thick and 10
centimetres wide is preferable. Cut a depression about 2 centimetres from the
edge on one side of the board. On the underside, make a V-shaped cut from the
edge of the board to the depression.
Bow. The bow is a
resilient, green stick about 2.5 centimetres in diameter and a string. The type
of wood is not important. The bowstring can be any type of cordage. You tie the
bowstring from one end of the bow to the other, without any slack.
To use the bow and drill, first prepare the fire lay. Then
place a bundle of tinder under the V-shaped cut in the fire board. Place one
foot on the fire board. Loop the bowstring over the drill and place the drill
in the pre-cut depression on the fire board.
Place the socket, held in one hand, on the top of the drill
to hold it in position. Press down on the drill and saw the bow back and forth
to twirl the drill. Once you have established a smooth motion, apply more
downward pressure and work the bow faster. This action will grind hot black
powder into the tinder, causing a spark to catch. Blow on the tinder until it
ignites.
Note: Primitive
fire-building methods are exhaustive and require practice to ensure success.
Look here is the truth, if you cannot build a fire plough or
a bow drill or if you cannot get a fire going in your back garden how will you
manage in the wilderness?
I say use these method for fun, enjoy using them, but when
SHTF, when you need a fire straight away, use a lighter, a magnesium
Ferrocerium rod, or a fire piston, but use something that works first time
because that is all the time you might have.
Your life may depend on your ability to light a fire in the
rain or in the wind or both so practice in your back garden until it works
every time.
Surviving SHTF
Nuclear warfare is not necessary to cause a breakdown of our
society. You take a large city like London, Birmingham, Manchester or Leeds—
their water supply comes from hundreds of miles away and any interruption of
that, or food, or power for any period of time you’re going to have riots in
the streets.
Our society is so fragile, so dependent on the interworking
of things to provide us with the goods and services that you don’t need nuclear
warfare to fragment us anymore than the Romans needed it to cause their
eventual downfall.
While some may consider such a discussion a waste of time,
more and more people are coming to the conclusion that preparations of some
sort are warranted in our current troubled environment — on many fronts.
Surviving Economic Collapse is about how much preparation
individuals are willing to do and is usually in direct correlation to their
belief that something catastrophic could happen, making life as we know it a
much more difficult task.
It is a proven fact throughout history that when disruptions
of any kind occur, those who made even the smallest preparations typically fare
much better than those who gave no thought at all in this regard.
I want to share with you a list I have compiled of the
things that could potentially happen — and that threaten our way of life in a
small or large degree.
There is no way to predict these things, but anyone with
common sense can see that the possibility is likely we could experience one or
more of these events at some point in the future…
Any single event or combination of events could cause
terrible and debilitating circumstances for a short or long period of time:
Natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, tornados,
volcanic eruptions, solar flares, earthquakes, and other geophysical events
happen across our world daily.
There is the every present possibility of wars, nuclear
wars, nuclear reactor meltdowns, and radiation fallout.

 

 

Then we have the coming financial meltdown (derivative, debt
crisis, economic collapse and/or bond implosion) causing currencies to implode
and governments to topple
There are problems with the exploration, delivery, or
production of oil, the lifeblood of modern economies
We are seeing a spread of disease such as the Black Plague
or a bird flu pandemic more and more often
We have frequent
Power cuts
And you could even say that political anarchy or revolution
is a possibility too.
Racial strife or civil war is on the cards that is for sure
Electromagnetic pulse events are in the news even more now.
With any of these scenarios listed above (and there is a
host of others I have probably not even thought about), you could have
localized, national, or global unrest and even war for an indefinite period of
time depending on the scope and duration of the event(s).
An item that is not on the list — but could be equally
devastating to individual families — is the loss of a job.
Losing a job can be a catastrophic event if one is not
properly prepared. Most families find themselves living paycheck to paycheck
with little in the way of savings and almost nothing in the way of
preparations.
For years, I had brought up the issue of preparedness to a
close friend of mine.
When I first started talking about it, my friend and his
wife basically blew me off… but I kept bringing the topic up.
Eventually they thought it prudent to at least get some sort
of food storage together. Their family was accustomed to an upper middle class
income and living comfortably in suburbia with their three children…
About a year after making their food preparations, the
breadwinner of the family lost his job and ended up working a series of almost
minimum wage jobs trying to make ends meet.
He kept applying for better-paying jobs in his field of
expertise — but no matter how qualified he was nobody was interested in hiring
someone at his previous salary level or his age (late fifties).
The family’s lifestyle was devastated and they eventually
lost their home…
In a recent conversation with this friend, he told me that
without their food storage, things would have been immeasurably more difficult.
He thanked me for being a good friend and pushing the issue when he and his
wife weren’t listening.
The family is now living a greatly reduced lifestyle, but
keeping their heads above water and continuing with their preparations.
I share this story because on an individual basis, there is
a host of things that can happen in which being prepared could make a huge
difference.
We often, as a people in general, terms take things for
granted and think ‘this’ or ‘that’ will never happen to us. In addition to a
major job loss due to a myriad of reasons, you could lose your health or the
ability to do your job.
Unfortunately, things of this nature are happening to more
and more people every day. In fact, I’m certain all of us have been affected to
some degree by similar stories of friends and relatives.
Our Current State of
Affairs
The world in general seems afflicted on so many different
fronts.
When you look at the list above, any rational person could
easily see one or more of these scenarios occur within their lifetime.
Aside from the geophysical things that seem to be going
haywire, and could be explained simply as the planet’s cycles, there are plenty
of man-made catastrophes that loom on the horizon…
Never has the planet had as many people as it does now. With
increased population numbers, there is increased pressure for resources.
More countries seek nuclear devices than ever before and
recent advancements in technology make this much easier than any time before in
history.
Biological and chemical weapons are also much easier to
manufacture — and are being stored by an increasing number of very scary
countries.
Oil markets are tighter than ever as demand from countries
like China and India increases, but new supply cannot keep up with the
increasing demand.
The financial debacle of the world economies needs no
introduction to my listeners. In short, bad times — really bad times — for any
number of reasons could and probably will be coming to a location near you.
Unless you and your family take this possibility quite
seriously, if and when something does happen, you could very well find yourself
in some extremely difficult circumstances…
Just look at the latest news coming out of Greece, as
reported by Reuters.
This is happening
right now — and it’s only going to spread.
When the political and economic systems of entire nations
collapse the consequences are devastating.
Earlier this year pharmacies and hospitals in Greece were
unable to provide lifesaving medicines due to a shortages caused by a freeze in
the flow of credit from manufacturers to distributors to patients.
A collapse in the country’s economy has forced many Greeks
to turn to black market barter economies and has left millions financially devastated,
with no hope of finding an income stream for the foreseeable future.
The credit system of the entire country is in shambles. So
much so that reports are emerging about food shortages and hunger within the
Greek prison system, suggesting that serious problems in the food delivery
chain have begun to materialize.
As Nigel Farage warned recently, we are beginning to see the
rise of extreme political parties as a consequence of the total and utter
desperation of the populace.

 

 

Today the news gets even worse. Greece’s Regulatory
Authority for Energy (RAE) announced an emergency meeting to deal with what can
only be construed as a tell-tale sign that this crisis is very rapidly reaching
critical mass and may spiral out of control in the very near future:
Greece’s power regulator RAE told Reuters on Friday it was
calling an emergency meeting next week to avert a collapse of the debt-stricken
country’s electricity and natural gas system.
You may have thought the financial collapse of 2008 was bad.
 
That was just a warm-up.
The main event is staring us in the face, and the whole of
Europe has front-row seats.
What is happening in Europe is just a precursor for what
will eventually be happening to the United States..
The following are Items to Consider that I feel are prudent
as you make your own preparations based on the problems that could potentially
threaten our way of life.
Each of the items below could fill a book… but my intent
is to at least get you thinking about the most important things related to being
prepared.
Should I stay or
should I go?
Many have already decided where they will go if and when any
such disaster occurs. I hope they get there but…
Personally, I know many who have already left the United
Kingdom — and they have never looked back. I have been invited to their
retreats in Spain, Australian, New Zealand, and the Greek Islands, and they
seem very happy with their decision to leave.
This is a huge decision. My hope is that the following 
discussion may be of some help when thinking about this topic.
Because I have travelled internationally so much in my
previous life I often compare notes on my trips with other folks (Drivers,
tourists etc.) about their travels…
One of the realizations you see first-hand as you travel
extensively worldwide is the extreme wealth, extreme poverty, and extreme
corruption that exists in all of its world flavours.
If you think the United Kingdom is corrupt, you should try
going to Peru, or Bolivia, or Panama. And if you think those countries are
corrupt, you haven’t see anything compared to Russia, Haiti, India, or some
places in Africa…
The fact is corruption and the growing global police state
is EVERYWHERE!
So while we certainly see much to complain about in the
United Kingdom, which is definitely going the wrong way fast, from what I have
seen in most other places on the planet, the U.K. is still less corrupt than
most.
There are bad apples everywhere throughout politics, local
police, special agents, and most certainly the court system — but for every bad
apple, there are probably three times as many honourable people who are truly
just trying to do their jobs.
Leaving the country is a decision you must make before the
event takes place due to the sheer amount of time and effort it takes to
accomplish such a task.
You must also think about being away from family and friends
who don’t share your enthusiasm to leave the country and what affect that could
have on everyone over time.
For most, I think it’s probably best to just hunker down in
your own country and prepare as much as you can. If you can afford a retreat
cabin somewhere far away from the big cities, that would probably be best — but
again, you still need to get there once the event occurs.
Studies have clearly shown that once a SHTF event occurs, you
have two to three days to get to where you ultimately want to hunker down.
After that, travel becomes extremely dangerous and it is unlikely you will
reach your final destination.
Highways will become kill zones targeted by the bad guys. To
a gang of armed looters who forgot to prepare or plan ahead before the event,
there is not a better target than an RV loaded down with stored food, ammo, and
gold.
Don’t be foolish and attempt travel once things have gone
south: If you need to get somewhere, plan to leave the moment the event happens
and arrive where you want to be within 72 hours.
This may require several false starts (meaning the situation
looked bad at first, but didn’t materialize, and you need to return home) on
your part as events start to unfold. But it’s better to be safe than sorry if
you are planning to get somewhere when an event happens.
Military strategists know from historical accounts of what
happens when governments fail or when SHTF events affect a country: The rule of
thumb is that roads are to be avoided at all costs.
If you cannot afford a retreat cabin of some sort, there are
things you can do to hunker down in your own home…
First, you need to stock up and find a way to defend it.
Like-minded friends and neighbours can be a huge support network — as long as
they have prepared as well.
There is a great book (it’s not well-edited, but has solid
content) on how to live in your home and defend it called
Holding Your Ground:
Preparing for Defense if it All Falls Apart by Joe Nobody, which in itself is a
lesson in laying low.
This book isn’t about turning your home into a concrete
bunker armed to the teeth; it’s more about using cosmetic deception to fool
would-be marauders into thinking your place has already been hit. It includes
plenty of clever techniques that go far beyond “shooting back.”
Ultimately, everyone must decide for themselves based on
finances, family concerns, and individual preferences what he can or cannot do
in his preparations.
Hopefully, this discussion will help you make the best
choices for what is in your best interest.
Hope for the best,
but prepare for the worst.
This is a good motto to live by, despite how you think about
things.
Individuals can still hope for the best (that things can and
will eventually work out), but what good is your prosperity going to do if you
don’t have anything to eat or a safe place to hang out for an extended period
of time?
Why not prepare while you still can — when things are
readily available and can still be purchased at cheap prices? The coming
hyper-inflation will make any such purchases beforehand look very
intelligent…
To prepare for the worst, you need a plan. Why are most
people so against doing basic preparations that could be the difference on how
they survive — or whether they survive?
History shows time and again that those who prepare always
fare better than those who did not. Having a plan and being determined to act
on that plan will always be the best way to handle any contingencies, should
they occur.
After disaster strikes, your mind is going to be racing
around like a car on a race track. Pre-planning and having a written set of
measures to take will make someone’s life go much smoother when the SHTF.
Your own personal plan is ONLY what best fits what you are
going to do during and after a disaster.
People should also have back-up plans — Plans B and C, at
least — because nothing ever seems to go as planned.
Haphazard approaches to
the aftermaths of catastrophes are kind of like a chicken running around
without its head.
Cold Water Survival
What is it?  It is
difficult even for an expert to define.
It is estimated to be around and under the temperature of 70
degrees.
However, this will vary in each
case due to the specific circumstances and physical condition of the person
involved.
What Happens In Cold
Water?
Many of the fatal boating accidents occur in the
“out-of-season” months when the water is cold.  What happens to the body when suddenly
plunged into cold water?
The first hazards to contend with are panic and shock.  The initial shock can place severe strain on
the body, producing instant cardiac arrest.
Survivors of cold water accidents have reported the breath
driven from them on first impact with the water.   Should your face be in the water during that
first involuntary gasp for breath, it may well be water rather than air.
Total disorientation may occur after cold
water immersion.  Persons have reported
“thrashing helplessly in the water” for thirty seconds or more until
they were able to get their bearings.
Immersion in cold water can quickly numb the extremities to
the point of uselessness.  Cold hands
cannot fasten the straps of a lifejacket, grasp a thrown rescue line, or hold
onto an over-turned boat.
Within minutes, severe pain clouds rational thought.  And, finally, hypothermia (exposure) sets in,
and without rescue and proper first aid treatment, unconsciousness and
death.
We all recall the incident in
which the airliner went down in the dead of winter in the water in Washington,
D.C. several years ago.  The vivid video
of the rescue attempts and those that died due to hypothermia is not easily
forgotten.
Normal body temperature of course, is 98.6.  Shivering and the sensation of cold can begin
when the body temperature lowers to approximately 96.5.  Amnesia can begin to set in at approximately
94, unconsciousness at 86 and death at approximately 79 degrees.
What To Do In The
Water
Cold water robs the body’s heat 32 times faster than cold
air.  If you should fall into the water,
all efforts should be given to getting out of the water by the fastest means
possible.
Persons boating in the cold water months should be
thoroughly skilled in rescue and self-rescue techniques.  Most accidents involve small boats which with
practice can be righted and re-entered.
Most boats, even filled with water, will support the weight
of its occupants.   If the boat has
capsized and cannot be made upright, climb on top of it.
Physical exercise such as swimming causes the body to lose
heat at a much faster rate than remaining still in the water.
Blood is pumped to the extremities and
quickly cooled.  Few people can swim a
mile in fifty degree water.  Should you
find yourself in cold water and are not able to get out, you will be faced with
a critical choice – to adopt a defensive posture in the water to conserve heat
and wait for rescue, or attempt to swim to safety.
Should you find yourself in the water, avoid panic.  Air trapped in clothing can provide buoyancy
as long as you remain still in the water.
Swimming or treading water will greatly increase heat loss and can
shorten survival time by more than 50%.
The major body heat loss areas are the head, neck, armpits,
chest and groin.  If you are not alone,
huddle together or in a group facing each other to maintain body heat.
Preparation
Proper preparation is essential when boating on cold
water.  Make sure your boat and equipment
are in first class condition.
Check the weather forecast before leaving for your event.   Always tell someone where you are going and
when you expect to return.
Dress in several layers of light clothing.  Next to a diver’s wet suit, wool clothing
offers the best protection.  Always wear
a personal flotation device (PFD) when boating.
First Aid
Considerations For Cold Water Victims
Treatment for hypothermia depends on the condition of the
person.  Mild hypothermia victims who
show only symptoms of shivering and are capable of rational conversation may
only require removal of wet clothes and replacement with dry clothes or
blankets.
In more severe cases where the victim is semi-conscious,
immediate steps must be taken to begin the rewarming process.
Get the person out of the water and into a warm
environment.  Remove the clothing only if
it can be done with a minimum of movement of the victim’s body.  Do not massage the extremities.
Lay the semi-conscious person face up, with the head
slightly lowered, unless vomiting occurs.
The head down position allows more blood to flow to the brain.
If advanced rescue equipment is available it can be
administered by those trained in its use.
Warm humidified oxygen should be administered by face mask.
Immediately attempt to rewarm the victim’s body core.
If available, place the person in a bath of hot
water at a temperature of 105 to 110 degrees.
It is important that the victim’s arms and legs be kept out
of the water to prevent “after-drop”.
After-drop occurs when the cold blood from the limbs is forced back into
the body resulting in further lowering of the core temperature.
After-drop can be fatal.
If a tub is not available, apply hot, wet towels or blankets
to the victim’s head, neck, chest, groin, and abdomen.   Do not warm the arms or legs.
If nothing else is available, a rescuer may use their own
body heat to warm a hypothermia victim.
Never give alcohol to a hypothermia victim.
Some Important Facts To Remember
Most persons recovered in cold water “near”
drowning cases show the typical symptoms of death:
Cyanotic (blue) skin coloration
No detectable breathing
No apparent pulse or heartbeat
Pupils fully dilated (opened)
These symptoms, it was discovered, did not always mean the
victim was dead.  They were, on the other
hand, the body’s way of increasing its chances of survival through what
scientists call the mammalian diving reflex.
This reflex is most evident in marine mammals such as
whales, seals or porpoises.  In the
diving reflex, blood is diverted away from the arms and legs to circulate (at
the rate of only 6-8 beats per minute, in some cases) between the heart, brain
and lungs.
Marine mammals have developed this ability to the point
where they can remain under water for extended periods of time (over 30 minutes
in some species) without brain or body damage.
Humans experience the diving reflex, but it is not as
pronounced as in other mammals.  The
factors which enhance the diving reflex in humans are:
Water temperature – less than 70 degrees or colder, the more
profound the response and perhaps the more protective to the brain
Age – the younger the victim, the more active the reflex
Facial immersion – the pathways necessary for stimulating
this series of responses seem to emanate from facial cold water stimulation.
The diving reflex is a protective mechanism for humans in
cold water immersions, but it may confuse the rescuer into thinking the victim
is dead.  Resuscitative efforts for these
victims should be started immediately utilizing CPR in accordance with your
training.
Remember, numerous children have been brought up from
freezing water after 30 minutes and been successfully resuscitated.
Survival Trapping
Trapping or snaring is a simple process. Your goal is to
hold, contain, or kill the intended target species.
Without real traps or
snares, you have to use your head. The better your understanding of wildlife,
the better trapper you will be.
I have a friend who just started trapping and she told me
she used to think you just put traps anywhere in the woods and the animals
would be caught!
This is a very important statement if you are a beginner. To
understand trapping, you have to understand what estate agents say all the time
– “Location, location, location.”
To become an expert trapper, you must study every piece of
written material on the target animals. I am not just talking about trapping
books and videos, but wildlife studies.
Have you seen the movie with Alec Baldwin and Anthony
Hopkins called “The Edge”? I think that is what it was called,
anyway.
This is the movie where they are stranded up in Alaska. They
make that little cage trap out of sticks and twine to catch the squirrel. Then
they catch a squirrel. The funny part was the squirrel the movie shows getting
caught in the trap doesn’t even live in Alaska!
I have seen animals in traps, and I laughed my head off when
I saw that part! A trapped squirrel would have jumped and pushed at the cage.
That cage, having no weight on it would have fallen open, and the squirrel
would have escaped. Don’t rely on Hollywood to teach you any survival skills!
Pine Sap and Birch Bark Trap. I will now discuss some
different emergency trapping techniques. One of my favourites is a century old
way of trapping birds. For centuries, the Indians knew that trapping fed them
better than hunting, and they developed this trap.
You use a smooth, easy-to-form type of bark, like Birch or
any pliable, soft, inner bark.
Form a cone like an ice cream cone, and tie strips of inner
bark around the cone to keep it together. Score a pine tree by cutting off a 4
x 4 inch square in the bark, until you can see the inner bark. The sticky sap
will flow out.
Take a stick and get a good glob of sap, then smear it onto
the inside of your cone. Using whatever the birds – like grouse or pheasants –
are feeding on (berries, corn, etc…), make a small trail leading into the cone,
and fill the inner cone with the bait.
The bird will eat the bait and follow the trail right into
the cone! Once they stick their head in, the pinesap will stick to their
feathers.
The bird is now blind. But, just like a bird in a cage that you place
a cover over, these trapped birds will lay down, thinking it is night time, and
go to sleep.
It is very important to make sure no light can be seen
inside the cone.
Approach the trapped bird slowly and quietly. Once you grab
the bird, hold on tight, because it is going to freak out! Quickly grab it and
wring it’s neck.
Stovepipe Bird Trap.
The stovepipe game bird trap is so simple, it makes me laugh every time I think
about it. The principle behind it is that birds can’t back up. Have you ever
seen a bird walk backwards? Neither have I!
A friend told me about it when I was in school. There was a
farm inside the village limits loaded with pheasants!  He used to train his dogs there. The
pheasants were just too tempting for me, so I had to try it.
So, I made a trap,
baited it with corn, and the next day, sure enough, there were fresh pheasant
tracks going right into the pipe!
Man! This is great, I thought! I lifted the pipe, expecting
the weight of a bird, only to be disappointed upon finding it empty.
Mice must
have stolen the bait, I thought. After two more days of tracks going into the
pipe and no pheasants, I figured it out. I was using an 8-inch pipe, and the
birds could turn around.
I went back to the junkyard, found some 6-inch pipe,
and the next day, the pheasant was waiting!
Of course, I had to try it on the grouse, and found that a
4-inch pipe works for them. My guess for quail would be the 2- or 3-inch pipe.
Just don’t do what a friend of mind did.
He made one out of a real short pipe, about 10 inches long,
and the big rooster pheasants tail was sticking out the end! He was in some
park, and as he was walking out to his car, the police saw the pheasant tail,
and he got busted.
Some people have no sense of humour! The bad thing was, now
the cops knew what the trap was, so the rest of us had to quit for a while.
Materials needed:
6-inch diameter, 24-inch long stove pipe
A piece of chicken wire, about 12-inches square and some
duct tape
That’s it. You take the chicken wire, form it around one end
of the pipe, and duct tape the overlay nice and tight around the pipe. Place a
trail of corn going into the pipe, and a pile or cob in the back.
This has to
be the easiest trap to make, and man does it work! Be careful when you pull the
pheasants out. They are a feisty bird, and you had better have a good hold on
them. Otherwise, they will fly off.
A friend of mine did this in the garage, lost the bird, got
the dog, and he said that after 15 minutes of him trying to knock the bird down
so the dog could grab it, the garage was a wreck!  
The dog ripped the bird up,
and his wife was a little mad. 
A Pit Trap. This is a neat trap. A friend who enjoys
(poaching) told this me about this one, on catching pheasants.
You take a coke bottle, or a small shovel, and dig a hole 6
inches in diameter, 10- to 12 inches deep. Make a trail of corn leading to the
hole, and cover the bottom with corn.
The pheasant, or grouse, will come up and reach down to get
the corn. Then, they fall into the hole. Their wings are stuck at their sides,
and their feet are hanging up in the air! You just pull them up by the feet,
and wring the neck.

Fish Trapping.

 

One of the oldest methods of catching fish is used in small
rivers and streams. You find a shallow spot next to a deep hole. At night, the
fish come out to feed, and will swim in the shallows.
To take advantage of this, you can narrow down the opening into
a “V”. Behind the “V” is a solid wall of rocks. The fish
will swim in and get caught or confused, and lay in the trap until daylight.
When you go to check the trap, approach quietly from the front. Place a large
rock, or rocks, blocking the hole in the “V”. This is to keep any
from escaping.
Netting is the best way to catch the fish in the containment
area. If you don’t have a net, make a spear. Clubbing fish is a waste of time
in the water.
All that happens is you get very wet, and the fish could get so
scared they will jump over the back wall to escape. Yes, I found that one out
first-hand.
If you are serious about trapping, get real equipment, and
real snares. Real traps and snares will always catch more than these homemade
traps.
Trapping is a skill that takes practice. You have to learn
to walk into the woods and recognize what type of animal lives there.
Then you need to learn where they travel for food, water,
and shelter and set your traps and snares accordingly.
Surviving in the Woods
Ever been on a hike admiring the wild flowers, gazing up at
the tips of the trees–and suddenly found yourself completely alone and lost?
No of course you have not, but what if?
what would happen to you if you couldn’t find your way back to safety?
While being lost in the woods can be a frightening experience, surviving alone
in the wild is generally a matter of common sense, patience, and wisely using
the gifts that nature provides.
To survive in the woods, you must use these
guidelines and tips.
Plan ahead. Don’t just trek off into the wilderness; do some
research first. There are a lot of resources regarding survival, both online
and in libraries, but warning: many of the techniques used in these manuals are
sometimes wrong or incomplete.
One of the most accurate books about this
subject is “Bushcraft – Outdoor Skills and Wilderness Survival” by
Mors Kochanski. Educate yourself about the flora and fauna of the area you are
exploring.
Knowledge of the local plants and animals can save your life!
If you need any medication or injections, bring them along – even if you don’t
plan to be gone for long enough to need them.
Every time you go into the wilderness, make sure someone
knows where you are going and how long you intend to be gone. That way someone
will realize that you are missing, quickly alert rescuers, and be able to tell
them where to start looking for you (much like a “flight plan,” which pilots
always file before leaving).
Similarly, don’t forget to call the person(s) you notified
to tell them when you are back. Like the boy who cried wolf, a false alarm
wastes rescue resources and may be.
Bring survival gear. Basic survival tools such as a knife, a
fire steel (metal match), some matches (in a waterproof canister), some cord (550
paracord is best), a Whistle, a space blanket, a signaling mirror, water
purifying tablets, a compass, etc. this
can mean the difference between life and death.
However if you decide to bring something like a knife make
sure you have permission and don’t give people the wrong impression. Even if
you are only out on a day hike, be sure to bring the essentials.
Having all this equipment is nothing if you cannot use it
properly. Make sure to practice many times in a safe environment before
venturing into the wilderness, somewhere like your back garden  Also, know how to catch and cook fish if the
need arises.
Forget about catching game; this is a painstakingly slow,
energy-consuming process that will divert your attention from your real goal,
trying to get home.
Learn how to use a compass. If you have a map and can spot a
few prominent landscapes, you can actually use the compass to triangulate your
position and, from there, figure out where you need to go.
When choosing a space blanket (a light, thin sheet of
extremely reflective Mylar), spend a little extra to buy a larger, more durable
model.
A space blanket can be used to block wind and water, wrapped around the
body prevent and counteract hypothermia, or even placed behind you to reflect a
fire’s heat onto your back, but none of this is useful if the blanket is too
small or tears the moment you unwrap it.
Bring a means of communication. A mobile phone with spare
battery or a portable CB radio can be your best, quickest means of rescue if
you are truly lost or injured.
A mobile signal may only be obtainable from a
hill or tree (be safe if contemplating a climb) but is better than nothing.
Serious survivalists may even consider investing in a
personal locator beacon such as the SPOT Messenger for extended, precarious, or
very remote, treks.
A SPOT Messenger is a satellite communication devices that
allows you to contact emergency services, reach your own personal contacts for
help during non-emergencies, or even simply check in with your friends and
family as you trek so that they know you’re alright. A service subscription is
required and is not cheap.
Don’t panic if you’re lost. Panic is more dangerous than
almost anything else, because it interferes with the operation of your single
best, most useful and versatile survival tool: your mind.
The moment you realize that you are lost, before you do
anything else, stop. Take a deep breath and stay calm. Even if you’re hanging
from a rope halfway down a mountainside with a broken leg, remind yourself that
people have survived exactly this situation.
Stand still and look around carefully! Wherever you are will
become your “point zero.” Find a way to mark it using a spare piece
of clothing, a pile of rocks, a sheet of paper, or anything else easily visible
from a distance.
Stay in one place. This not only increases your chances of
being found, but also reduces the energy your body expends and the amount of
water and food you will need. Hunker down and stay put.
Chances are that
someone will be looking for you, especially if you let someone know your plans
Build a good-sized fire with sufficient coals to stay hot
for many hours, and make sure that you have plenty of extra dry wood.
Start the
fire before you think you need it, even if the weather is warm; fires are
easier to make under stressless conditions than in a panic as the sun sets – to
say nothing of the fact that having a fire nearby will give you a sense of
comfort and safety as you get your bearings.
A good rule of thumb is to gather wood until you think you
have enough to last the night, then gather three more piles of the same size,
after which you might have enough to get through the night.
In the wilderness, you should have access to dry wood in the
understory of the forest. You can also use bark or dried dung.
If you build a
fire that is hot enough, you can also burn green wood, brush, or tree boughs to
make a signalling fire (one that makes a lot of smoke).
The best wood for maintaining a fire is dead wood that you
pull off a standing tree. Regardless of what type of woods you are in, there
will certainly be some dry wood available.
Remember that a small fire is easier
to keep burning than a big fire, though, because it requires less fuel. Once
you have sufficient embers, keep the fire to a manageable size so you don’t
spend too much time looking for fuel.
Don’t build a fire in an area where it is unsafe to do so.
Your fire should be well away from flammable trees and brush, preferably in a
clearing. Be careful with your fire. While you want to feed it, you shouldn’t
overdo it.
Consider the weather and other factors and remember, a forest fire
is a lot harder to survive than just being lost!
Signal your location to maximize the odds that someone finds
you. Make noise by whistling, shouting, singing, or banging rocks together. If
you can, mark your location in such a way that it’s visible from the air.
If you’re in a
mountain meadow, make three piles of dark leaves or branches in a triangle. In
sandy areas, make a large triangle in the sand. In a forest, you might want to
prepare three small fires ready to ignite at a moment’s notice, with heaps of
wet leaves nearby in order to make smoke.
Three of anything in the wilderness
is a standard distress signal. The space blanket can also be used as a signalling
device.
Start scouting your area, carefully keeping track of your
location. In your immediate area, make sure you look around carefully for
anything useful. You could find things someone left there before, be it a tin
can or small lighter, it can be helpful significantly.
Be sure you can always
find your way back to your “point zero” as you search for water,
shelter, or your way home.
Find a good source of water. In a survival situation, you
can last up to three days without water, but by the end of the second day
you’re not going to be in very good shape; find water before then.
The best source of water is a spring, but the chances of
finding one are slim.
A running stream is your next best bet; the movement of the
water reduces sediment. Be advised that drinking water from streams can lead to
some sicknesses, but when you’re in a life-or-death situation, the risk of
illness is a secondary consideration and anything you may get can be treated
when you return.
Purify your water. A crude method of water purification is
to take your handy pot and heat the water. For this to effectively kill
bacteria, it must be at a rolling boil for at least a minute.
You can also put
(clear) water in a clear plastic bottle and set it in the sun for six hours to
kill most of the organisms.
However, if the water is so full of sediment that the sun
can’t penetrate it, this method will not work. If you have any, add a pinch of
salt to the water to try to bring the sediment to the bottom.
Find or create shelter. Without adequate shelter, you will
be fully exposed to the elements and will risk hypothermia or heatstroke,
depending on the weather.
If you are not properly dressed for the conditions,
finding shelter is all the more important. Luckily, the woods are filled with
tools and resources to make both shelters and fires (for warmth, safety, and
signalling purposes).
Here are some things you can use:
Look for a fallen or leaning tree. You can build an A-frame
shelter by by stacking branches along both side a fallen tree, then over the
branches with brush, palm fronds, leaves, or other plants.
Use brush or green branches (boughs) from trees to repel
water, block wind, keep out snow, or create shade.
Close in your shelter on as
many sides as possible.

Survival

What Would You Do-Could You Survive?

So you are on holiday or business in a strange city and or country and the brown stuff hits the fan now imagine what life would be like if suddenly you lost your house, your bank accounts and almost everything that matters to you?

Travel is no longer possible the system is down. This will happen to millions of people in our globe trotting existence as we set off where ever with little or no regards as how we will get back if it all goes up in smoke.

What now? How will you survive as you are now homeless? One thing is certain, it isn’t going to be easy so I hope that these survival lessons will put you one step ahead of the rest.

Every day we simply walk past homeless people on our 1st world streets and we pretend not to see them, or we say sorry no change. But these people are doing what preppers and survivalist practice to do, they are not only living off grid but surviving by using knowledge and learned skills.

Homeless survival lessons – Shelter in a time of need

For the homeless, just like a prepper or survivalist, shelter is probably the most important, basic needs of them all and they have developed ways to make this a possible.

Basic survival training dictates that there are three major aspects when choosing a shelter: protection from the elements, warmth and concealment. There aren’t many options available and the following ones are the most exploited ones:

Vehicle

If you have a vehicle, you are one of the lucky ones and it will become your ideal cover.

Having access to supermarket parking, a major hotel chain or any other 24 hour parking will keep you safe and you’re less likely to have someone paying you a visit.

Your vehicle can provide you with heat and power for devices such as mobile phones, razors etc. The best part is that you can move your shelter and get away from any unpleasant situation.

Sleeping Rough

Sleeping rough can be challenge and it’s one of those homeless survival lessons that you will learn the hard way.

Second, you have to accept any shelter you are lucky enough to find and get used to the idea that you may will be sleeping in an area with other people in your situation.

And third, what’s yours can become someone else’s and you will experience the true nature of humans. As a tip for keeping what you have try sleeping with your legs on your suitcase and using your backpack as a pillow.

If you come across a homeless shelter they should be used as little as possible, and only around meal times and personal needs, such as showering.

The worst part about the shelters is that they house a lot of people that are on one drug or another and these individuals can become dangerous.

Urban camp site

This is the most common shelter for many of the homeless people as we have seen with the refugees across the EU, the problem is that building one is not as easy as it may look.

It’s one of the homeless survival lessons that can come in handy during any emergency scenario and there are some good tips we can all use.

When it comes to urban camp sites, your enemies are moisture, the changing weather and environmental predators.

Furthermore, in some cities outdoor sleeping can be illegal and you might be harassed or asked to move.

If you find a place to build a camp site, make sure you divide it into three areas: where you sleep, where you cook and eat and where you take care of bodily functions.

Make sure you pay a visit to the local restaurants to get some free napkins; they will serve as toilet paper if you can’t afford any. Or acquire some from public buildings and fast food take-aways.

When choosing a camp site go for higher ground, it doesn’t matter if it’s a hill or the rooftop of a building.

Being elevated decreases your chances of sleeping in puddles or rainwater run off.

A tarp is an accessory that many homeless people carry because it can be used in many ways, it can easily be taken down, folded and carried.

Tarps can easily be converted into tents and lean-tos. Heavy duty bags are also valued items because they can serve as both rain ponchos and storage containers.

Moisture is your biggest enemy and it will compromise both hygiene and warmth.

You should avoid sleeping directly on the ground because the cold will permeate your body quickly and hypothermia can set in.

Always build a bed from cardboard, tree branches or even polystyrene foam before putting yourself or your sleeping bag directly on the ground.

You have to remain unseen and make your camp site portable as much as possible if you want to survive.

A clean and non-visible camp is crucial because it is less likely to be disrupted or detected.

Remember that you don’t want to waste physical and psychological energy to always rebuild your camp site. Make sure your camp site can be taken with you if you need to relocate.

Although urban camping laws are different from city to city, in the case of a SHTF or martial law, all rules will go out the window. Make sure you don’t draw negative attention for now.

Whether you have a tarp or not most people agree that cardboard is a vital survival item and many homeless survival lessons are built around it.

It’s a perfect insulator and you can build various shelters from it.

There are those less fortunate that seek out smaller rooms in abandoned buildings and insulate the entire room with cardboard.

It’s an item that can protect you from the elements if you line it with rubbish bags it’s really lightweight compared to other building materials.

Think about this next time you want to throw away the cardboard box from your new TV, you never know when you might find a good use for it.

Fire and Heat

Just like in any survival situation, there are a few ways to create a heat source, depending on your situation or environment.

For the homeless, cans are invaluable items because their size makes them easily concealable and they can be used for warmth or cooking.

You can get petroleum jelly and lighters from a £1 shop and using a wood, newspaper, cloth or cotton balls, they are able to improvise a portable cooking stove by using a empty tin.

Tuna tins make great candles and you can use all sort of kindling in order to make a good fire.

Hygiene, staying clean in a dirty world

If you keep yourself clean you will keep attention away from you, attention from people who might prey on you or your things.

It is crucial to blend in and leaving behind a trail of strange odours should be always avoided.

You can visit swimming pools frequently for a shower are great for the homeless people that are located near a pool or beach and don’ forget service stations which have facilities for long distance drivers.

Save any wet wipes that come with the fast food they are great for when you need to clean your face, under arms and groin.

Baking soda is used as both toothpaste and deodorant substitute.

Hand sanitizers, toothbrushes, and razors are also cheap at the pound shop.

Good hygiene is crucial if you want to walk around shopping centres during the day “Warm and Dry” without looking homeless.

Clothing and bags

You need to keep your feet as dry a possible whenever you travel and if you are homeless, you will travel a lot.

Taking off your shoes and socks when you have the chance to get comfortable is a rule that many respect.

Procuring extra socks has become a habit for many of the homeless people, especially since the socks are the most needed item that is donated the least.

Think about this next time when you do a donation.

Having multiple items of clothing helps in multiple ways because you can change them often and keep the “dirty look” away from you.

Having multiple layers of clothes is ideal when winter sets in because you can keep warm even in harder conditions.

You should carry a backpack with just the essentials while having everything else concealed at your camp.

Carrying only the essential will not draw attention to yourself and to me is basic common sense.

Carrying your house with you, will just make you a target for the others and you won’t be able to blend in.

Your backpack is your whole world (it should contain birth certificate, social security card and all the money you have) and you should learn to keep a good eye on it.

Food and water, the basic needs of humans

Finding food and water plays an important role in the life of every homeless person (That is what you now are) and you will spend quite some time trying to get what you need.

There are various strategies and these are used even by those who have a roof over their head, but have a hard time living from one pay day to the other.

Hotels often have free continental breakfasts and if you look clean, you can eat and load up on food such as dry cereal, peanut butter, breads and bananas.

Most fast-food restaurants and pizza places have food that gets thrown away at the end of the business hours and you can ask for this food, and in time, you can develop a good relationship with the managers.

They will provide you with left-over food, before it reaches the bin.

Dumpster diving/raiding the bins is another activity that is practised by many homeless people, but you need to know how to do it.

Soup kitchens, missions, churches and shelters also serve food in the UK and some parts of Europe but the trick is knowing when to go to these places.

Also, you can’t always carry the food back to your camp site because it will attract animals.

If you can’t keep a camp site and you need to travel a lot, you will need to carry food that is light, portable and small. Simple to cook food that will not spoil quickly is what you should have.

Water sources are fairly easy to come by and many rely just on boiling the water. However, there are those who have a Water filter bottle in their bag to avoid getting sick from consumption. They carry one or two water bottles that they fill up every time they find a fountain.

The mental courage only few of us have

Being homeless takes a great toll on your mind spirit, regardless if you have a camp or access to food and water.

Depression and mental fatigue often leads to substance abuse and apathy.

You will have to get used to hear No and you will have to learn how to deal with rejection, without focusing on the negative.

Most of the homeless people focus on the day to day life and don’t put too much thought on what will come tomorrow.

Most of them expect for everything to go wrong and they manage to roll with it when it comes.

No matter what life throws at them, they manage to stay strong and find the inner courage to push forward.

They use common sense and live for each day, hoping that things will get better. They try not to focus on the negative and make good use of the homeless survival lessons they’ve learned from others.

They can survive for days, weeks or even months on the streets until they get back on their feet.

The trouble is that post SHTF things may never get back to “normal”.

Being homelessness is a real problem everywhere and it’s a true survival tests for most of the homeless.

Knowing more about being homeless peoples survival techniques and learning from these homeless survival lessons is a good way to prepare for any emergency situation that can change or life in minutes.

During this time of year, don’t ignore the homeless and help them if you can. They are the real survivors of our cities and they have to face a harsh reality, a reality in which we can make a difference.

If you donate clothes, don’t forget about the socks because as I said before, these are vital items that are overlooked by many of those who want to help.

 Fishing to Survive

In a survival situation, once you have found shelter, built a fire and collected water, your next task will be to find food resources.

And whilst it is perfectly possible to exist without food for a few weeks and live off edible wild plants and berries, you’ll no doubt be glad of a hearty meal.

Therefore, it’s very useful to learn some fishing skills and here are some tips; assuming that you have no fishing gear with you.

If you’re near water, the first thing you must do if you’re looking to catch fish is to spend a bit of time observing how the fish behave each day.

Like you, they’ll also be looking for their next meal, so you’ll need to establish their habits – when they’re active, where in the water they head for etc.

An additional tip, however, is to consider the temperature if you’re not sure where to look. In hot weather where the water is low, you’ll probably find them in deeper shaded water and when it’s cooler, you’ll find them in shallower areas where the sun warms the water up.

Some type of cord should always form part of your survival kit anyway and if you haven’t included a proper fishing hook too, you can always improvise and craft one out of a piece of bone, thorn, wood or a safety pin works just as well.

For bait, it’s useful to try to gain an idea of what the fish in the area are eating. Insects, a piece of bread, some raw meat, if you can find any, or worms are all good sources of bait.

Survival fishing isn’t an exact science though.

The more hooks you have in the water and your willingness to be patient and to experiment are going to be your biggest allies. Bad weather approaching is always a good time to go fishing as well as just after dawn and just before dusk.

If you are handy using your knife to carve out a piece of wood, making a spear to fish with in shallow water is another alternative but if you see fish swimming around in shallow water, it’s a useful skill to learn even though it takes an extreme amount of skill, quick reactions and patience.

A forked spear which can trap the fish between its prongs works best.

As for a net, you can fashion one out of using some kind of shirt or T-shirt tied onto a Y shaped branch.

Only your imagination can limit you to the kinds of fish traps you can engineer.

One of the simplest methods is to use the effects of the tide.

On a beach or area with tidal waters, build a circle of rocks and use small pebbles to plug any gaps.

When the tide comes in, it will bring small fish in with it.

Simply return to the rock circle later and see what you’ve caught.

Most fish found in freshwater are edible although some will taste better than others.

However, it’s important to remember that it’s not a matter of taste but a matter of survival. Once caught, cut the throat and gut it by slitting it from its anal passage to its throat removing the offal as you go.

Remove the head, tail and fins then smoke, grill or boil it.

What to Tell the
kids
Survival can be difficult even at the best of times and can
be both psychologically and physically intense; testing you to the limits.
This
is likely to be magnified even further if you are accompanied by children, as
you’ll feel the added responsibility and pressure to get everybody to safety on
an even greater level. There are some things you should do
There is little point in trying to conceal the gravity of
finding yourselves in an emergency situation when accompanied by children. They
will soon pick up on what’s going on. Therefore, you need to be honest about
what’s happening, yet try to remain calm at the same time.
Offer reassurance
that the situation is not impossible to get out of, that together you can work
things out and that help or rescue is not going to be too far away.
Whilst you may feel like panicking inside yourself, it’s
important to maintain an ‘adult’ impression at the same time as children
naturally and often subconsciously, think of adults as people who they can rely
on to provide shelter, warmth, food and safety.
By coming up with an action plan and enlisting the help of
the children, not only will you be able to complete your survival priorities
more quickly, but by being occupied, it will take the children’s minds off the
worry element of survival.
Take an inventory of all your collective belongings and
discuss with the children what each item might be used for.
Because children
have such fertile imaginations, they may even come up with creative ideas that
you might not even have thought of yourself.
Make sure that they know what each
item does and how you are going to use it. Get them to help you erect or find a
shelter and get them to gather suitable material for a fire.
Tell them about the importance of food and water in a
survival situation and what the priorities are. Explain the dangers of eating
poisonous foods and drinking dirty water and what they should and shouldn’t do
with regard to both issues.
Then, adults and children should all work as a team
in your collection of both food and water provisions and preparing it for
consumption.
Encourage a camaraderie
and build some time into your survival regime in order to take the children’s
minds off the situation by telling funny stories, sharing jokes, having a
sing-song and any other general ‘campfire’ games you can come up with.
Just because you are the adult, you must consider the
children as equals when it comes to being ‘team members’. They will want to
help and will often come up with ingenious ideas. Encourage them to be open
with you and with each other.
Discuss their fears and try to allay them but show
warmth, empathy and be honest and realistic with them above all else.
Most survival situations do not last too long, perhaps a day
or two is a fair average estimate. 
Therefore, whilst it might be a scary time
for all, with determination and a will to work together to succeed, both you
and the children should return to safety before too long and will be able to
look back on the situation as an incredible adventure that has only made
everybody stronger as a result.
Sea Fishing Tips
Cod remain arguably the UK angler’s favourite sea fish,
partly because of the rough and tough environment and conditions we fish for
them in, but also because they put up a decent fight from the shore and also
taste good on a plate.
The only fish the cod can really be confused with is it’s
near cousin the whiting. The cod though has a more blunt head shape, with the
whiting being more pointed.
The lateral line on the cod is also more pronounced
with an upward curve above the pectoral fin.
Whiting also carry a definite black spot at the root of the
pectoral fin, whereas the cod does not. Cod range widely in colour.
Over sand
they are a mottled fawn or brown on the back with white underside, but over
mixed ground become a mottled green, yet when living around kelp weed beds they
can be a dull reddy-orange.
Cod are an eating machine and have a wide diet. They take
small crustaceans and crabs, worms and brittle stars when small, but as they
pack on weight start to become more predatory favouring small cod, whiting,
herring, mackerel, sand eel, pout and poor cod.
The average size nowadays for UK cod is between 1 and 5lbs,
but double figure fish are always on the cards and 20lbers still feature off
the beaches occasionally.
Cod in excess of 200lbs were recorded in the 1800’s
by long-liners over the Grand Banks, and 100lb plus fish are still sometimes
caught commercially and taken in to fish factories in Iceland and Norway.
The chance
of a monster still remains!
Here are some basic tips that may increase your chances of a
cod feast when fishing on rough ground.
LOCATION TIP ONE
If you catch one cod from a certain position in a certain
gully, try and cast back to exactly the same position again. Cod are
predictable and fish will favour certain specific areas to feed above all
others.
LOCATION TIP TWO
Most rocks marks fish best during the flooding tide,
especially the rock gullies in deeper water. However when fishing offshore reef
ground, fish will often move along the beach with the flood tide, but drop back
again over the same ground on the ebb, though they tend to be at longer range.
This means that an ebb tide at night might well out fish the perfect flood tide
by day.
WEATHER TIP
The best tip off all is target cod when the sea is rough
with a good surf running. Ideal conditions often fall just as a full gale has
blown through and the sea is just beginning to lose its full swell.
Cod are
powerful swimmers and have no problem feeding in rough surf seas.
BAIT TIP ONE
In the pre-Christmas period a big lugworm bait will catch
the bulk of the cod. Make your bait by pushing two or three worms, size
depending up on the hook, then putting two more worms alongside the hook bait
splint style and then wrap the whole lot together with bait elastic to form a
big sausage shape about 6 to 8-inches long.
BAIT TIP TWO
Worm baits can often be made more effective by tipping them
off with mussel and queen cockles, especially after a gale has washed shellfish
up on to the shore. Tipping with squid strip is also effective.
BAIT TIP THREE
In the early New Year period cod in many areas begin to lose
interest in worm based baits and will take big mussel baits, again made with
multiple mussel pushed up the hook and bound on with bait elastic to form a
sausage shape about 4 to 6-inches long.
Mussel is especially effective along
the east Scottish shore and in the Northeast of England, but will catch fish
anywhere.
BAIT TIP FOUR
In the more southern areas of England after late January cod
become scarcer as they move offshore, but those left inshore late will have a
preference for fresh peeler crab if you can get it.
SNAG TIP
If a fish is hooked but gets snagged on the way in, give it
a few feet of free line and slightly lower the rod tip. Often the fish will
swim the lead weight free of the snag as it swims back away from you and you’ll
realise this as the line tightens again to the weight of the fish.
SNAG TIP If a fish is hooked but gets snagged on the way in,
give it a few feet of free line and slightly lower the rod tip. Often the fish
will swim the lead weight free of the snag as it swims back away from you and
you’ll realise this as the line tightens again to the weight of the fish.
Remember all the sea fish you are likely to catch are edible
so get catching.
Beach Shelter
The beach shelter protects you from the sun, wind, rain, and
heat. It is easy to make using natural materials and is perfect for use on
beaches.
With a beach survival shelter if you’re stuck on a beach,
you’ll be surrounded by lots of sand, but will also likely have some access to
driftwood, small bushes and maybe even some trees.
Since sand is easy to dig
in, you should be able to handle this one on your own. Start by digging a
trench large enough to lie down in and build-up 3 walls around it.
Lay any driftwood you can find across the top to form a
roof. 
Make sure the sand forming the walls is compacted enough that the beams
can lie comfortably across the top.
Gather any sort of leaves or shrubbery you
can find and lay it across the roof beams. You can also use the foliage to make
the ground inside the shelter a little softer for you to sleep in.
Since you can be exposed to lots of sun on the beach, this
shelter is especially important to providing you with shade.
Remember staying out of the sun will keep you hydrated
longer and conserve your energy, as well as protect you from potentially bad
sunburn and debilitating heat stroke.
Rock Pool Foraging
You will be exploring a whole new set of habitats that have
a diversity of foodstuffs that is entirely different to what you’ll find
elsewhere; shellfish, seaweed, coastal plants, a whole new array of flavours
and textures to explore.
Whole books can (and indeed have been) written on the
subject of seashore foraging. This short guide does not attempt to replace any
of them, and I make no claims as to it being exhaustive.
I have chosen ten that
are common, easy to identify, simple to find and easy to prepare.
A Quick Note on Safety
It does, of course, go without saying that you have to be
absolutely sure of the identity of any wild food you are about to eat.
But I’m
saying it anyway; don’t make me regret writing this by poisoning yourself with
something you didn’t identify properly.
There are further risks to seaside foraging that you don’t
very often encounter inland. 
The first one, the one that you’re most likely to run foul of, is cleanliness.
On
our congested little island we have managed to make lots of our beaches
somewhat toxic; before gathering shellfish consult with the Environment Agency
to make sure that your proposed foraging grounds are clean and safe.
Failing that, at the very least talk with the locals to find
out where is safe. Remember that while shellfish are at their best in winter
(or any month with an R in it, as they say), you CAN eat them in summer; but
the quality during the summer months, when they are spawning, is much reduced.
The second risk is the sea itself.
You may scoff at this,
but it is VERY easy to be trapped by rising tides or, worse, caught up in
quicksand. If there are signs warning about quicksand or treacherous tides,
take note.
Don’t get drowned, don’t get cocky. Take a compass with you down to
the beach to find your way home through a sea mist, and make sure you’re not
still there as the tide comes trundling in around you.
I remember once going down the beach at Bridlington and
turning round and not being able to actually see Brid because of the sea mist.
The final risk I’ll warn you of is cliffs; now this may seem
obvious, but if the forage you are after is growing on or near a cliff top (and
this often happens, due to the lack of grazing on the cliff itself) then leave
it be. It isn’t worth it, no matter how good the forage looks.
Marsh Samphire
(also known as glasswort) .
Is a funny looking plant. You find it in mud flats and
coastal salt marshes around much of the South of the British Isles, being less
common up in Scotland. I guess you’d call it something of a ‘succulent’, having
a soft, green water filled body and no leaves as such.
It is now commonly
sold in fishmongers and on farmers markets, one of the few really wild
vegetables for sale, and it is all the rage in some of the posh restaurants
where it fetches a silly price, which is amusing if you know where to pick it
for free.
Get your wellies on if you’re looking for this one. It’s a
dirty job. Pick the young plants whole in July, ideally, but its edible well
into August and sometimes into September. Wash them well, steam them lightly,
toss in a little butter, and pick them up by the roots and bite off the soft
growth.
Eat it as fresh as you can and you won’t be disappointed. As it ages,
it gets a hard, wiry heart, which isn’t the end of the world, just chew the
plant off that.
Sea Beet is
fantastic and If I lived close to the sea, almost anywhere in the UK, then I
wouldn’t grow spinach or chard in my garden, I’d rely on this superb wild
vegetable. It grows profusely on cliffs and by dunes near the sea, and it
tastes just like spinach, only sometimes it is slightly salty.
It is, in fact,
the wild relative of spinach, and you can sometimes spot that there’s been some
hybridisation (you find some wild cultivars that have bigger leaves, odd
colouration, etc).
And to be honest you can use it like spinach; try the leaves
raw first, find out whether the specimen is good enough for salad, but if it
isn’t then it’ll cook as well as spinach.
Alexanders are
one of the umbellifers we can thank the Romans for introducing, they brought it
over as a green vegetable, and a superb one it is too.
You can find it around
the coast of much of Britain (being especially common from Anglesey, down and
around all the way to Norfolk, sporadically further North on the East Coast
being plentiful in places like Scarborough), and also inland by some roadsides
and some waste places, where it can almost inexplicably grow to the exclusion
of everything else.
Pick the young stems and steam them gently, perhaps coating
in butter when they’re done. Or chop them and add them with stock vegetables in
a stew, and they’ll impart a delicate, herby flavour unlike anything else.
I
personally like to use them to flavour seafood dishes; try adding the chopped
leaves to moules mariniere, or dressing crab salads with them.
Like any umbellifer, you could do yourself serious harm if
you were to mistake one of the poisonous wild relatives of Alexanders for the real thing. But don’t let that worry you too
much, once you get to know the texture and smell you’ll have no trouble knowing
the real thing.
Pick it before it flowers if you can; if you miss it in
Spring, go looking again in Autumn when it starts growing again to flower next
Spring.
The Limpet, The
poor old limpet isn’t rated as a food by most people, and I can see why.
They’re tough, hard to prise off the rocks, and take some cooking to make them
good, but on the flip side they’re plentiful, tasty, and very easy to identify!
The key to limpet hunting is stealth. You may laugh at this,
but once a limpet knows you are there then there’s no shifting him.
Don’t try a
gentle tap to remove him, all you’ll achieve is that he will grip the rock more
tightly, and unless you actually smash his shell (ruining the limpet for
nothing) then he’s staying where he is.
One firm strike at an unsuspecting
limpet with the butt of a knife or a small rock is all that is needed. Don’t
try to pry one off with a knife, I tried that once and the end broke off!
When you’ve got your limpets, you’ll see that they’re
basically snails.
There are two good ways of cooking limpets. Either plunge
them into boiling water for 5 minutes, extract them from their shells, and then
fry with some garlic and herbs (I like alexanders and wild garlic for this), or
put them on the rack of a warn barbecue, shell side down, and poach them in
their own juices with just a drop of lemon juice.
The latter produces a
surprisingly tasty and tender morsel of food.
The limpets head is rather hard, so you might find limpets
go down better if you cut the hard part off after the initial boiling.
Winkles are one
of my favourite seaside forages. I think that this comes from happy childhood
memories of gathering winkles in the rock pools on the coast of Carlingford
Lough, and then boiling them for a short while in salty water before sitting
and eating them by the sea, armed with a trusty pin to work the unlikely, snot
like snails from their shells.
And in all honesty, that’s as good as it gets with winkles.
You’re not going to fill your belly with them in a hurry, but they are tasty
and fun little things to eat, and if you’ve got a good patch then you can pick
plenty. Never empty a whole pool of them, but rather take a few from lots of
different pools; leave plenty of breeding stock.
Common throughout the British Isles, these little grey-black
sea-snails are found in rock pools in the littoral, tidal zone (the clue is in
the scientific name!) pretty universally.
I cook them for 12-15 minutes in
boiling salted water, dress them with a little more salt and vinegar, then sit
and winkle them out; you get a pin, flick off the little hard shield, and then
carefully twist and pry the meat out.
It takes some getting used to, but it’s well worth it. Pop
it straight into your mouth (or save it for a more complex recipe if you
prefer), and ideally, throw the shell over your shoulder and into the sea,
enjoying the view from the harbour wall…
Mussles, are my
favourite shellfish, and perhaps the tastiest, having a flavour that can rival
the oyster and even the best scallops.
They are really very common, if you have
a good spot to go forage on. Best picked from rocky shore lines, and it is
extremely important that the shore be clean; really, check this out with the
Environment Agency if you are in any way unsure.
Once you have your mussels, put them in a bucket of salty
water with some oats, and leave them overnight. This frees up a lot of the grit
that might be in them and somewhat cleans and purges them.
If you are starving
though cook straight away of course.
Take each one, tap it to make sure it stays closed (if it
isn’t closed chuck it, it’s dead and therefore unsafe), scrape off any
barnacles, pull out the byssus (the hairs that hold the mussels together and to
the rocks) and they’re ready for cooking.
Cook them just as you would for bought ones, but in the
spirit of happy foraging, try combining them with other wild ingredients.
Moules mariniere flavoured with cow parsley and sorrel works well, and a wild
herb soup with mussels is one of the best things you will ever taste.
Once cooked any that
do not open through away.
Bladder Wrack, is
the manky seaweed with little air holes on it that makes it float up. It isn’t
the tastiest seaweed, but it’s the most common, and it has a pleasant, salty,
inoffensive flavour.
It’s a good beginner’s seaweed for all of those reasons;
give it a go, it’ll surprise you.
Pick it in Spring, when it is starting to throw up softer
growth. Don’t gather the nasty stuff that has broken away on its own, pick it
when it is still moist and attached to the rocks, and only pick the softer
stuff, leaving the old, tough fronds behind.
I like to chew little bits on the
beach, just as it is, but most people think I’m insane for that, it’s far too
salty.
For your first seaweed recipe, can I suggest using it in a
simple fish stew. Take your bladderwrack and soak it for a couple of hours in
clean water, then add it to the stock you’re going to use and boil it for half
an hour.
Remove it from the stock, and you’ve imparted a subtle, salty, sea
weedy flavour and a kind of slightly thick, almost slightly glutinous texture.
Give it a shot.
Sea Lettuce,
actually looks like lettuce leaves, a green and leafy seaweed found between the
low and high tide marks all round Britain.
I would guess that from talking
about eating seaweed with some French friends that this is the one that our
neighbours over the channel esteem most.
Really, the leaves are very lettucy in shape. I recommend a
recipe I’ve adapted from Roger Phillips wild food book, pick them fresh from
the rocks, soak in fresh water for half an hour, and cook lightly in butter for
three minutes before dressing with olive oil, vinegar, pepper and lemon juice.
Garnish with chopped spring onions, and you have the nicest
hot seaweed salad you’ll ever encounter.
Or try marinating in soy sauce, rice
wine and vinegar for an oriental salad, it
goes very well with oily fish, like Mackerel for example.
Sweet Oar Weed,
This is kind of brownie green, with straight but frilly fronds up to 3m long.
You need to get your waders on for this one; you find it right at the low tide
mark, extending into the sea. Pick it in spring, when it is at its best.
This is the one you want to pick for real crispy fried
seaweed.
The stuff you normally get in Chinese restaurants is cabbage, and
that’s nice, but it isn’t a patch on real fried seaweed.
Gather a frond or two,
hang them in a warm place until kind of dry and leathery; you aren’t looking at
totally dried out here, but you want it dry to the touch.
Cut it into squares
about 1-2cm across, and drop the squares a few at a time into hot (not boiling)
fat, taking great care because they do spit terribly. They will quickly expand
and go crispy.
They will need no salting, but a little pepper does no harm.
Kind of like seaweed crisps, and surprisingly sweet.
Lastly is Laver
rather like sea lettuce, but much darker, almost black, kind of purplish
sometimes. In truth, you’re likely to pick a wide variety of very similar
species, but it barely matters, they mix together just fine.
A traditional foodstuff in some parts of Wales, I’d go so
far as to call it an ‘acquired taste’. But if you find some, try cooking it to
a puree (takes a while; an hour or more sometimes), and keep in the freezer
till breakfast time. Then heat it in a pan, spread it on toast, and serve with
bacon.
Well, that’s the theory.
A Question or Two
There is no doubt that the times are changing.
With recent
storms and flooding, economic meltdown, and terrorist rag heads still on the
loose, natural or manmade disasters are now more a part of our lives than ever.
You only need to watch SKY or BBC for an hour or two to
become a little frightened about the possibility of the sky falling on our
heads at any time.
There are so many (or too many) cogs in the wheels of our
economic system that allow any minor disturbance to have a seriously detrimental
effect on the supply chain of goods to our local food shops.
I have, like lots of you been reading many, many web sites
and blogs that deal with bad weather survival, disaster survival, and survival
preparedness.
One aspect of preparing for a prolonged survival situation
that has been commonly overlooked is how to deal with family, friends, and
neighbour’s that have NOT prepared for the worst case scenario after the turd
hits the fan.
Remember, WE are smart and prepare for a disaster with a
comprehensive survival kit with an aimed for 3 months’ minimum supply of food
and water, maybe a gun or two, and a few must have luxury items because you
realise that you just can’t rely on anyone but yourself when things get ugly
(i.e. localised power cuts “Strikes” or flooding).
This is where I would like
to propose a few hypothetical questions.
While you’re next door neighbour went on a fancy and
expensive vacation to the US and didn’t heed the warning to prepare, would you
share your survival rations?
Your best friend just purchased a new car and is more
worried about rims and tires than preparing a survival kit, would you share
your survival supplies?
Your sister didn’t even stash a can of beans in her
cupboards, but she knows you did because you have been telling her since before
Y2K that you have been preparing for a disaster, would you share your gear?
A pack of hungry, desperate, and angry locals decide that
your supplies are now theirs; would you defend your supplies by all means
necessary?
We have been extremely fortunate in our lifetime to not have
experienced a great shortage of basic staple goods and empty supermarket
shelves.
But, we have never as a country faced the economic quicksand
that we are drowning in today.

 

 

Oh yes, don’t forget Mother Nature, because she is the one
that is really in charge.
I’m still trying to define my answers to the
questions proposed above, but it is worth a moment of time to consider both the
questions and the potential answers.
Top of the Food Chain
After a SHTF event most of us accept that our control at the
top of the food chain will be disrupted.
It may be a temporary situation and we may soon get our
control back, in individual cases it may not occur and in some cases we may not
be able to regain our status at all.
The differences between these outcomes is going to be how
prepared you are physically and mentally, the local predators and if you are
armed or not.
Weapons are going to make a big difference here and you need
to bear this in mind. There will be nobody to phone up and get help.
It is down to you and
the predator and it is only through our society and technology that we are top
of the food chain. It is a fragile position and we can quickly find that for a
period, a short brutal and fatal period, our society or technology has left us
vulnerable and we drop a few links in the chain.
You read about it all the time in the news. People just
recently were eaten by sharks, others by polar bears and others have died due
to storms.
Our position at the top is precarious.
Of course as well as what we see as natures predators we
also have to deal with the most dangerous predator of all. “Man” is currently
the number one predator of man.
This takes up most of the news, one man harming another in
some way. Where this should be a major consideration in allowing us to defend
ourselves it appears that it does the opposite.
After an event we have already considered local predators
and have stocked up on traps, weapons and defensive capabilities.
We can handle
the wolves, dogs and other wild animals. We can even handle the weather and the
loss of our food, water and shelter. We are fully prepared for those.
They are on our lists, we have weapons that can deal with
them and we should be thankful that we live in the UK where we don’t have
Grizzlies, Lions, Alligators, Sharks and other major predators.
We don’t have
as standard tornadoes, tsunamis and earthquakes either so we really are lucky.
What we do have though, and plenty of, are human predators.
Some are obviously predators and will come up against your defences.
Just hope that you are armed enough. There are others though
who are not so obvious. 
Those that will kidnap your children during the
disruption of an event, those that will infiltrate your security at home and
kill you in your sleep.
They will disarm you with guile and lies and you will be
defenceless against them. If you don’t think you will fall for lies and deceit
just look around and see what is going on today as we are being screwed over by
politicians
You need to prepare but there are some things that you just
cannot fully prepare for.
Liars and con men are one of those. 
You can only be
aware. Phase your acceptance of people until they prove themselves.
Even then be careful how much access they have. It is (need
to know) and being careful that will serve you best here. Real people will
understand.
Predators cannot afford to wait as they cannot hide their true
identities for long.

 

 

One thing I am always accused of is that I am not very
forgiving. I’m friendly enough but I only get screwed once. I rarely forgive
people screwing with me but I never forget.
They only get one chance.
I will be honest with everyone and
if they are honest in their dealings with me then I can forgive mistakes but
never something deliberate.
After a few years this issue will almost disappear and it
will be less dangerous. Everyone will know who is trustworthy and who is not.
In the olden days people’s integrity was known for miles.
So all you will have to worry about is those who are
wandering. They should be few and far between.
Keep your friends close and kill your enemies, or at least
keep clear of them if they don’t deserve killing.
Out and About
Here are three survival tips that are free, and won’t cost
you anything.
There is a caveat though, that is you may need to force a slight
change in your behaviour and habits.
In today’s world of increasing economic woes, more
individuals are turning towards criminal behaviour as they become angrier, looking
for someone to blame, and may be downright desperate.
You, as a ‘normal’
person, may be walking among them from time to time and you don’t even know it
or recognize it.
To a large extent, the key to avoid being victimized is to
simply be aware. Awareness consciously (and subconsciously) changes your own
behaviour such that you will be more likely to avoid dangerous situations that
could escalate into violence.
Define ‘awareness’ in the context of your self-security:
Know what is happening or has happened in your field of
travel
Look around you (and behind you) while moving (walking,
driving, etc) outside your home
Make eye contact while scanning in crowded public places
Whether by paying attention to the news or ‘hearsay’,
understand the history of the area you are about to travel in.
Most people over
time will come to understand where the ‘bad’ areas are in their local region –
areas especially vulnerable to crime.
If you are new to the area, or if traveling outside your own
area, make an effort to discover where these ‘bad’ areas are. A great tool to
look for crime reports is on CrimeReports.com, which shows maps dotted with
crime reports in Canada, the U.S., and the UK.
Look around you (and behind you) while traveling
This simple behaviour is more effective than you may
imagine.
The reason is that so many people do not do this, They are ignorant to
their surroundings, and are the first to become victims.
Predators look for the
weaker prey.
Someone who is looking down, or who appears to be in their own
little world, they are prime targets for criminals.
Instead, scan around you from time to time, with your head
up straight, as you walk with purpose – shoulders back, and confident.
Not only
might you avoid an unruly-looking gang of troublemakers, but they might avoid
targeting YOU.
Make eye contact while scanning in crowded public places
Making purposeful, but quick eye contact is another very
effective deterrent to a criminal.
Here’s the reason… Most people purposely
avoid eye contact in public places. They want to remain in their own little
world and by looking down or avoiding eye contact, they are convinced that they
will remain in that cocoon. The reality is that they are entirely wrong.
Sure, that type of behaviour may avoid unwanted conversation
that otherwise might initiate from a stranger, but that’s about it… By
occasionally scanning and making quick eye contact with others, tells any
potential criminal that you are not afraid. ‘Quick’ eye contact simply means
don’t stare.
Staring will provoke a stranger.
Is this type of behaviour simply a bunch of paranoia? Do you
have to walk around being paranoid to avoid being in the wrong place at the
wrong time? No, of course not.
Granted, for some people, learning to do these simple things
will feel uncomfortable at first – and they may feel as though they are being
paranoid.
However, after awhile, this will become part of you, just like being
able to carry on a conversation with someone while driving a car. It’s no big
deal…
Bolster some confidence while you’re out and about. It may
unknowingly ward off a pick-pocket, purse-snatcher, or worse criminal, without
you even knowing it happened!
I am Just
Lots of things get people in trouble when they go into the
woods including lack of preparedness, not paying attention to the weather,
accidents etc.
More commonly, it is the attitude toward our safety that is the
precursor to a life threatening event occurring.
How many times have you said to yourself or have heard
others say, “I am just………”  as in “I’m
just going to walk up the ridge and see if I can see a deer,” or “I’m just
going to be out for fifteen minutes,” or perhaps “I’m just going to run down to
the shop.”
I believe these three little words “I am just” get more people
into trouble than any other three little words I can think of!
Except I LOVE
YOU Ha, Ha,
Most commonly you don’t say these words out loud, but say
them to yourself, silently─ which is even more dangerous.
Many times you are
not even conscious of your decision to leave your gear behind.
Unconsciously you already have made the decision to leave it
because “I am just…….”  When spoken out
loud there always is the chance that someone, upon hearing you say, “I am
just……….” will step in and remind you of the importance of always taking your
emergency clothing and equipment with you ─ even though the possibility of
having to spend an unplanned night out is remote.
When nothing looks familiar, and every direction seems to be
the same, STOP and think about what to do next!
It is easy to convince yourself that nothing life
threatening will happen ─ after all you are “just……………”   When you use the word “just,” you are
convincing yourself that the weather will remain pleasant, that no accident
will happen, that you will not get lost, or that you will be able to get back
before dark!
You are saying to yourself that you don’t need to carry your
day pack with your emergency gear and warm clothing because you won’t need it ─
you are “just…………….”
It also is easy to rationalize away the need to always carry
your back up clothing and emergency equipment.
As the years ago by, one hunting
season follows another, and you have yet to spend that unplanned night out, the
temptation to reduce the weight of the daypack you are carrying by leaving your
survival kit at home, can be very attractive.
As you look to the mountains in anticipation of having to
ascend on foot and hunt at higher altitudes, it is natural to want to lighten
your load and leave behind those pieces of equipment that you have seldom, if
ever, used.
Sometimes it is “space” or
the lack of it, which causes you to decide to leave items behind that you
should take.
Most often, it’s the short trips that get you in
trouble!  After all, “I was just………”  You get complacent.
Nothing life threatening ever has happened in
the past and so it is easy to  convince
yourself that it won’t happen in the future and if it does you can handle it
─whatever “it” is!
Ignoring the possibility of finding yourself in a survival
situation is like playing Russian roulette.
Falling victim to the “I am just” syndrome is like playing
Russian
roulette with five out of six chambers loaded!
History is replete with examples of those finding themselves
in trouble who, after being rescued from some horrendous situation, said “I was
just……..”
Several years ago in the US an older man left his camp one
evening ─ he was “just” going to walk down to the end of the ridge and see if
he could spot a stag.
The following
morning was the opening day of the shooting season.  He never returned and despite an extensive
search he was not found alive.
Ten days later his body, partially buried under snow, was
discovered by other hunters.
His
emergency gear consisted of a .357 Magnum pistol and thirty seven rounds of
ammunition, which he had used to try to signal his hunting partners.
Thirty-six of the thirty-seven cartridges had been fired,
but were never heard by either his partners or those that searched for him.
He
had tried to shelter himself by drawing two log ends together and laying slabs
of bark on top of the logs to provide a crude roof.
His clothing, a mixture of cotton and wool, failed to
provide the protection he needed from the environmental conditions he
encountered.
Physiologically he died from hypothermia, but it also could
be said that he died because he had rationalized away the need to carry any
additional emergency gear.
Equipment that might have prevented the situation from
developing in the first place – a map, compass or a GPS Receiver.
Equipment that he could have used to increase his protection
from cold temperatures, precipitation and wind-chill.
Equipment that he could have used to attract
the attention of the rescuers that were looking for him – a mirror, whistle,
mobile, warm clothing, survival bag.
He was “just going to walk to the end of the ridge, to look
for an elk and then return to camp!”
The words “I am just” when spoken out loud or silently
should be considered a red flag warning!
When you say them yourself or hear others say them ─
STOP!  The trap is being set!
Continuing on only will spring the trap and once you are in
it, there may be no escape.
Without
adequate clothing, without basic survival equipment (reliable fire starting
devices, waterproof, windproof sheltering materials, a signal mirror and
whistle), without the ability to build a fire or signal to others, survival
depends on an individual’s tenacity to live, their ability to improvise what
they need and luck – but sometimes that’s not enough!
As you contemplate what you should have with you as you
begin a trip – even a short one, don’t use the words “I am just…….”
The Human Factor
When two vehicles pass on a two-lane road the space between
them can be as little as a few feet!
As
long as the vehicles stick to their side of the road everything works well but
a moment’s in attention can result in catastrophe.
The more I think about it the more I realized that this
concept could be applied to many other scenarios.
The difference between surviving and dying, especially in
the outdoors, is indeed a thin one.  In
fact I believe that we are the thickness of a piece of paper away from a
disaster at any given time!
As a society we have become so dependent on technology to
keep us safe that we no longer think about the threats to our safety and what
we would do in the event that our lives are placed at risk.
We have come to depend on others to keep us free from harm.
The government, our employers, family members and others have a role in keeping
us all safe but ultimately we each have to recognize that no one is more
responsible for our safety than we are.
That “buck” cannot be passed!
Our safety is dependent on the preparation we
accomplish before an event.  Our safety
is dependent on our ability to recognize danger and react quickly enough to
ensure our safety.
Is it possible to guarantee personal safety in the
outdoors?  Of course not! 
But you can
increase your knowledge, improve your survival skills, outfit yourself with
reliable equipment, thoroughly evaluate the risks and then measure your skills
against those risks before undertaking an activity in the outdoors.
A comprehensive analysis of the threats to your safety must
be followed by an honest, objective appraisal of your skill level and ability
to cope with those threats.
It is easy to talk about the impact of weather, or terrain
hazards or perhaps the threats posed by animals when you travel in the outdoors
but the part of risk management and accident prevention that is hard to come to
grips with is what the academics call “human factors.”
Here are a few “human factors” that you should think about:
Complacency- a product of boredom, distraction, lack of
awareness, or failure to question old habits results in a belief that“ I’ve
done this before successfully therefore there won’t be a problem the next
time!”
Not necessarily! Sometimes we are suckered into complacency by our past
successes!
Risk perception – a situation that is familiar,
controllable, pleasant, predictable and avoidable is perceived to be of less
risk.  Consequently when an activity
becomes routine the likelihood of an accident increases.
Also keep in mind that to be able to deal
with a dangerous situation you must first be able to recognize a dangerous
situation!
Over confidence– an unrealistic belief in one’s ability to
cope with life threatening situations.
Men are particularly prone to over estimating their ability to cope with
a crisis.  Sometimes brute strength isn’t
enough!
Goal setting – the inability to adjust goals as situations
change often leads to accidents.  You
must get to the “summit or die” mentality.
Remember –it is never wrong to turn back!
Impatience– patience is a virtue, impatience can be
disastrous.  Continuing on in the face of
bad weather, rough terrain, darkness or other hazards in an effort to
“get-back-at-all-cost” can be fatal.
Commitments– do not allow previously made commitments to
influence what you should do when you are in trouble.  Do what is in your best interest and don’t
worry about what your spouse is thinking or what your employer is going to
think when you don’t show up for work.
Their concerns are no longer important.
Keeping yourself safe is.
Peer pressure – Don’t concern yourself with what others may
think.  You can survive teasing,
ridicule, and the comments of others but you may not survive the impact of the
environment if you fail to protect yourself
Failing to test – Nothing gets people in trouble quicker
than accepting, at face value, the advice of others,   Test everything before your life’s on the
line.  Practice your survival skills and
experiment with your equipment before you need to use them in a crisis.
Experience can help you through a tough situation or it can
betray you by setting you up to fail when your experience doesn’t take into
account a new situation.
Put another
way: “People are often set up for a disaster, not by their inexperience, but by
their experience.”
While the tangible risks can usually be managed, the
subjective, intangible issues, the human factors, are much more difficult to
come to grips with.
To be a survivor
you must prepare for what you hope will never happen while accepting the
possibility that a crisis can happen at any time.
At some point you need to ask yourself “What do I want my
newspaper headline to say?”  “Survived in
Style” or “Deceased?”
The Gloves are off Post SHTF
I say that Post SHTF the gloves are off as regards shooting
game and even large domesticated farm animals.
Meat and animal products is what we get from livestock so
even if you do not eat meat animals still have to be kept for eggs, milk,
cheese and other dairy products, which we need to make up a healthy diet.
They are a very good source of protein and I can tell you that
things do not seem so bad when you are tucking into a beef steak or a lamb
joint.
The feed to production ratio value of your animals is
basically like this. Poultry good, Pigs & Sheep medium, Cattle poor.
Poultry eat a mainly grain diet so that is expensive but
this can be supplemented with natural feed when free ranging.
Any switch from high value grain to natural feed will lower
the feed to meat and egg production ratio, but the switch to a varied natural
feed can produce a higher quality product.
Pigs also eat a grain diet but this can be supplemented
quite well with waste fruit and vegetables, and also natural feed when free
ranging.
Sheep eat mainly grass but
if producing black faced hardy sheep, these will eat almost all kinds of
vegetation from the poorest of land, so even though their feed costs are low
they still put weight on but slower than more expensively reared quality grass
sheep.
Cattle require expensive quality grass to produce anything
and will also require expensive winter feed and purpose built winter housing,
producing anything from cattle takes many months and masses of expense and
time.
Everything will depend on how big the operation is.
Many years ago I shot a mallard drake from across the river,
the mistake I made was I was on the wrong bank when I shot it, and this meant
that I had to cross the river to retrieve it, nevertheless it did eventually
end up on my plate and all was well.
For decades game has been the preserve of the wealthy as
they purchase days shooting on estates with driven game (a bit like shooting
rats in a barrel)sometimes, I think.
The guy in the street “us” has been legally removed from
these shoots except that we are good enough only to pick up what has been shot
and beat, it seems.
Well as I said when SHTF “WE” assume the survivor rights of
ancient times, yes we must provide for our own. Now with years of battery
breeding of game birds we have a chemical drug free food source just running
around free.
I’m afraid that any ethics will have to be over ridden as
obtaining this free food is the priority and in many ways not the way we get
it.
So lamping roosting pheasants and wood pigeons will be the norm instead of
deploying decoy’s and building hides etc.
I’m sure many preppers and survivalists know what I mean and
would agree with my sentiments.
And yes, water fowl and game birds will be shot on the
ground and on the water as well.
As for large domestic farm animals they too will need to be
on our menu either shot of dispatched with a quick blow to head with a heavy object.
Imagine how long we would survive with a cow or sheep to keep us going.
Fish farms would be a logical target as would free range
chicken farms.

 

 

I would also advocate the live capture of the above;
including game birds and water fowl so as to breed our own food, the benefit
being that most of these animals and birds feed themselves do they not.
It is criminal to take the life of an animal and waste it,
for me it is also morally wrong too. 
If you keep animals for food and then
after slaughtering it you decide you can’t eat it and end up throwing it away,
then you have wasted that animals life and killed it for no reason other than
some half-baked idea that you could be self-sufficient or rear your own food.
This does happen to some people who then rush down to the
supermarket for a pound of sausages. If you find you have become attached to
your animals which happens quite a lot, then don’t kill them, keep them as pets
which they most probably will have become.
Best thing to do is work out exactly what you think you can
achieve and stick to it and not get carried away by popular fads.
Either do it
or stick to growing vegetables and let someone else produce the meat.
Growing fruit and vegetables is always going to be cheaper,
simpler, easier and a lot less hassle than trying to produce your own meat.
Yes the gloves would be off.

 

 

Your Pet Survival Plan
You’ve made a survival kit for you and your family, now it
is time to take care of those who depend upon you for their survival.
A pet survival kit is important survival gear for anyone who
loves their pets. 
When you acquired your pet you took on the responsibility of
providing for all its needs. And that includes helping your pet survive come
what may.
Having the proper pet survival kit goes beyond ensuring that
your favourite animal is well taken care of.
For example, during large scale survival scenarios, such as
the Katrina episode when hurricanes strike populated areas, pets are often let
loose in vast numbers because their owners cannot properly take care of them.
Packs of roaming dogs are a danger to the community as they
attempt to survive on their own. Cats, exotic birds, and other pets may develop
breeding populations that cause environmental havoc proceeding the survival
emergency.
It is the responsibility of all pet owners to properly
prepare for pet survival. The best pet survival kits will contain at least the
following items or actions:
Recent pictures of your pet placed both in the pet survival
kit and on your person. A pet survival collar worn by your pet that contains
the pet’s id, name, address and phone number
Have all your pets’ shots up to date.
Your pet’s vaccination documents.
Pet Health records.
Complete array of pet medications should be in the pet
survival kit.
An extra leash.
A pet carrier or a pet cage.
Water and food bowls.
A two week pet survival food supply.
Several gallons of clean drinking water.
A hand can opener (not electric!).
A pet waste disposal system including newspapers, cat
littler, poop scoop, bleach, and plastic garbage bags.
A list containing detailed special instructions for the care
of each pet.
Grooming supplies and toys.
The pet survival kit should contain clean pet bedding.
Put the contents of the pet survival kit into an easy to
transport container.
You also need to have a pet survival plan that considers the
needs of your pet for any situation. Know the locations of local shelters for
both you and your pets and ask if they accept pets during survival situations.
Your pet’s survival depends upon you even when times are
easy. When survival is at stake, you need to be prepared to continue caring for
your pets so that they come out alive and healthy.
A pet survival kit is
required gear for any pet owner.

 

 

Stealth Camping
A while ago I said I was going to “overnight” out
in the town or on the outskirts of the town or even under bushes in the local
park.
So I was very pleased to see that doing this is called
“Stealth Camping” and it is done mainly by biker-campers although not
exclusively.
Stealth Camping is the act of sleeping in non-conventional
areas without trace or discovery.

 

 

Though it may sound illegal, stealth camping, by definition does
not imply an illegal activity. Instead, stealth campers take advantage of free
or extremely low cost sleeping areas where other campers never think to
stay.
Proper stealth camping is an art
and requires forethought, consideration of the property owner, and safety
consciousness in order to keep it legal, safe, and comfortable.
Stealth camping takes on many forms and there are very few
confining definitions on what constitutes stealth camping.
If you have ever taken a long journey in your
car and stopped at a rest stop or a fast food outlet for an extended nap you
have stealth camped without even knowing you were doing it.
Though sleeping in your car for a few hours at a Burger King
may not be considered hard core by the most experienced stealthers, car camping
in public car parks is one of the more sedate forms of stealth camping.
If car parks are too tame for you, don’t write off stealth
camping as only for losers who would rather sleep in their cars than shell out
money for a hotel bed and a hot shower.
Remember, stealth camping takes on many
forms.
The more exciting forms of stealth camping will have you stringing
a Hammock Tent between two trees in a secluded wooded area on the outskirts of
a big city or pitching a one-man bivy shelter within earshot of a train track
or in a tucked away corner of a farmer’s pasture land.
I suggest that when stealth camping you use a hammock and
here are some reasons why.
Do you remember last time you went camping looking for a
piece of flat ground on which to camp?
Once you find a suitable site, the
ground is never very flat. Even within your tent footprint, and sleeping bag, you
are still lucky to find a spot without a root sticking in your back.
Besides,
even with all that protection, you will still be sleeping on hard ground.
As
hard as you try, you can never get truly comfortable. Anyway, this is STEALTH
CAMPING…there is NEVER a flat spot when you need one.
With a hammock, you can
pitch it almost anywhere over any type of terrain.
Being invisible is what stealth camping is all about. Since
you don’t need a big flat area of ground, you are able to pitch your campsite
amongst the trees.
Being hidden by low lying branches is one of the best
cloaking devices ever for stealth campers. Hammocks are designed to be stealthy
and trees are an effective blocking mechanism.
In densely wooded land, I have
seen hammocks that cannot be seen within 10 feet of the campsite. It is very
reasonable to assume that you can launch a hammock 50′ away from a populated
area and never be seen by the public.
I can honestly say that I have never really had a
comfortable night’s sleep in a standard tent. I cannot say the same thing about
a hammock.
Hammocks have many of the benefits of a standard bed that you just
cannot get sleeping in a tent. The first thing that comes to mind is the
ability to prop yourself up.
Hammocks allow you to prop yourself up within the
slight curvature as it is strung between two trees. This curvature isn’t over
whelming though and you are still able to slide down and flatten out.
So I think I will be buying a hammock guys and getting into
stealth camping as it sounds great fun.
Let’s look at Nuclear Threats
Just because you don’t live next to a nuclear power station
does not mean that you are free from any possible nuclear radiation threats.
There are several facts and factors you need to know:
Look at Nuclear power plants – As the Chernobyl nuclear
disaster in 1986 demonstrated, even if you are several hundred miles or away
from a nuclear power station, if an unlikely but possible major nuclear
accident happens and you are downwind of it at the time, your safety would be
seriously at risk.
Then there could be Nuclear material accidents – These can
happen at a plant that works with nuclear material or nuclear waste or during
the transportation of radioactive material in your area.
Don’t forget Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) – These
include terrorist attacks with radioactive material devices, as in “dirty
bombs”, which are caused by conventional and not nuclear explosions.
Nuclear weapons attack – You may say: “But the cold war
is over”. Yes, but the world is still full of crazy people, and there are
now more nuclear weapons in the hands of more countries and terrorist groups
than during the cold war.
Take this news report for example: On June 24 2009, a
news report from the Associated Press started with: “North Korea
threatened Wednesday to wipe the United States off the map as Washington and
its allies watched for signs the regime will launch a series of missiles in the
coming days.” Plus there is still great animosity between many nations with
nuclear capabilities.
The other factor that we have learned from the past is that
historically, war has followed the collapse of the economy of a nation. I hope
there are no economy collapses anywhere in the world. But if it happens, war is
possible, and it could quite likely be nuclear.
There is also the possibility
of a terrorist attack with a portable nuclear device like a “suitcase
bomb”.

 

 

There are 2 main dangers of a nuclear bomb: the initial
blast effect and the radioactive fall-out afterwards. Fall-out is sometimes
misunderstood.
There are different types of fall-out radiation, and its
dispersal will depend on several factors, but it is basically fine dust from
the explosion that continuously gives off invisible radiation as it falls to
earth.
The largest, most dangerous particles will reach the ground first,
closer to ground zero.

 

 

According to the research those particles that are
concentrated and dangerous enough to require the use of fall-out shelters to
protect you, will fall to earth within a few hours.
The finer particles will be
carried by the wind, some taking months to settle to earth.
Fortunately the
radiation from radioactive particles reduces with time, which helps man and
nature to recover.
The initial radiation, which is fatal with one hour of
exposure, weakens to only 1/10th as strong 7 hours later. Two days later, it’s
only 1/100th as strong.

 

 

 Is a nuclear attack survivable? Absolutely – contrary to
popular opinion! There are many myths about nuclear war, including this big one
that no one will be able to survive it. To the contrary; nuclear wars are very
survivable, IF people are prepared, excluding a small percentage of people near
ground zero (the point directly below the explosion).
In fact, in Nagasaki
during the atomic bomb attack, some people who were far inside tunnel shelters
built for conventional air raids located as close as one-third of a mile from
ground zero, survived uninjured.
This was true even though these long, large
shelters lacked blast doors and were deep inside the zone within which all
buildings were destroyed.
Another myth is that fall-out radiation penetrates
everything and will kill all those who survived the initial blast.
Again, this
is not true.
Adequate preparation can protect you from any harmful doses. And
even minor preparations can save your life, even though your health may be
adversely affected.
If nuclear wars are not survivable, then it would not make
any sense to build nuclear fall-out shelters, and governments would not spend
large amounts of money doing so for their citizens.
Some countries have done
just that, including Russia, Switzerland and some Scandinavian countries. And,
some countries have built them only for their leadership and not for their
citizens!
There have been 100’s of nuclear detonation tests so we have
actually had a nuclear war in real terms and we have all survived.
Eating Road Kill
During the last Great Depression in the 1930’s road kill was
considered a table delicacy for many who would otherwise be going without meat.
Deer, various birds, rabbit etc.and a variety of other animals killed by
vehicles and left lying on the side of the road became an important source of
protein for many a family.
An important feature of road kill is that the hunting has
been done for you. 
There the animal lay; all you need to do is pick it up, skin
it out, and cook it up. A gift from the Gods a hungry man should not pass up!
Many people have considered road kill to be a windfall.  As long as the kill is fresh and the animal
looks healthy, its meat is perfectly safe to eat.
As with all meat, be sure to prepare it properly before
consumption.
You Won’t Eat Road Kill? Don’t think you could eat road
kill?
That’s simply because at this time you can afford to snub your nose at
such easy free meat.
Sure, right now many of you are squeamish at the thought of
eating road kill.
After all, your stomachs are regularly full and probably have
been for all of your life.
You have never experienced first-hand what it is
like to go hungry for several days straight – or even weeks.
Your cupboards are
well stocked, and as much food as you could possibly want is waiting for you at
the local shop. That could all change.
During times of natural and manmade disaster or economic
collapse food sources can quickly dry up. It’s amazing how preconceived food
prejudices are soon rejected when real knawing hunger sets in.
After a few
months without enough food and you will think nothing of eating insects, worms,
rats, or anything else that comes your way.
Served with wallpaper paste a nice
road kill badger roast would be a seriously welcome addition to the dinner
table.
When you think about it, what’s the difference whether that
animal was dispatched at the abotrior , by a hunter in the forest, or a
speeding vehicle?
None. As long as the meat is reasonably fresh and well-cooked
it will not matter one bit how the animal met its end.
What does matter is
feeding yourself and your family; road kill could put meat on the table when
food is scarce and your survival is at stake.
Road Kill is Good Food, Road kill is traditionally accepted
mealtime fare in many areas. In my neck of the woods pheasants are almost daily
hit by motorists speeding through the countryside.
The local gamekeeper recons he loses around 35 to 40 per day
on the roads around the estate.

 

 

As when you shop for meat at the supermarket, you want to
insure your road kill meat is fresh and has not “gone off”.
Although obvious
signs of potentially spoiled meat include smell and the presence of scavenging
insects, maggots, and the like, meat can also be spoiled without these signs.
You must cook all meat thoroughly in order to destroy any disease causing
organisms or parasites.
If you find road kill on a stretch of road you had just
passed over several hours before, then chances are your road kill is reasonably
fresh and you are in meat.
As in all things, the best survivors are aware of
their environment and open to opportunity as it presents itself, however
unexpectedly.
Road kill meat is a potentially valuable resource in times of
need and not to be overlooked by the hungry survivor.
Remember in the UK if you hit and kill game on the roads YOU
are not allowed to stop and pick it up however the driver of the vehicle behind
legally can.
Survival Preparedness
Survival Preparedness is a process or a condition of being
prepared to survive.
To Survive. The phrase could be taken literally – that is,
to stay alive. The words, ‘to survive’, could also be interpreted less
literally – more like staying healthy or healthier than otherwise.
In the context of survival preparedness, some will describe
this notion to its very basic core – like the ability to survive in the
wilderness without any modern help whatsoever, you are on your own, life and
death circumstances, black and white.
Others will describe survival preparedness more-or-less in
the context of living within today’s modern society parameters, and utilizing
the modern tools available today in order to prepare or be prepared for various
problems that may occur tomorrow.
What I’m trying to say is that there are some ‘survival
preparedness’ “preppers” that are more hard-core than others and I’ve noticed
that the movement has been coined with two labels in an apparent attempt to
delineate their core values.
I’m not so sure that I agree with labels and definitions,
knowing that there are all sorts of ‘shades of grey’, but having said that, the
two labels are Survivalists and Preppers.
Survivalists are the hard core while the Preppers are the
soft core.
Again, I do not agree with the labelling here, but the fact is that
it exists.

 

 

The Prepper is thought of as someone who is fully
functioning within the system of modern society, preparing for minor
disruptions that may come their way, while the Survivalist is considered to be
on the edge, perhaps already hunkered down in their bunker or survival retreat
– ready for Armageddon.
As in all walks of life, there are truly the extremes, and
lots of in-between. When it comes to survival preparedness, I believe that the
spectrum is all pretty much OK, so long as it’s within the law of the land.
Since there are so very many different types of people,
personalities, skills, and interests, there will likewise be a multitude of
variety when it comes to how one prepares, and what they are preparing for.
People will interpret risks differently from one another and
people will be in varying vicinities of the risk themselves.
Some face much
higher risk than others based on their geographical location, their occupation,
their own current financial and preparedness situation, etc.
Personally, I think that it’s great how more and more
ordinary people are waking up and realizing that things are not all Rosy out
there and that there are very real risks facing us all as the world’s economic
systems are teetering on the brink of failure while the rumour of wars fill the
air.
There will always be ‘newbies’ to survival preparedness and
there will always be veterans of the same. There’s room for everyone.
Just remember this… by failing to prepare, you are preparing
to fail.
Positive Mental
Attitude
The benefits of maintaining a good attitude in the
wilderness seem implicit.
Daily experiences have taught us that mood influences
outcomes. But just how does this “Pollyanna principle” affect your
brain in survival situations?
A little positivity goes a long way when you’re calling a
handmade hovel miles from civilization “home.”
While it may sound
like a page ripped from a self-help book, positive mental attitude (PMA) is an
integral part of survival.
In general terms, PMA combats your unconscious stress,
allowing you to think more clearly and make better decisions.
For example,
remember how the fight-or-flight response limits the amount of things you
observe around you?
By improving your attitude and, consequently, lowering your
stress, you reinvigorate your awareness of your surroundings.
Imagine how vital
that would be when sharing habitats with unfriendly neighbours.
Now I know that looking at the glass half full can increase
our chances of survival, but how exactly does that happen?
Why can positive
thoughts breed positive results?
The study of positive psychology that analyses the effect of
positive thinking and emotions on people sprang up a relatively short time ago.
Research revealed a link between positive thinking and emotions and successful
survival.
That’s because it opens up global thinking capacities in the
brain, allowing for more innovation and creativity.
In the wilderness, once
your initial needs are met, you will require new ideas and prioritization of
tasks to keep yourself alive for the longer term.
Physiologically, PMA reverses the toll of stress on our
bodies. Think about your body language when you watch a funny movie.
You’re
often more relaxed than when you see a nail-biting thriller. This loosening up
will help you conserve precious energy.
Proper wilderness preparation and training also contributes
to positive thinking because you will better know how to fend for yourself.
That, coupled with PMA, can help you cross the bridge to survival.

 

A Bad Day Bag
This pack is not about Armageddon.
It’s about “One Bad
Day”.
Every year 400-500 Americans die because of one bad day. The primary
function of this safety kit is to provide the means to build a rudimentary
shelter and a fire — to survive that one day. Cigarette lighters are great for
lighting cigarettes. Matches are great if they’re dry.
The foundation of this pack is the Chris Caine Survival Companion. It comes with a magnesium striker that will
allow you the luxury of a fire anywhere anytime you can find something to burn.
The striker is good for thousands of fire starts and we can’t imagine wearing
out the knife.
These are companioned by a 21st Century survival piece that
combines an emergency whistle, compass, thermometer, bright LED light,
signalling mirror, and magnifying glass to help start a fire or extract a
sliver.
There is a small bundle of 10-12 feet of 550 lb. paracord
and a single emergency blanket.
I have also included a zip lock bag of Vaseline cotton wool
balls a sure thing for fire starting. They fire up with speed.
These survival essentials will fit in to an easy to wear or
store shoulder bag. You should consider the following as additions to your one bad day
pack.
It’s a good idea to have more than one emergency blanket.
Emergency food should be a major consideration; i.e.,
concentrated soy bars, nutrition bars. A week’s supply is reasonable.
There are
specialty foods high in nutrition and the fat your body needs at low cost.
There are emergency tents made of silver reflective material
that retain body heat and protect you from the elements.
First-Aid Kit. You want something comprehensive.
If you’re a
surgeon and need a M.A.S.H. that’s up to you. It’s a good idea to include more
than a roll of Band-Aids and a tube of ointment.
You want to stop bleeding,
secure a broken bone, and alleviate pain.
Water purification. You should provide for the minimum
ability to kill bacteria, viruses, girdia, and cryptosporidium.
This should
include a water transport system, canteens, backpack bladders, etc. buy the Purificup at www.purifycup.co.uk
Finally, a good way to protect yourself from the elements. A
good military poncho that will keep the wind and weather away.
This simple shoulder bag will start a fire, help attract
attention and keep you alive until help arrives.
It’s the least thing you can
carry. It’s a magnificent start to securing you and the people you love.
Wilderness Hygiene
Mate you Stink! – a common phrase heard in the woods.
But beware of the pot calling the kettle
black. “Camping sanitation practices” – “personal hygiene” – whatever you want
to call it, it’s about more than just smell.
Your health and the health of
fellow hikers; the aesthetics of the wilderness; avoiding fines; and your
personal comfort are all at stake as well.
It’s all about the bugs – bacteria, viruses, and other
various nasty’s. Keep them at bay through better personal and environmental
cleanliness, and you’ll feel better, smell better and be less likely to end up
gut-wrenching sick.
Survivalists and Preppers are usually knowledgeable about
water contamination and proper treatment, but are less cautious about other
sources of germs from food and waste – witness a trio of survivalists or
preppers all sticking their grubby hands into a bag of trail mix at break time.
But just because you don’t have a gold-trimmed taps, a bidet
and a rubbish disposal at camp doesn’t mean you can’t keep yourself and your
trail area reasonably clean when out in the woods.
I’ve put some suggestions
together on the subject so you can be a friend to the woods – and to your tent
mate.
Make a point to carry a small bottle of hand sanitizer in
your pocket and use it frequently – after toilet use; before grabbing a handful
of trail mix; before cooking dinner.
This cuts down on the prospects of
ingesting bacteria that can make you sick – a doubly unpleasant experience when
on a survival exercise let alone the real thing.
Carry a small bottle of rubbing alcohol and some cotton balls.
Soak the cotton with the alcohol and give yourself a rub down at night under
the arms, feet and groin area.
You’ll be amazed at how dirty the cotton becomes
– yes, that all came off you – and how much better you feel afterwards. A light
weight to carry with big benefits.
Whenever you can, don’t pass up the chance to dip your feet
in a creek.
A quick 5-minute stop a couple of times a day to clean your feet,
dry and move on does wonders for eliminating bacteria and relieving hot spots
that may have been developing into blisters as you hike.
Better still, rotate
your socks in use while you’re at it.
Speaking of socks, if you camp near water, wash out your
socks and hang out to dry overnight.
Just make sure you have one dry pair for
in the morning, as sometimes they won’t dry out completely at night. Tie
outside your pack to finish drying the next day.
Carry a bandana and a small bottle of biodegradable soap to
give yourself an occasional sponge bath of sorts – at least your face,
underarms, groin, buttocks and feet.
This reduces chafing, odors, and bacteria,
and you’ll sleep better if not so sticky everywhere.
For minimal impact on the
environment, carry water away from the source to take this bath if you are
using soap – one way is to include in your pack a container cut from a 1-gallon
jug, or buy a collapsible bucket.
Carry a small container of body lotion or muscle rub and use
it on your feet at night after cleaning.
Try to sleep in something other than
what you hiked in, and hang those hiking clothes to air out overnight when
possible. If near water, rinse them out when you can.
Maintaining dental hygiene while camping is comforting and
healthful. Include dental floss and a travel-sized travel toothbrush and
toothpaste in your pack.
Don’t rinse out your mouth right near your tent
though. As with dishwater, either dispose of it well away from your sleeping
area or in running water that will quickly dilute it.
An alternative to bathing with water is using wet-wipes you
can remove a lot of grunge from your body with one or two of these
alcohol-soaked cloths, when used burn them.
I’ve heard of survivalists and preppers going as long as a
week without “going” because of either being uncomfortable with the process, or
too bashful of sorts to let nature take its course.
No point getting your colon
all up in knots over it; just emulate your cat, as explained below.
First, on urination – not a problem for us blokes; the world
is our bathroom. Do relieve yourself away from camp sites as the urine odour
can remain for some time.
Ladies have more difficulty, but are encouraged to
either drip-dry, carry out the TP, or bury it where allowed by using a
backpacker’s trowel.
Second, There’s actually a good-selling book titled “How to
S#!+ in the Woods”, but I’ll try to condense that issue down to a few points:
Go off trail and at least 200 feet from any water source,
including springs and streams.
Always carry a lightweight plastic backpacker’s trowel when
you hike for toilet purposes.
 Like your
cat tries to, dig a hole 4-6 inches deep. If the ground is covered with snow,
be sure to dig through the snow and create the cat hole beneath the topsoil –
this can be quite hard work if the ground is frozen.
Then just squat above it. This is the part novices fear the
most, but actually results in much more natural and healthful elimination than
sitting at a 90 degree angle on your home toilet.
There are a couple of
pointers – make sure you’re really out of sight; squat with your rear downhill;
hang on to a tree for balance; and make sure your shirt or coat is lifted up in
the back.
After wiping with TP, get yourself even cleaner back there with wet
wipes this will reduce the chances of chafing and later discomfort.
After using the cat-hole, cover it and the TP with the soil
you removed. Revert the site to its natural look by re-scattering leaves, rocks
or pine needles over the top. Place a rock on top so the next person along doesn’t
step in it or animals try dig it up.
Always follow with a good hand cleaning with hand gel or
soap and water.
Keep your trowel as clean as possible – wipe off on grass or
sand or wash off after each use. Keep it and your roll of TP in a plastic bag and
carry in or on your pack away from your food.
According to many countryside polls rubbish left on the
trail and at camps – wrappers, toilet paper, plastic jugs can distract from the
wilderness experience. Here’s how you can be part of the solution.
Plan ahead and pack consumables with minimal wrappers. Use
Ziploc re-sealable baggies to package individual meal servings instead of their
original containers, then use those bags to hold your rubbish coming out.
Avoid
cans and other containers with metal – you’ll have to carry those in and out.
If fires are permitted where you camp, you can burn some
trash items, but beware of paper not burning all the way to ash, or you still
have a rubbish problem.
Cigarette butts can hang around for years, and don’t
easily burn up – if you’re going to smoke, carry out the butts.
If you see rubbish on the route – be a trooper and pick it
up; don’t wait for “someone to do something about it”.
Bring a heavy duty black bag with you – it has many
potential purposes such as water protection, ground cover, or sleeping bag
protector while you are out there – and then put your unburned rubbish in it on
your way out.
Household Items for
Survival Situations
Economic Collapse, Terrorist Attack, or Environmental
Disaster Survival Items
More:
Financial Survival
Way of Life
Terrorist Attacks
While the subject of survival items to have in your home is
not a pleasant one it does no harm to be prepared.
While many are greatly
concerned about an economic collapse based upon a worsening financial situation
and more specifically hyperinflation, I am not yet convinced that this is about
to happen.
While the threat of a significant terrorist attack that would
cripple our way of life is possible, it too seems unlikely. And while an
environmental disaster may occur at any time, it is likely to be localized and
not a nationwide disaster.
However, hyperinflation may happen, terrorists may
pull off a huge attack, and an earthquake, meteor, or volcanic eruption of epic proportions could happen, this
article will address preparation in your home to survive these or other
calamities.
Antibacterial hand soap and dish soap are item to stockpile
in the home. While most of the time antibacterial soap isn’t needed, in a world
with less than ideal water supplies and non-existent professional medical
treatment it could be a lifesaver.
Petrol is another item that you might consider stockpiling
in your home for survival situations. However as safe long term storage is not
very practical for many homes this might not be practical.
Candles or perhaps better, the materials and knowledge to
make candles, should be stockpiled in the home for survival purposes.
Candles
can be used for light as well as a small heat source. It might seem trivial,
but a few candles can make the difference between enough heat to survive and
freezing.
Oil Lamps are another possible survival item. Oil lamps and
oil can be stored away and used as a proper and safer light source that
candles.
Reading or working by candlelight is for Hollywood movies, oil lamps
are much more useful.
A good assortment of wood and hardware is a must for
survival as well. In fact cases of nails, screws, simple tools, etc. could be a
money maker when it all hits the fan.
Of course, money might not be too
important so trade your loot for food or something you can use.
Gardening supplies are another must. Easy growing vegetable
seeds can be purchased cheaply and stored safely for a long time.
Better yet
use the seeds each year and replace them.
The ability and supplies needed to can food should be
stockpiled in the home for survival as well. A good crop from your garden will
be more useful to survive the winter canned than dried or other food storage
methods.
A couple of water purification systems should be ready in
the home as well. Stockpiling water to get started is fine, but you’ll run out
at some point.
Iodine tablets can be used to chemically treat water and are
available at most large retailers and camping, hiking, and backpacking stores.
Water purification filters are also available from sporting goods stores. Both
types should be present in a survival situation.
Another cold hard fact is that you need to be able to defend
yourself, your family, and your property. I’ll leave this up to you, but don’t
think people are going to starve without trying to take your food.
This is not a pleasant subject to think about, but being
prepared for whatever might come can provide
you peace of mind that is quite needed these days.

Seven Million Working Adults are ‘Just one Bill away from Disaster’

Adults in 3.6 million households are struggling to feed
themselves and their children
Spiralling cost of living and squeezed salaries blamed for
pushing working families to brink
Childless couples with combined incomes of up to £29,000
were among those at risk of poverty
Families had no equity in their home or savings if faced
with an unexpected large bill at the end of a month
Nearly seven million working adults are under such financial
strain each month a single unforeseen bill could cause them financial disaster,
a study has found.
Around 3.6million households were struggling to find enough
money at the end of each month to provide food for themselves and their
children, according to shocking new research.
The survey for the Guardian focused on people who are
employed and not reliant on state welfare, for whom ‘work no longer pays’.
It found a squeeze on salaries and spiralling living costs
were having  particularly devastating
consequences, forcing millions towards poverty.
Some of those facing the most critical financial stress can
include a couple, without children, with a gross annual household income of
between £,000 and £29,000, or couples with two children on between £17,000 and
£41,000.
The dire predicament meant
they were so stretched that a larger than expected bill could force them into
debt, with no equity in their home or savings on which to fall back.
Bruno Rost, head of Experian Public Sector, which conducted
the study, told the Guardian: ‘These people are the new working class – except
the work they do no longer pays.
‘These people say that being forced to claim benefits or
move into a council property would be the worst kind of social ignominy and
self-failure.’
This latest research comes a week after charity Oxfam
claimed that of those classed as being in poverty – officially defined as
households with income of less than 60 per cent of median average – the number
of people working outnumbered those unemployed.
Oxfam’s report also found that those in work but claiming
housing benefit had risen to 900,000 – more than doubling since 2005.
The growing number of adults being placed under severe
financial strain despite being in work and not relying on the state is likely
to embarrass the Government which declared that getting a job was the best way
to pull families out of poverty.
Isn’t this a disgrace in a 1st world country in the 21st
century I think it is. 
What an opportunity to promote prepping this situation
really is now is the time to start local prepping groups and attract the
financially poor into our world.
Evacuate, what
would you do?
The most important to thing to note when it comes to
handling an evacuation procedure is that there are no hard and fast rules as
the need to evacuate and how you should go about doing so has so many variables
which include:
The reasons why you need to evacuate e.g. to escape from
fire, flood, gas explosions, hurricanes etc
The amount of notice you’ll have in terms of warning time
before you must evacuate
Whether or not an official body is in control of conducting
the evacuation e.g. the police, the fire brigade, the armed forces etc
To consider this in a little more in depth, it’s only
necessary to look at two recent examples – the flooding experiences in the UK
over recent years and the likes of the outbreak of forest fires we regularly
witness on TV in the USA and other places.
In both situations, there will have ultimately been the need
to evacuate for many people but how the evacuations were carried out would have
been very different.
Therefore, unless you’ve received direct notification by an
official authority representative calling at your house to tell you that you
must evacuate or you’ve been made aware of any evacuation procedures via the
local media, i.e.TV or radio then all you can do is to have some kind of
preparation plan in place in the eventuality that you have no option but to
evacuate your home.
Although you might think that you live in an area where
everything is calm, tranquil and safe, disaster could strike at any time.
It could be a vehicle which is out of control and ends up
careering into your property or a plane crash nearby or some kind of unexpected
freak weather which damages your house beyond immediate repair – the list is
endless and the fact is that none of us can be certain that we would never need
to evacuate our home.
One of the things that is useful is to sit down and discuss
with your family the types of disaster that could possibly happen.
However
bizarre some of the suggestions might be, it can be a very useful exercise in
the event that a disaster which required you to evacuate did actually occur.
Hopefully, an evacuation might be co-ordinated by one of the
emergency services who would tell you what to do but that cannot always be
guaranteed if there is insufficient time to respond so talking through possible
scenarios and making some notes that you all understand is a good survival
exercise.
Discuss things like:
The different types of disasters that could occur and how
you might respond to each of them
Where you would go and what you would bring with you and
when you wouldn’t even bother to bring anything with you in disaster scenarios
where you might not have time to gather any belongings
Evacuation routes by car if you felt you needed to get well
away from the immediate area
Although we’d all like to think that in a disaster scenario
our family would all stay together, the reality is that this might not always
be possible.
Therefore, you should plan 2 meeting points which all the family
should be familiar with.
The first one might be somewhere reasonably close by but a
safe distance from your home. This would be a meeting point perhaps in the
event that your house caught fire.
The second meeting point should be a place which you’re all
aware of but which might be outside your own neighbourhood in case you cannot
return home in the foreseeable future following a catastrophe.
All of you should have the contact phone number of somebody
such as a friend or close family member who lives well away from you (and
therefore the disaster area) to whom each of you should report into by phone in
the event that there’s a disaster and you are all separated.
When considering taking things with you in the event that
you need to evacuate, this ill all depend upon whether or not there’s
sufficient time to do that.
Remember, in certain disaster scenarios, a fire in your
house for example, you won’t have time and then your only option is making sure
you get out immediately and stay out.
However, if there is going to be time to take a few bits and
pieces with you, the types of things you should consider might include:
Sleeping bags or blankets
Ready to eat, non-perishable foods and something to drink
Any necessary medications
Money, bank cards etc.
Torch
Wearing appropriate clothing for the weather conditions
First aid kit
As mentioned previously, the reason for the evacuation, the
time you’ll have to evacuate and whether or not some kind of official body is
organising the evacuation will all have a bearing on how you go about things.
Other useful things to know might include each responsible
family member knowing how to shut off things like the electricity, water and
gas from the main switches, all of you having attended a first-aid course,
learning about home fire hazards etc and this will all be invaluable knowledge
in the event that you ever need to evacuate.

 

Survival Skills
Survival skills are the combined knowledge and abilities of
methods and techniques that will be used in situations where modern
conveniences and infrastructures don’t exist or have been damaged.
Survival skills are typically thought of in the context of
wilderness survival.
The term is a very broad and general one, and applies to
many ‘levels’ of survival, from the simple ability to cook your own food, make
your own bread.
Shutting off the electricity-gas-water to your home,
successfully build a fire, build your own shelter, purify drinking water, all the
way to identifying outdoor wild edible plants, trapping, hunting, evasion,
field dressing game, building a fence, preserving foods, growing a successful
garden, and on and on.
I would say that the underlying theme is the general ability
to be self-sufficient.
Everyone has their own unique interests and abilities, and
really, no one person can know it all. People will gravitate towards the skill
set that they find natural or enjoyable for them.
However, it is also a very good thing to challenge yourself
and get outside of your comfort zone.
People usually need to be pushed to get
into that zone, but the sesame somewhat stubborn people (I’m one of them) will
often find it very rewarding after having conquered a new skill.
The thought of being able to survive and make it on your
own, is just that… a thought.
In reality, it would be highly unlikely that even the best
could succeed for long. OK, maybe the best could… but you know what I mean. We
will always need support from others.
After all, this is how we built
‘civilization’.
Having survival skills will allow you peace-of-mind. They
will also allow you to enjoy the outdoors to a further extent than others
(except for the foolish).
They will enable you to adapt to situations without
panicking and enable better decisions during times of crisis.
Survival skills
are a valuable commodity during times of disaster.
Having survival skills, even if not ‘required’ in real life,
will make you a different person, one who knows that they do not need to fully
rely on the system.
Survival skills also include those that aren’t necessarily
primitive.
Having an open mind, a logical mind, a mind with experiences, will
enable you to adapt. Adapting, or adapting successfully, is probably the
greatest skill of all.
It’s a very general term, but the ability to do, go, change,
or make something else with the resources that you currently have, is a great
asset.
So, in summary, to have survival skills doesn’t require that
you necessarily learn how to go off and live by yourself in the woods.
You might say that ‘modern survival skills’ could be defined
a little differently –having the skills to work outside of the system while
still functioning in the modern world.
Start small. Examine
what it is that you are ‘chained to’, the things that are holding you down.
Figure out ways to break the chains.
Become slightly more self-sufficient by growing some of your
own food – even if it isonly seasonal. Learn some of the basics like how to
read a map and navigate without a GPS receiver.
Learn how to ‘tin’ and preserve foods. How about stepping
out of the ‘comfort zone’and considering working for yourself instead of ‘the
company’.
Think about the skills that you have now, at your current
job. Are they something that you could do on your own?
Maybe you have other
skills that could be utilized in a side business for yourself – something you
enjoy, part time on the weekends. That’s where it starts…
Survival skills… think, ‘self-sufficient’, and go from
there.
Forest Fires and What to do
A forest fire can cause an incredible amount of devastation
in a very short space of time and wildfires have been responsible for killing
many people over the years.
One of the most common mistakes people who are
trying to escape a forest fire is to try to out run it. However, even in less
dense forests, forest fires travel so quickly and faster than you can run.
By having a good knowledge of the way in which a forest fire
travels and by having some awareness of the terrain you are in, these two
things combined give you the best opportunity of surviving a forest fire.
One of the first things to remember is that a forest fire
travels uphill far quicker than it travels downhill. 
Therefore, if you see an
opportunity, you might be able to keep in advance of the fire by moving
downhill as quickly as you can.
Knowing your terrain and your current position in relation
to it can help too.
Think of any roads, or stretches of water such as a lake,
river, stream or pond that maybe close by and head towards them where it’s
practical to do so.
Anywhere there is little or no vegetation which is able to
burn such as the examples above can buy you valuable time. 
Knowing your trees
can also help. Evergreen trees, such as conifers and those which have needles
burn far more quickly than deciduous trees.
Therefore, if you’re presented with the option between the
two to try to escape, choose an escape route through a deciduous thicket of
trees.
If you’re completely trapped and the forest fire is in such
close proximity that an immediate escape is not possible, you should try to
find or even dig a ditch into which you should climb and keep yourself as low
down as possible.
Curl yourself up into a ball and, where possible, cover
yourself up with a blanket or a coat if you have access to these items.
If
you’re able to, soak the blanket or coat in water first. 
By making sure you’re
low down and covered up, this will give you the best chance of minimising the
effects of the suffocating heat and smoke as so many people die in forest fires
each year due to excessive inhalation of the smoke as opposed to being burned
alive.
If you’re lucky enough to survive the fire, then once it has
passed through, move upwind where the fire will have already burned out the
vegetation.
If you’re in a remote woodland area where a forest fire is
about to take hold, the likelihood is that if you’re not aware, it will be upon
you in no time at all.
Buying you extra time can mean the difference between
life and death.

 

 

Therefore, it’s a good idea to be aware of the signs of fire
approaching.
Obviously, this is likely to begin by you having a vague sense of
smelling smoke.
If that occurs, look at any cars, awnings and tents that may be
in the area. A sure sign that fire is approaching is where you can spot fine
particles of ash which will settle on these kinds of surfaces.
Look up into the sky and see if you can spot any hazy areas
which don’t seem in keeping with the rest of the sky.
Obviously, if the ash
thickens and the smell of smoke becomes more pungent, then the approach of fire
is imminent.
Many forest fires often begin due to someone’s carelessness
or negligence – a discarded cigarette end being the most obvious.
Therefore,
it’s important to beaware of the safety procedures with regards to fire when
out in the woods and to follow any rules, regulations and signs which are in
place.
Pay particular attention to safe cooking procedures at camp
as well as ensuring that any campfires you build are permitted, are within the
regulations and that they are closely monitored at all times and extinguished
properly.
Also, pay attention to any instructions you may receive from
fire fighters that might be trying to stem the blaze. 
If a fire is burning out
of control around you, it’s easy to panic and to do the wrong thing.
However, where fire fighters are present, they will have
been professionally trained to deal with all manners of fire fighting and all
members of the fire fighting team will be working in co-ordination to ensure
that the fire is extinguished as quickly as possible and to get people to
safety.
Therefore, if they tell you to do something, don’t question their
judgement – just do it. It could save your life.

 

 

Open and Closed
seasons for Hunting and Fishing
Each shooting discipline has an open and closed season. It’s
illegal to shoot during the closed season.
For many other birds and animals,
there are closed seasons that you need to respect. These were put in place to
protect birds and animals whose populations could be in jeopardy if hunters are
allowed to shoot them all year round.
As a shooter, you need to be aware of when the closed season
is in your discipline, particularly if you have more than one shooting
discipline to think about (for example, if you’re a game hunter and a wildfowl
hunter simultaneously).
It can be easy to lose track, and this can land you in
a lot of hot water. Here is a guide to the open and closed seasons for some of
the main shooting types.
Game and Grouse Shooting
The grouse shooting season opens on August 12th. In Northern
Ireland, November 30th is the close of the season, but it doesn’t end until
December 10th in the rest of the UK.
For other game birds, there are individual shooting seasons
that you need to be aware of.
Pheasants: The pheasant shooting season lasts from October
1st to February 1st in England, Scotland and Wales.
In Northern Ireland, it
lasts from October 1st to January 31st.
Partridge: The partridge shooting season lasts from
September 1st to February 1st in England, Scotland and Wales. Like the pheasant
shooting season, it closes a day earlier in Northern Ireland.
Ptarmigan: The ptarmigan shooting season lasts from August
12th to December 12th. The birds are found mostly in Scotland, so there is no
shooting season in Northern Ireland.
Blackgame: The blackgame shooting season lasts from August
20th to December 10th in England, Scotland and Wales. They aren’t found in
Northern Ireland, so there is no shooting season there.
Common snipe: The common snipe shooting season lasts from
August 12th to January 31st on the UK mainland, and from September 1st to
January 31st in Northern Ireland.
Jack snipe: The Jack snipe shooting season lasts from
September 1st to January 31st in Northern Ireland. The bird is protected at all
times in England, Scotland and Wales, which makes it illegal to shoot or hunt
it all year round.
Woodcock: The woodcock shooting season lasts from October
1st to January 31st in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. In Scotland, the
woodcock shooting season starts on September 1st and closes at the same time as
the rest of the UK.
Ducks and Geese: Inland, the shooting season lasts from
September 1st to January 31st in England, Scotland and Wales, and this is the
same in Northern Ireland. If the HMV is less than ordinary spring tides, the shooting
season closes on February 20th on the UK mainland.
Coots and Moorhen: The shooting season lasts from September
1st to January 31st across England, Scotland and Wales. In Northern Ireland,
the birds are protected at all times, so it’s illegal to shoot them at any time
in the year.
Golden Plover: The Golden Plover shooting season lasts from
September 1st to January 1st all over the UK (including Northern Ireland).
Curlew: The curlew shooting season lasts from September 1st
to January 31st in Northern Ireland. It is illegal to shoot curlews in England,
Scotland and Wales, as they are protected at all times.
The following mammals can be controlled by legally approved
methods all year round – see British Association for Shooting and Conservation
for more information.
Fox
Rat
Mice (except dormice)
Rabbit
Grey squirrel
Mink
Weasel
Stoat
And Feral cat
Angling seasons vary widely from area to area and even from
river to river. Closed seasons are now largely a matter of local discretion or
custom.
It is always best to consult an official body for local information:
England and Wales
Any angler aged 12 years or over, fishing for salmon, trout,
freshwater fish or eels in England (except the River Tweed), Wales or the
Border Esk and its tributaries in Scotland must have an Environment Agency rod
licence.
Coarse fish close season – 15 March to 15 June inclusive. The coarse
fish close season applies to all rivers, streams and drains in England &
Wales, but does not apply to most still waters or canals.
Scotland
Local District Salmon Fishery Board (number in telephone
directory), or alternatively FishScotland.
No rod licence is needed. 
Note that
there is no legal close season for rainbow trout, grayling, coarse or sea
fishing, although some fisheries do not operate in the winter.

Northern Ireland

 

The Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL)

 

 

Local angling shops are also a good source of information.
5 Survival Skills
Acquiring survival skills is an on-going process that will
last for your entire life.
There is always more to learn and experience, which
is part of the fun of being a survivor.
As your survival expertise grows the knowledge and abilities
you gain are often useful in other areas.
For example survivors prepare ahead
of time, and they are experts in the art of ingenuity and inventiveness. 
Excellent attributes for anyone.
The possible environments and situations you could find
yourself in are in numerable.
Although each situation has its particular
requirements for successfully surviving, in the final analysis it is mastery of
five basic survival skills that are essential.
Proficiency and preparedness in these 5 basic skills will
give you the edge and put you on your way toward becoming a talented survivor.
Knowing how to build a fire is the best survival skill you
can have. 
Fire provides warmth ,light, and comfort so you get on with the
business of survival.
Even if you do not have adequate clothing a good fire can
allow you to survive in the coldest of environments.
Fire keeps away the creatures that go bump in the night and
so you can have the peace of mind and rest you need. And that is not all.
Fire will cook your food and purify your water, both excellent
attributes when you want to stay healthy when potential disease causing
organisms are lurking about.
Fire will dry your clothing and even aid in the
making of tools and keeping pesky insects at bay.
But even that is not all. Fire and smoke can be used for
signalling very long distances.
Always have at least two, and preferably three, ways of
making a fire at you immediate disposal.
With waterproof matches, a butane lighter, and fire steel
you should be able to create a fire anytime anywhere no matter how adverse the
conditions.
So the lesson here is to learn the art of fire craft,
Practice and become an expert.
Your ability to create a fire is perhaps the
most visible mark of an experienced survivor.
Shelter protects your body from the outside elements. This
includes heat, cold, rain, snow, the sun, and wind.
It also protects you from
insects and other creatures that seek to do you harm.
The survival expert has several layers of shelter to think
about. The first layer of shelter is the clothing you choose to wear.
Your
clothing is of vital importance and must be wisely chosen according to the
environment you are likely to find yourself in.
Be sure to dress in layers in
order to maximize your ability to adapt to changing conditions.
The next layer of shelter is the one you may have to build
yourself, a lean-to or debris hut perhaps.
This is only limited by your
inventiveness and ingenuity. If the situation requires, your shelter can be
insulated with whatever is at hand for the purpose.
Being prepared, you may
have a space blanket or tarp with you, in which case creating a shelter should
be relatively easy.
Before you are in need of making survival shelter, be sure
to practice and experiment with a variety of materials and survival scenarios
on a regular basis.
Should the need arise you will be glad you did.
By signalling to make contact with people who can rescue you
without having to be in actual physical contact with them.
There are a variety
of ways to signal for help. These include using fire and smoke,flashlights,
bright colour clothing and other markers, reflective mirrors, whistles, and
personal locator beacons and don’t forget the ResQbrite signal panel I have
just reviewed.
Three of anything is considered a signal for help: 3
gunshots, 3 blows on a whistle, three sticks in the shape of a triangle.
In a pinch, your ingenuity in devising a way to signal
potential help could very well save your life.
Whenever you plan an excursion be sure to always bring extra
food and  water
Having more on hand than
you think you need will give you that extra measure of safety should something
happened and you have to stay out longer than anticipated.
It is important that you know
How to ration water and food as well as find more in the
environment in which you find yourself.
You can go without food for a number of
days, but living without water for even a few days will cause your efficiency
to drop dramatically.
If at all possible, boil any water you find in order to kill
disease organisms that maybe in even the cleanest looking water.
Filtering or
chemically treating water is second best.
Always bring along your first aid kit and a space blanket.
Most injuries you are likely to encounter in the wilderness are relatively
minor scrapes, cuts, bruises, and burns.
Larger injuries are going to need
better facilities than that which you have at your disposal, which means you
will need outside help.
Panic is your number one enemy when you are in any emergency
situation, be it injured, lost, or stranded.
What you need in these situations
is first aid for the mind.
Think STOP:
Sit
Think
Observe
Plan
Your best defence in any emergency is your ability to think
and make correct decisions.
Building a fire is often the beginning first aid for the
mind
.
Doing so will keep you busy and provide an uplift from the warmth, light
and protection fire provides.
The expert survivals kills and know-how you have accumulated
through practice and experience will serve you well.
When the real thing comes
along, you will be prepared and adept at staying alive.
Where others have perished, as a survivor you will know you
can make it.
And that is a good feeling to be sure.
Flooded Out- Humour
It rained for days and days and there was a terrific flood.
The water rose so high that one man was forced to climb on top of his roof and
sat in the rain.
As the waters came up higher a man in a rowboat came up to the
house and told him to get in. “No thank you, the Lord will save me!”
he said, and the man in the rowboat rowed away.
The waters rose to the edge of the roof and still the man
sat on the roof until another rowboat came by and another man told him to get
in. “No thank you, the Lord will save me!” he said again, and the man
rowed away.
The waters covered the house and the man was forced to sit
on his chimney as the rain poured down and a helicopter came by and another man
urged him to get in or he’ll drown. “No thank you,” the man said
again, “The Lord will save me!”
After much begging and pleading the man in the helicopter
gave up and flew away.
The waters rose above the chimney and the man drowned
and went to heaven where he met God.
“Lord, I don’t understand,” he told Him,
frustrated, “The waters rose higher and higher and I waited hours for you
to save me but you didn’t! Why?”
The Lord just shook his head and said,
“What are you
talking about? I sent two boats and a helicopter?!”
The Effects of EMP
Identifying the systems that would probably fail if there
were a strong-enough EMP from either a massive solar CME, a nuclear EMP weapon,
or a tactical EMP bomb, is easier to speculate than items that might survive an
EMP.
There are some obvious items that would survive, but many are not that obvious.
An EMP, an ‘ electro-magnetic-pulse’, is a side-effect of a
nuclear explosion, a coronal mass ejection (from the Sun), or a purposed EMP
bomb.
An EMP is a near instantaneous and invisible ‘ZAP’ of electricity that
surges through electrical wires and electrical semiconductor components.
‘IF’ the EMP is strong enough and the electronic components
are close enough to the source, then these components could fry. Once they are
fried, that’s it…they’re done.
Only physical replacements will bring the
systems back up and running.
So, while attempting to discover what items will survive an
EMP, we need to know what is INSIDE the item… namely, if there are any
electronic semiconductors (transistors, IC ‘chips’, microprocessors, etc.).
It is the microscopic semiconductor ‘junctions’ themselves
that are vulnerable to melting due to an excess of electrical current being
forced through the junction (from the EMP).
Also, an EMP will be carried through overhead power lines
(at the speed of light) and could instantaneously overwhelm power transformers
along the grid with excess electrical current, causing the windings of the
transformers to melt into a molten blob.
The power lines will also carry the
EMP (at the speed of light) far and wide into homes and businesses in search of
semiconductors to fry.
Here’s another thing to know… an EMP’s energy will decay the
further away from the source that you get.
Electronic circuits that are further
away will be less vulnerable to the EMP. How far away?
Well that depends (of
course). It depends on the overall strength of the EMP, the altitude of the
EMP, the ‘line-of-sight’ distance from the EMP, and any protection that the
device might have to protect it from an EMP.
After all that, the simple answer to what items might
survive, are those items that do not contain semiconductors!
The problem is, nearly all devices today contain
semiconductors!
If the device you are wondering about contains any digital
interface whatsoever, then you can probably kiss it good-bye.
Often it may be
difficult to even know if there are semiconductors in a device. Even if there
is no digital interface, there could still very well be semiconductors or
electronic circuits somewhere inside.
Electric heaters… Forget about it. The grid will probably be
down.
Oil heat… The burner’s ignition transformers, electronic
control circuits, and electronic controlled pumps will fry. Plus, with no
electrical power, the pumps won’t function.
Natural gas heat… The utility gas pressure will probably
remain for a while, but electronic thermostats or gas valve controllers may
fry.
Some basic-style natural gas heaters, such as wall units, could be lit
manually though – until the pressure runs out.
Portable heaters… Most self-fuelled heaters without
electronic controls will survive –until your fuel source runs out. If it plugs
in, it’s toast.
Wood Stove heater… Ding Ding Ding… we have a winner!
Let’s talk cars.
As most of us know, any new car today is jam packed full of
electronics. Forget it. It’s dead.
Any car made with electronic ignition and fuel injection
will probably stop in its tracks.
Cars have been being built with these features longer than
you may think in fact since the (1980′s).
Depending on the exact vehicle, you
may be somewhat ‘safe’ with a car built in the early 1980′s, 1970′s or earlier.
It would take some significant research to list the vehicles
built without these electronic systems, but suffice it to say that most any
vehicle today is vulnerable to EMP failure (if close enough to the EMP source).
So should you re-think your choice of bug out vehicle?

 

 

Let’s talk ‘general’.
Generally speaking, ranging from tools, to appliances, to
heaters, to vehicles… if it has electronic circuits, it is vulnerable to EMP.
This basically leaves hand tools, hand operated or primitive appliances, wood
stove heat, and old vehicles.
We’re talking living like the 1800′s or earlier.
While the threat of an EMP to the degree of mass power cuts
is apparently slim, the fact is that it is not zero.
A huge portion of the world population today relies on
electricity for survival.
It has enabled great advancements in civilization.
The lack thereof could enable great setbacks to civilization.
Be prepared.

 

Inland fish for
food
Millions of anglers catch fish only to put them straight
back again. Isn’t it time were discovered the culinary potential of freshwater
species?
While Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall has been raising awareness
about sea fishing with his Fish Fight campaign, it seems a good time to cast an
eye inland to our native freshwater species: the pike, perch, zander, chub,
carp, bream and gudgeon that swim largely un eaten in our lakes and rivers.
Britain has a rich history of consuming freshwater species.
In the past those who didn’t live near the sea ate whatever they could coax out
of inland waterways.
Monastic gardens and manor houses almost always had a fish
pond or moat where freshwater species were farmed for Friday fish suppers and
feasts.
You would struggle to find any of the species above
displayed on a fishmonger’s slab in the UK these days, but they all make a
worthy feast.
Some cultures have never forgotten this – the British angling press
is frequently peppered with tales of resourceful eastern Europeans taking prize
carp, something of a delicacy in their part of the world, home for tea.
With an estimated three million anglers in the UK regularly
pulling fish out of the water only to put them straight back, why is it that we
don’t we eat more of our native freshwater species?
One of the main reasons
must be that we are a nation of sporting folk; freshwater species are targeted
on both quality and quantity criteria.
Specimen hunters invest plenty of time and money in the
pursuit of large individuals of species such as pike, carp, barbel and the
non-native catfish.
The reward is twofold: an epic fight and the possibility of
a new personal best or even a record-breaker.
On the other hand, match fishermen go for quantity and any
species is welcome regardless of size.
All these perfectly edible fish are put
into a keep net to be weighed up at the end of the day before being released
back into the water.
Many cultures would view this practice as verging on
insanity, but it is our quality of life and today’s convenience culture that
has turned fishing in the UK from a necessity into a mass-participation sport.
Only those fishing for trout, sea trout and salmon seem to take something home
for the table.
People are also nervous about the legality of fishing. 
There’s no need; in England and Wales as long as you are in possession of a £27
rod licence and have permission from the water’s owner, the Environment Agency
states that on any given day an angler may remove 15 small (up to 20cm) native
species including barbel, chub,common bream, common carp, crucian carp, dace,
grayling, perch, pike, roach,rudd, silver bream, smelt, tench and zander
(non-native) as well as one pike of up to 65cm and two grayling of 30-38cm.
Another reason this subject is often approached with
apprehension is that many people believe freshwater fish will taste muddy.
Fish
from free-flowing waters don’t tend to suffer from this problem, although those
from still waters can.
As seening an episode of River Cottage Forever, the only
antidote is to cleanse the fish through a de-mudification programme of 3-4 days
in a spring-fed tank.
I’m afraid the bath tub just won’t do.
To ensure these fish find their way into your kitchen, you
have to catch them yourself. So what to catch? I’ve been fishing since
childhood and over the years I have eaten my way through a number of freshwater
species.
My favourite used to be eel, but as the number of young eels returning
to European rivers has fallen by 95% it is now illegal to remove any caught by
rod and line, but there are plenty of other options.
Perch are a beautiful fish, green scaled with black stripes
down their flanks, an impressive spiked dorsal fin and a ferocious pack-hunter
mentality.
Although nearly wiped out in UK waters in the 1970s and 1980s by a
lethal virus, thankfully they have made a remarkable comeback.
Perch have firm
white flesh similar to bass.
To cook, simply de-scale, fillet, toss in seasoned
flour and pan fry with lemon juice: a recipe the French refer to as filet de
perche.
The chub is deemed to be an inedible fish, Izaak Walton
referred to it as being “full of forked bones, the flesh is not firm, but
short and tasteless”.
And I could not agree more.
If any freshwater species is guilty of tasting muddy, then
it is the carp.
Due to increasing pressure on our saltwater stocks and
adoration from Eastern Europeans in the UK, consumption of this fish is
beginning to rise for the first since the middle ages.
Again, the flesh is firm
and meaty and stands up to a variety of different ways of cooking, although
baking is the best method.
The sinister pike is another excellent eating fish, I have
had a few in restaurants in France Not only are they cannibals, regularly
feasting on other pike often more than half their own size.
Their mouths
contain a series of backward-pointing teeth: once something goes in, it’s not
coming out.
Pike can also grow to alarming size – the British record presently
stands at a mighty 46lbs 13oz.
Even dead pike have a secret weapon; once cooked they
possess a substantial number of Y-shaped bones along the fillet.
Once removed
they have a mild taste which is quite pleasant.
As with growing and eating your own vegetables, catching and
cooking a fish you have wrestled out of the depths gives a feeling of deep
satisfaction.
With the pressure on our oceans at an all-time high, perhaps it
is time to look at less familiar options.
For those who do fish, please
consider tasting your catch. And if you don’t, consider taking it up: you’ll be
in a position to get your hands on some of the freshest possible fish.
Many of the fish I’ve mentioned above have been staple foods
in the past, so why are we so put off by them now?
If you’ve tucked into some
of our lesser-known freshwater fish you will know what I mean.

Wilderness Myths

FIREMYTHS
Survival Matches – I see “waterproof survival
matches” listed in more kits than I care to count, and I got to say…
terrible idea.
While it may add a sense of drama to a movie when
“Rambo” is down to his last couple matches, you don’t need that kind
of drama if you’re in a life or death situation!
The space and weight taken up in a kit or in your pocket by
a dozen “survival” matches would be better filled with a small Bic
lighter.
A lighter will start a LOT more fires than those few
matches. If you’re worried about the lighter failing, then bring a magnesium
fire starter.
These are 100% waterproof, will light thousands of fires, and the
magnesium burns a lot hotter than matches.
Torch Method – This is a method I’ve seen by which you
can break the bulb of your flashlight, and then use the coil inside to light a
fire.
Simply put… give it a shot in your backyard and you’ll
find that it’s great at destroying flashlights but terrible at actually
starting fires!
Recommendation bring a lighter, and uses your Torch for… LIGHT!
Ice Lens Method – Can you start a fire with a lens that you
fashion from ice? Probably not.
Scientifically, it’s possible, but in all practical sense,
the odds are really slim to none.
Seriously, give it a try in the comfort of
your own backyard on a nice warm day.
Feel free to let me know how well this works. Also, while
you’re wasting hours on this, imagine that you’re also freezing to death in a
snowy, icy environment.
You’ll quickly realize that this is a colossal waste of your
time and energy, and you won’t get a fire going. I guarantee you that.

 

 

Recommendation bring a lighter!
SHELTERMYTHS
High Ground is Warmer – This is one survival tale that keeps
popping up all over the place.
We’re told that when considering locations for a shelter, we
should avoid valleys and low lying areas because cold settles there and it may
be several degrees colder than higher ground.
This is scientifically sound, but in actual practice… it’s
pure, unadulterated bullshit.
This is because while a thermometer may show a
few degrees difference between two elevations, thermometers are incapable of
measuring wind chill factors.
In most cases, higher elevations are exposed to a lot more
wind while small valleys and lower areas are sheltered from it.
A thermometer may show that actual air temperature has
increased 2 or 3 degrees by moving to higher ground, but the temperature as far
as your body is concerned is likely to have dropped by20 or 30 degrees.
Wind will suck away your body heat faster than you can
generate it. Today as I write this, it’s almost 50 degrees and sunny outside…
a seemingly nice January afternoon.
However, today’s wind chill factor drops that to somewhere
between 20 and 30… And suddenly it’s not so great!
Now consider what happens once you get a fire going. 
Most
fires will quickly heat the surrounding area, but when you have some wind
factored in, most of that heat is carried off.
Also remember that a fire in the wind is going to consume
about twice as much wood. You’ll spend most of your time and energy finding
firewood, and then get very little heat as a reward!
Not a very good trade off. As such, one of your primary
concerns is to find a place that’s very sheltered from the wind and elements,
and then build yourself a nice, warm fire to keep you warm!
Shelters Should Be Built From Dead Materials –
This one came
from our friends in the “green”survival movement.
They are far more concerned that a few trees might get
killed than they are about your life.
All advice from them should be considered highly suspect.
Imagine building your shelter as a big pile of dead leaves and wood.
Now imagine having a campfire anywhere near that. Do you
really want to climb in there and go to sleep? Nuff’said.
WATERMYTHS
Boil for 10 Minutes – This is one so old, I don’t even know
where it came from. I’ve also heard 5 minutes, 15 minutes and even 20 minutes
of boiling time.
All of these are B S
I’ll keep this short… if the water reaches boiling point, it’s safe to
drink, period, end of story.
Divining Rods – This is another old wives tale. Use your
common sense and you’ll probably find water
Use a forked stick and “mystical psychic powers”,
and you may find yourself very dead.
I’ve heard people claim that a divining rod is simply
tapping into one’s subconscious thoughts.
I suppose if you’re some sort of
walking emotional wreck who keeps every shred of logic and common sense buried
away in your subconscious… then sure… go ahead and wave your stick.
Hold a séance while you’re at it.
Maybe the spirits will
tell you where to find water.
The rest of us (sane folks) will simply think our way
through the situation.Common sense says water runs downhill.
If you walk downhill, you’re pretty likely to find water.
Birds and animal trails can also lead you to water… they need it as much as
you do.
FOODMYTHS

 

 

Plants Are a Good Source of Food in the Wilderness –
Unless
you’re a certified expert not just in plants, but in the plants of the given
region you happen to be in, stay the hell away from the plants!
Here’s the facts…
– ALL fur bearing mammals are safe to eat, and will provide
you with nutrients and calories.
– ALL 6 legged insects are safe to eat, and will provide you
with nutrients and calories.
– Almost all freshwater fish and almost all birds are safe
to eat, and will provide you with nutrients and calories.
…and finally – MOST plants will harm you, make you sick,
or worse… poison you.
There are actually very few that will provide you with
any nutrients or calories.
It’s a simple equation… if it walks, crawls, swims, or
flies, the odds are in your favor that it’s not only safe to eat, but that it
will provide you with the nutrition and energy your body needs.
If it sits there like… umm… like a plant, the odds are
against you both for your own physical safety, and for nutritional content.
It’s just not worth the gamble unless you’re absolutely sure!

Street Riots

Following numerous reports of failures on behalf of police
to arrest looters or adequately respond during the riots in, curfews and troops
on the streets are now being readied as authorities prepare to enforce martial
law to quell massive civil unrest in the future.
During the riots BBC News twice reported that troops were
being readied. The statement was first made by a reporter at 8:30 one morning
and then repeated by a Metropolitan Police representative who said “all options
were on the table
”.
U.K. Home Secretary Theresa May confirmed that the
government is considering “military support for the police”.
Curfews where also being discussed as authorities prepared
to transform Britain into a locked down police state.
“Armoured vehicles had been brought in to clear the streets
for the first time by police to tackle what senior officers say is the worst
rioting and looting in living memory,”
“I have not heard of a curfew on mainland Britain in the
past century. I would say that they are very difficult to impose.
“I’m not saying that it is definitely the way forward but it
is something we have to consider,” Diane Abbott, Labour MP for Hackney North
and Stoke Newington told BBC Breakfast.
Former London mayor Ken Livingstone even called for police
to use water cannons to disperse the rioters.
As we know they started in poorer areas of London, and
spread to other major cities including Bristol, Nottingham, Liverpool and
Manchester.
There can be little doubt that the vast majority of the
rioters are products of the country’s broken society, nihilistic youths who
care little about political grievances and are primarily focused with
exploiting the chaos to steal as much booty as they possibly can while getting
off on mindless violence.
This behaviour ensures I think that the public will over whelming
support whatever measures are proposed to deal with them, even to the point of
outright martial law.
These youths should not be seen as the vanguard of some kind
of genuine revolution against an abusive system.
If that were the case they
would be rioting outside of Downing Street, the Houses of Parliament and
Buckingham Palace.
Instead they are burning down private homes and businesses while
looting high-end electrical goods and clothing.
But what has exacerbated the situation is the lacklustre
police response, with numerous reports from the public that police stood back
and allowed looters to pillage both large department stores and private small
businesses for hours on end.
During the initial riots in Tottenham on the Sunday night,
police were criticized for “standing back and allowing rioters to cause havoc.”
This trend continued throughout the three nights of mayhem, with eyewitnesses
bewildered at how the police had obviously been ordered not to arrest looters
and rioters in some instances.
I have been predicting the onset of widespread rioting and
civil unrest for years, particularly in the UK.
Last year I wrote on a very well-known website wrote that
crippling austerity cuts would force the economically deprived to “take to the
streets with a mind-set of nothing to lose if the government hand outs they
have become dependent on are drastically reduced.”
Make no mistake about it, these riots will be hastily
exploited by the system to turn Britain into an even more controlled and
surveilled police state than it already is.
The riots achieved absolutely nothing aside from making the
establishment look reasonable in whatever response it takes, measures which
will be fully supported by a public bombarded with images of chaos, looting and
burning.
However I think the next time will be different and some of
the measures used to quell the rioters may even affect us the bystanders in
ways we had not contemplated at all.
There are many myths surrounding the subject of wilderness
survival, believe me I have heard many of them.
I wanted to dispel these myths,
expose them for what they are, and bring some sense of reality and practicality
back into the subject.

Drying Food to Preserve it

Drying is the oldest method of preserving food. The early
American settlers dried foods such as corn, apple slices, currants, grapes, and
meat.
Compared with other methods, drying is quite simple. In fact, you may
already have most of the equipment on hand. Dried foods keep well because the
moisture content is so low that spoilage organisms cannot grow.
Drying will never replace canning and freezing because these
methods do a better job of retaining the taste, appearance, and nutritive value
of fresh food.
But drying is an excellent way to preserve foods that can add
variety to meals and provide delicious, nutritious snacks.
One of the biggest
advantages of dried foods is that they take much less storage space than canned
or frozen foods.
Recommended methods for canning and freezing have been
determined by research and widespread experience.
Home drying, however, does
not have firmly established procedures. Food can be dried several ways, for
example, by the sun if the air is hot and dry enough, or in an oven or dryer if
the climate is humid.
With the renewed interest in gardening and natural foods and
because of the high cost of commercially dried products, drying foods at home
is becoming popular again.
Drying is not difficult, but it does take time and a
lot of attention. Although there are different drying methods, the guidelines
remain the same.
Although solar drying is a popular and very inexpensive
method, Illinois does not have a suitable climate for it.
Dependable solar
dehydration of foods requires 3 to 5 consecutive days when the temperature is
95 degrees F. and the humidity is very low.
The average relative humidity in
central Illinois on days with 95 degrees F. temperatures is usually 86 per
cent. Solar drying is thus not feasible.
Drying food in the oven of a kitchen range, on the other
hand, can be very expensive. In an electric oven, drying food has been found to
be nine to twelve times as costly as canning it.
Food dehydrators are less
expensive to operate but are only useful for a few months of the year.
A
convection oven can be the most economical investment if the proper model is
chosen. A convection oven that has a controllable temperature starting at 120
degrees F. and a continuous operation feature rather than a timer-controlled
one will function quite well as a dehydrator during the gardening months.
For
the rest of the year it can be used as a tabletop oven.
For a good-quality product, vegetables and fruits must be
prepared for drying as soon as possible after harvesting. They should be
blanched, cooled, and laid out to dry without delay.
Foods should be dried
rapidly, but not so fast that the outside becomes hard before the moisture
inside has a chance to evaporate.
Drying must not be interrupted. Once you start drying the
food, don’t let it cool down in order to start drying again later.
Mold and
other spoilage organisms can grow on partly dried food.
During the first part of the drying process, the air temperature
can be relatively high, that is, 150 degrees to 160 degrees F. (65 degrees to
70 degrees C.), so that moisture can evaporate quickly from the food.
Because
food loses heat during rapid evaporation, the air temperature can be high
without increasing the temperature of the food.
But as soon as surface moisture
is lost (the outside begins to feel dry) and the rate of evaporation slows
down, the food warms up.
The air temperature must then be reduced to about 140
degrees F. (60 degrees C.).
Toward the end of the drying process the food can scorch
easily, so you must watch it carefully. Each fruit and vegetable has a critical
temperature above which a scorched taste develops.
The temperature should be
high enough to evaporate moisture from the food, but not high enough to cook
the food.  
Carefully follow directions for regulating temperatures.
Rapid dehydration is desirable. The higher the temperature
and the lower the humidity, the more rapid the rate of dehydration will be.
Humid air slows down evaporation. Keep this in mind if you plan to dry food on
hot, muggy summer days.
If drying takes place too fast, however, “case
hardening” will occur. This means that the cells on the outside of the
pieces of food give up moisture faster than the cells on the inside.
The
surface becomes hard, preventing the escape of moisture from the inside.
 Moisture in the food escapes by evaporating into the air.
Trapped air soon takes on as much moisture as it can hold, and then drying can
no longer take place.
this reason, be sure the ventilation around your oven
or in your food dryer is adequate.
Drying the food evenly takes a little extra effort and
attention. Stirring the pieces of food frequently and shifting the racks in the
oven or dryer are essential because heat is not the same in all parts of the
dryer.
For the best results, spread thin layers of uniformly-sized pieces of
food on the drying racks.
Dried fruits are a good source of energy because they
contain concentrated fruit sugars. Fruits also contain a rather large amount of
vitamins and minerals.
The drying process, however, destroys some of the
vitamins, especially A and C. Exposing fruit to sulfur before drying helps
retain vitamins A and C. Sulfur destroys thiamine, one of the B vitamins, but
fruit is not an important source of thiamine anyway. Many dried fruits are rich
in riboflavin and iron.
Vegetables are a good source of minerals and the B vitamins
thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. Both fruits and vegetables provide useful
amounts of the fiber (bulk) we need.
Save the water used for soaking or cooking
dried foods because this nutrient-rich water can be used in recipes to make
soups, sauces, and gravy.
Many kinds of fresh fruits, vegetables, herbs, meat, and
fish can be dried. If you have never tried drying food before, though, it’s a
good idea to experiment first by drying a small quantity in the oven.
This way
you can see if you like the taste and texture of dried food. At the same time,
you can become familiar with the drying process.
Fruits are easier to dry than vegetables because moisture
evaporates wore easily, and not as much moisture must be removed for the
product to keep.
Ripe apples, berries, cherries, peaches, apricots, and pears
are practical to dry.
Vegetables that are also practical to dry include peas,
corn, peppers, zucchini, okra, onions, and green beans.
Produce from the
supermarket is usually more expensive and not as fresh as it should be for
drying.
It is a waste of time and energy to dry vegetables such as carrots that
can be kept for several months in a cool, dry basement or cellar.
Fresh herbs of all types are suitable for drying. The parts
of the plant to dry vary, but leaves, seeds, or blossoms usually give the best
results.
Lean meats such as beef, lamb, and venison can be dried for
jerky.
Fish also is excellent when dried. Certain foods are not suitable for
drying because of their high moisture content.
Lettuce, melons, and cucumbers
are a few foods that do not dry well.
Don’t be surprised to find a variety of suggestions for
drying methods, temperatures, and lengths of time.
The drying process is simply
not as precise as canning and freezing because it involves so many different
factors.
You may need to use a trial-and-error approach to find what suits you
best. Whatever method you use, be sure to remove enough moisture from the final
product so that spoilage organisms cannot grow.
When you dry foods, remember the following:

 

 

Cleanliness and sanitation are essential.

 

 

The flavour of dried fruits and vegetables will be somewhat
different from that of their fresh, canned, or frozen counterparts.
One of the advantages of drying foods rather than canning or
freezing them is that you can get by with almost no special equipment.
A
kitchen oven, drying trays or racks, and storage containers are the only basic
equipment needed. If you want to dry large quantities of food, you may decide
to buy or make a food dryer, but it is not essential.
For sun drying you need
only racks and storage containers.
Although the following equipment is not absolutely
necessary, it will help you make a more uniformly good product:
 a food scale to weigh
food before and after drying an electric fan to circulate the air
a thermometer to check the oven temperature
a blancher for vegetables
a sulfur box for fruit
Wood slats or stainless steel screen mesh are the best
materials to use for the racks. Cake racks or a wooden frame covered with
cheesecloth or other loosely-woven cloth can also be used for drying racks.
Do not use solid metal trays or cookie sheets to dry food
because air must circulate all around the food so that drying can take place
from the bottom and the top at the same time.
Pieces of meat for jerky can be
placed directly on the metal racks in the oven if the pieces are large enough
not to fall through the spaces in the racks.
Do not use racks made of galvanized screen, aluminum,
copper, fiberglass, or vinyl. Galvanized screen contains zinc and cadmium.
These metals cause an acid reaction that forms harmful compounds and darkens
the food. Aluminum becomes discolored and causes an off-flavor in sulfured
fruit.
Copper materials destroy vitamin C. Fiberglass may leave dangerous
splinters in the food, and vinyl melts at temperatures used for drying.
Oven drying is the simplest way to dry food because you need
almost no special equipment. It is also faster than sun drying or using a food
dryer.
But oven drying can be used only on a small scale. An ordinary kitchen
oven can hold only 4 to 6 pounds of food at one time.
Set the oven on the lowest possible setting and preheat to
140 degrees F. (60 C.).
Do not use the broiler unit of an electric oven because
the food on the top tray will dry too quickly’ Remove the unit if it has no
separate control.
Some gas ovens have a pilot right, which may keep the oven
warm enough to dry the food.
It is important to keep the oven temperature at 140 to 160
F. (60 to 70 C.). So put an oven thermometer on the top tray about half way
back where you can see it easily.
Check the temperature about every half hour.
Arrange 1 to 2 pounds of prepared food in a single layer on
each tray. Put one tray on each oven rack. Allow 1-1/2 inches of space on the
sides, front, and back of the trays so that air can circulate all around them
in the oven.
To stack more trays in the oven, use blocks of wood in the comers
of the racks to hold the trays at least I inches apart. Dry no more than four
trays of food at a time.  
A lighter load dries faster than a full load.
Keep the oven door open slightly during drying. A rolled
newspaper, a block of wood, or a hot pad will keep the door ajar so that moist
air can escape while the heat stays in the oven.
Four to six inches for
electric ovens or 1 to 2 inches for gas ovens is usually enough space for
ventilation, but use a thermometer to check the oven temperature to make sure
it stays at 140 F.
An electric fan placed in front of the oven door helps to
keep the air circulating.
Shifting the trays often is important for even drying
because the temperature is not the same everywhere in the oven.
Rotate the
trays from top to bottom and from front to back every half hour. It helps to
number the trays so you can keep track of the order in which you rotate them.
Stirring fruit or vegetables every half hour or so also helps the food to dry
evenly. jerky needs to be turned over occasionally to keep it from sticking to
the trays.

 

Benefits of
Animals when Living Off the Grid
If you go the extra mile and decide to raise animals, you
will greatly reduce your dependence on the outside world shops &
supermarkets for example because animals can provide you with the following:
Meat and Poultry (fresh meat, no hormones, healthier food).
Milk and Eggs (will make you happy every morning).
You can obtain other by-products such as cheese and butter
(once you learn how to make them).
Animals are great pets and can bring joy to the whole
family.
Can keep the grass mowed down for you.
Can provide you with fertilizers for your plants.
They can multiply, which means you have the option to sell
or increase production.
Goats are the best choice when living off the grid, because
they’re low maintenance, they can basically take care of themselves.
Goats can
survive on bushes, trees, desert scrub and aromatic herbs when sheep and cattle
would starve to death. Goat milk casein and milk fat are more easily digested
than cow milk.
Goat milk is valued for the elderly, sick, babies, children with
cow milk allergies, patients with ulcers.
Goats have a lot to offer, and they don’t ask much in
return. They can clear invasive weeds, offer fresh goat milk, and they can be a
fun pet. They can also be used for meat if necessary.
Goats can be quite a bit
of work too, but many city dwellers are finding that raising urban goats is
quite rewarding.
Before getting a cow, think hard about it. A cow is the
biggest tie in the farm, you will have to milk her twice a day, to feed the cow
you need to grow fodder, to use up the manure from the cow you will have to dig
or plough more land … unless you’re dedicated to spend more time in the farm,
think loud and often before getting a cow.
On the other hand, a cow will save
you more money in the farm than anything else, milk, butter and cheese go up
and up in price, you can also sell or trade calves if you want for something
else you might need more in the farm.
Sheep are a very good thing to keep, for the self-supporter.
Sheep live and fatten on grass. Don’t even make demands on your hay unless the
ground is covered with snow (and even then they won’t eat hay unless they have
previously learnt to); they are thus cheap to keep.
A good number would be 4
ewes and a ram (or ask a neighbouring farmer if you could borrow his ram for a
few days).
Choose the breed that is native to the country you live in.
Very good pasture may carry three ewes with their lambs per acre, less good two
ewes and their lambs.
You might average one and a half lambs per ewe. But they
will do far better if you rotate them around the farm: put them on, say, a
quarter of your grass acreage and keep them there until they have nibbled the
grass right down, then move them on to the next quarter.
In this way let them
follow the cows—sheep will graze very advantageously after cows have had all
they can get: cows will starve after sheep.
To raise chicken the humane and healthy way is to give them
enough space to scrap, to perch, to flap their wings and take dust baths (which
is not possible and even cruel in a wire cage).
If you want to have eggs all
year then a couple of dozen of hens will do.
Give each hen a handful of grain
every evening and a handful or two of high protein food in the morning, and any
scraps you can spare, and they will do the rest.
They will eat a lot of grass
and a lot of earwigs. They will hatch you out a clutch of pretty little chicks.
Keep them out of your garden or they will play hell with it.
Always keep a cock among your hens, hens like having it off
as much as we do.
Let your chicken run right out into the fields and woods.
They will be getting so much free food.
Why go in for incubators and brooders
when hens will do all that work for nothing for you?
Hens will be able to give
you eggs from grain and household scraps alone, but not many. If hens are
really to produce eggs they must have some protein.
Raising geese is very easy and require very low maintenance
if any. A pen of geese, say three geese and a gander will run happily about the
fields, and live on grass with just a handful of grain thrown to them every
night to lure them home to shut them in from the foxes, otherwise they don’t
need any grain.
But you must protect them from rats and foxes. Rats will
pull goose eggs, or young geese, right out from under the feathers of the goose
mother.
A fox will go miles to get a sitting goose. When geese begin to lay,
say in February or March, if you are lucky enough to have a broody hens then,
you will have to splash eggs with water every day, because a hen doesn’t know
this part of goose mother’s duties.

What’s a Pandemic?

A pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that is
spreading through human populations across a large region; for instance a
continent, or even worldwide.
However, flu pandemics exclude seasonal flu,
unless the flu of the season is a pandemic. Throughout history there have been
a number of pandemics, such as smallpox and tuberculosis. More recent pandemics
include the HIV pandemic and the 2009 swine flu pandemic.
Pandemics are easily spread in urban areas, because of their
heavily populated nature.
Therefore it’s very important to understand the way
pandemics spread and how to prevent them from infecting you.
Pandemics have different methods of spreading, so to protect
from a wide spread disease, you need to learn how it can infect you.
If we
focus on the main killers of our new age, we will find out that the swine flu,
is one of the biggest killers, and therefore it’s necessary to point out the
ways H1N1 spreads from one person to another.
Spread of 2009 H1N1 virus is thought to occur in the same
way that seasonal flu spreads. Flu viruses are spread mainly from person to
person through coughing or sneezing by people with influenza.
Sometimes people
may become infected by touching something – such as a surface or object – with
flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose or rubbing their eyes.
When living in urban areas, you will have contact with
people at a very frequent basis. That means your chances of getting infected is
higher.
Here are tips to protect yourself from being infected, whether it’s a
pandemic or just a regular flu season, the following steps are everyday actions
that can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like
the flu.
Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or
sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.
Wash your hands often with soap and water. If soap and water
are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub.
Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this
way.
Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
Avoid crowds and other social distancing measures
(especially during pandemics).
If you are sick with flu-like illness, it is recommended
that you stay home for at least 24 hours after your fever is gone except to get
medical care or for other necessities. (Your fever should be gone without the
use of a fever-reducing medicine for the majority of the cases.)
Keep away from
others as much as possible to keep from making others sick.
The Greek physician Hippocrates, the “Father of
Medicine”, first described influenza in 412 BC.
The first influenza pandemic was recorded in 1580 and since
then influenza pandemics occurred every 10 to 30 years.
The “Asiatic Flu”, 1889–1890, was first reported
in May 1889 in Bukhara, Uzbekistan, and spread worldwide in a matter of months.
It had a very high attack and mortality rate.
About 1 million people died in
this pandemic.
The “Spanish flu”, 1918–1919. Had spread to become
a worldwide pandemic on all continents, and eventually infected an estimated
one third of the world’s population (or ≈500 million persons).
Unusually deadly
and virulent, it ended nearly as quickly as it began, vanishing completely
within 18 months.
In six months, some 50 million were dead; some estimates put
the total of those killed worldwide at over twice that number.
The “Asian Flu”, 1957–58. An H2N2 virus caused
about 70,000 deaths in the United States. First identified in China in late
February 1957, the Asian flu spread to the United States by June 1957.
It
caused about 2 million deaths globally.
The “Hong Kong Flu”, 1968–69. An H3N2 caused about
34,000 deaths in the United States.
This virus was first detected in Hong Kong
in early 1968, and spread to the United States later that year.
This pandemic
of 1968 and 1969 killed an estimated one million people worldwide.

Fishing to Survive

In a survival situation, once you have found shelter, built
a fire and collected water, your next task will be to find food resources.
And
whilst it is perfectly possible to exist without food for a few weeks and live
off edible wild plants and berries, you’ll no doubt be glad of a hearty meal.
Therefore, it’s very useful to learn some fishing skills and here are some
tips; assuming that you have no fishing gear with you.
If you’re near water, the first thing you must do if you’re
looking to catch fish is to spend a bit of time observing how the fish behave
each day.
Like you, they’ll also be looking for their next meal, so you’ll need
to establish their habits – when they’re active, where in the water they head
for etc.
An additional tip, however, is to consider the temperature
if you’re not sure where to look. In hot weather where the water is low, you’ll
probably find them in deeper shaded water and when it’s cooler, you’ll find
them in shallower areas where the sun warms the water up.
Some type of cord should always form part of your survival
kit anyway and if you haven’t included a proper fishing hook too, you can
always improvise and craft one out of a piece of bone, thorn, wood or a safety
pin works just as well.
For bait, it’s useful to try to gain an idea of what the
fish in the area are eating. Insects, a piece of bread, some raw meat, if you
can find any, or worms are all good sources of bait.
Survival fishing isn’t an
exact science though. 
The more hooks you have in the water and your willingness
to be patient and to experiment are going to be your biggest allies. Bad
weather approaching is always a good time to go fishing as well as just after
dawn and just before dusk.
If you are handy using your knife to carve out a piece of
wood, making a spear to fish with in shallow water is another alternative but
if you see fish swimming around in shallow water, it’s a useful skill to learn
even though it takes an extreme amount of skill, quick reactions and patience.
A forked spear which can trap the fish between its prongs works best.
As for a net, you can fashion one out of using some kind of
shirt or T-shirt tied onto a Y shaped branch.
Only your imagination can limit you to the kinds of fish
traps you can engineer. 
One of the simplest methods is to use the effects of
the tide.
On a beach or area with tidal waters, build a circle of rocks and use
small pebbles to plug any gaps.
When the tide comes in, it will bring small
fish in with it.
Simply return to the rock circle later and see what you’ve
caught.
Most fish found in freshwater are edible although some will
taste better than others.
However, it’s important to remember that it’s not a
matter of taste but a matter of survival. Once caught, cut the throat and gut
it by slitting it from its anal passage to its throat removing the offal as you
go.
Remove the head, tail and fins then smoke, grill or boil it.

Emergency
Essentials

Even though emergency situations don’t happen very often,
when they do, they impact our lives to a great extent.
To minimize or eliminate
the negative effects of a certain emergency, you need to be prepared and have
the emergency essentials, in terms of knowledge, food, water, shelter, and an
escape plan.
When disaster strikes, we are caught by surprise and usually
unprepared.
But emergencies sometimes have a similar pattern and cause the same
problem even if they’re different in nature, therefore the steps to prepare for them is the same, for
example stocking food and water are steps that can help you in most national
emergencies, and that’s what we will discuss now.
Imagine there is an emergency in your city, or country, people will scramble to the shops,
there will be a panic, looting, and so on will result, if you still decide to
go to the store, you will find empty shelves or even closed shops.
Wouldn’t it
be better if when there is such an emergency, you sit with your family, and use
the food and water you have stored? You bet it would be.
As you stock food, take into account your family’s unique
needs. Try to include foods that they will enjoy and that are also high in
calories and nutrition.
Foods that require no refrigeration, water, special
preparation, or cooking are best. Take into consideration individuals with
special diets and allergies such as babies and the ill.
Make sure you have a
manual can opener and disposable utensils. Don’t forget non-perishable foods
for your pets.
Keep food in a dry, cool dark area if possible.
Open food boxes and other re-sealable containers carefully
so that you can close them tightly after each use.
Wrap perishable foods, such as cookies and crackers, in
plastic bags and keep them in sealed containers.
Empty open packages of sugar, dried fruits, and nuts into
screw-top jars or air-tight canisters for protection from pests.
Inspect all food for signs of spoilage before use.
Throw out canned goods that become swollen, dented, expired,
or corroded.
Use foods before they go bad, and replace them with fresh
supplies, dated with ink or marker.
Place new items at the back of the storage
area and older ones in front.
The following list shows the rough expiration dates of many
types of food. So make sure to replace the easily perishable food more often.
You should use the following within six months:
Powdered milk – boxed
Dry, crisp crackers
Potatoes
These foods should be used within one year, or before the
date indicated on the label:
Canned condensed meat and vegetable soups
Canned fruits, fruit juices, and vegetables
Ready-to-eat cereals and uncooked instant cereals
Peanut butter
Jelly
Hard candy and canned nuts
Vitamins
These foods however may be stored indefinitely (in proper
containers and conditions):
Wheat
Vegetable oils
Dried corn
Baking powder
Soybeans
Instant coffee, tea, and cocoa
Salt
Noncarbonated soft drinks
White rice
Bouillon products
Dry pasta
Honey
Powdered milk – in nitrogen-packed cans
Having an ample supply of clean water is a top priority in
an emergency.
A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts (half
gallon) of water each day. People in hot environments, children, nursing
mothers, and ill people will require even more.
You will also need water for
food preparation and hygiene.
Store at least one gallon per person, per day.
Consider
storing at least a two-week supply of water for each member of your family. If
you are unable to store this quantity, store as much as you can.
If supplies
run low, never ration water. Drink the amount you need today, and try to find
more for tomorrow. You can minimize the amount of water your body needs by
reducing activity and staying cool.
If there is an emergency, and you used up all the water you
stocked in your home, try the following.
Safe water sources in your home
include the water in your hot- water tank, pipes, and ice cubes.
You should not
use water from toilet flush tanks or bowls, radiators, waterbeds, or swimming
pools/spas.
You will need to protect the water sources already in your
home from contamination if you hear reports of broken water or sewage pipes, or
if local officials advise you of a problem. To shut off incoming water, locate
the main valve and turn it to the closed position.
Be sure you and other family
members know beforehand how to perform this important procedure.
To use the water in your pipes, let air into the plumbing by
turning on the tap in your home at the highest level. A small amount of water
will trickle out.
Then obtain water from the lowest tap in the home.
To use the water in your hot-water tank, be sure the
electricity or gas is off, and open the drain at the bottom of the tank.
Start
the water flowing by turning off the water intake valve at the tank and turning
on a hot-water tap. Refill the tank before turning the gas or electricity back
on.
If the gas is turned off, a professional will be needed to turn it back on.

Survival Knives

Survival knives are essential items for surviving and
thriving in the wilderness.
Since prehistoric times, people have carried knives
to protect themselves and to help build shelters, hunt and start fires.
The
oldest European mummy, Otzi, was found with a flint knife.
You too should carry
a survival knife when engaging in outdoor activities or have one in an
emergency pack, such as a 72 hour kit you keep in your home or car.
Survival knives come in different styles. Larger, heavier
knives are useful for actions you would use a machete for, such as clearing
brush or cutting thick ropes and wood.
However, you may not always have room
for something that large. Therefore, survival knives also come in small,
lightweight styles.
Whatever size knife you prefer, it is important to choose a
knife with a full length tang. The tang is the metal part in the middle of the
knife.
A survival knife has to be sturdy and must hold up to real challenges. A
thin tang is almost as bad a partial tang and could break when you need it most
Another choice for selecting a survival knife is a smooth or
serrated blade. Smooth blades have the advantage of being able to easily be
sharpened against stones if you find your blade dulling through usage.
Smooth
blades also cut and chop better than serrated blades.
Although serrated blades are difficult to sharpen if you are
out in nature, the serrated blades cut synthetic materials more easily.
Most
camping gear like tents and sleeping bags, especially winter gear, is made from
synthetic materials.
Both types can spark fires and work for defence from wild
animals or other people.
Survival knives are not just for accompanying you on planned
outings like camping trips or expeditions into the wild.
Survival knives are
useful for any type of emergency. They are important additions to 72 hour kits,
which are packs that contain the absolute essentials for a few days’ worth of
surviving on your own.
If you need to exit your home due to a fire, earthquake
or attack, as long as you have a 72 hour kit you have a good chance for staying
alive.
A 72 hour kit includes water, meals for a few days, a first
aid kit, personal documents, duct tape, soap, a flashlight and basic tools to
meet survival needs.
Surprisingly, many experts recommend only pocketknives for
inclusion in 72 hour kits. A pocketknife is a handy item, but try cutting
firewood or splitting logs with a pocketknife and you will wish you had packed
a survival knife instead.
Survival knives are much more versatile and practical than
other knives, and they do not have to cost a lot.
An inexpensive knife may go
for £20, though you can buy military quality knives for several hundred
dollars.
You do not have to be Crocodile Dundee or a Navy Seal to
need a survival knife.
You do not even have to be an outdoorsy person.
Anyone
can be the victim of a natural disaster or even a car accident on a lonely
road.
In these situations, would you
rather have a good knife and basic survival gear or just take your chances?

Survival Skills in Your Head

 

People sometimes forget that the smallest 20 Skills You Can
Trade After SHTF and most convenient storage space is in their own heads.
If
you find yourself in the midst of a disaster and you need to either build or
fix something, having the knowledge and experience already in your mind will
hugely benefit your ability to survive.
And if there’s something you need from
your neighbours but you’re not willing to trade any of your supplies, you could
do some work for them in exchange.
But what sort of skills will be the most useful after SHTF?
Knowing Microsoft Excel might not do you much good, but knowing how to make
soap could mean the difference between health and sickness.
Or maybe you could
trade your soap for more food. The point is, you need to learn a few skills
that will be useful in a post-disaster world.
I suggest you take up one as a
hobby while you still have time to learn.
Here, then, are 20 skills you can trade after the SHTF,
listed in alphabetical order:
Animal Husbandry The ability to raise animals such as
chicken for eggs, rabbits for meat, goats for milk, etc.
There is a limit to
how much meat and dairy people will be able to store, and there will be a huge
demand for fresh food.
Cleaning Not just
washing your hands, but the ability to clean clothes without a washer and
dryer, make cleaning products to use around the house, and keep your home germ
free.
Clothing. If times are tough, people won’t be able to go out
and charge new clothes and shoes any time they need them.
They’re going to need
to fix shoes, patch torn pants, and mend shirts. This is an important skill
that has become very rare in modern society.
Construction Especially without power tools. Is worth
knowing, how to properly fix roofs, board up windows or build outhouses using
only basic hand tools.
Cooking skills will be very much sought after as people are
going to get sick and tired of eating canned soup and freeze-dried food.
If you
can cook a tasty meal and dessert without power, people in the neighbourhood
will thank you with favours or supplies they don’t need.
Most people live their entire lives without realizing how
much misery they would experience if not for the dentist.
A perfect example of
this is in the movie Cast Away where the main character has to knock out one of
his own teeth.
Someone who knows how to clean and remove teeth could be a great
help.
Fire Making will be a great skill to have as people won’t
know how to start a fire once they’re lighters run out of fuel. People in your
area will be safer and healthier if you can help them get a fire going so they
can boil water and cook food.
First Aid/Medical skills will become vital as people tend to
take doctors for granted. Without them, they will need help sewing up wounds,
setting bones, performing CPR, and deciding which herbs and medications help
with which ailments.
Food Storage. Canning, dehydrating, sealing, smoking skills
will come into their own as people don’t know how to store food without a
refrigerator.
Offer to preserve someone’s leftovers in exchange for help or
supplies.
Gardening. Yet another skill that has become more and more
rare. Learn to grow fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables, preferably indoors
unless you have a secure backyard.
Gathering is great and the main thing here is knowing which
naturally-occurring plants in your area have nutritional and/or medicinal value
and which ones are useless and/or poisonous.
Gunsmithing will also be a vital skill If you’re facing a
long-term disaster, people are going to need guns for hunting and
self-protection.
It will help if you know how to repair guns and reload shells.
But only help people you completely trust.
Hunting and Fishing. When food supplies get low and gardens
fall short, people are going to have to hunt and fish.
If you can provide meat
for your friends and family, they’ll have time to take care of other
necessities.
Mechanic. Even if the Great Recession turns into Great
Depression II, most people are still going to have jobs (remember, unemployment
only got up to 25% in the 1930′s), which means they’ll need a way to get to
work.
The problem for many people is that they won’t be able to afford to get
their cars fixed.
If you learn how to work on cars, or any machine for that
matter (lawnmowers, generators, etc.), you’ll have a particularly valuable
skill.
Plumbing. People will still need their sinks and toilets,
even more so if they’re washing clothes in the sink.
Learn to remove clogs, fix
toilets and replace leaky pipes.
Psychology. A lot of people will crack up under the stress
of seeing their entire world turned upside down, especially those who lose
friends and/or loved ones.
It is important to know how to help these people and
keep them from wallowing in despair.
Security. In a world full of criminals and looters, someone
is going to need to stand guard when others are busy or sleeping.
This person
will need to know how to use weapons and be practiced in hand-to-hand combat.
Soap/Candle Making. If the disaster goes on for long, soap
and candles will be in high demand and a valuable trade item.
Teacher.
Even if the schools are closed, it’s still
important that children spend part of their spare time reading and learning.
Remember, these are the children that will grow up and rebuild the world.
Water Purification. One of the most important skills of all!
In the weeks after a major catastrophe, many people will die from dehydration
or from drinking unsafe water.
It will help a lot if you learn all you can
about cleaning and filtering water.
There are several other skills I thought about including in this
list such as bee keeping, brewing, and electrical work, but I think the 20
listed above will probably be the most in-demand skills.

My Basic Survival Tip Sheet

The first item in my survival kit is a very basic survival
tip sheet.
It is far from comprehensive, as it is meant for someone who is
already quite familiar with survival techniques.
It is intended to help clear someone’s mind and start them
focusing on the right priorities.
State of mind is Crucial to coping with a survival
situation. A clear-headed, common sense approach will see you through… panic
kills.
Here is what the basic instruction sheet says.
SURVIVAL TIPS –What to do if you suddenly find yourself in
that situation.
STEP ONE Stop!…Now take a deep breath, and resign yourself
to your current circumstances.
Do not panic, and do not feel ashamed at being in your
predicament. Some of the best woodsmen in the world have become lost or
disoriented, so set your mind to come through this with your honour intact
People have died of a combination of stupidity and panic.
They run frantically, in big circles, through the woods at night trying to find
their way out.
The best thing to do is often to find some shelter for the night
and find your way out in the morning.
Once you are calm, check yourself over. Your health and
welfare are paramount. Address any immediate needs (injuries) as best you can,
and then read on.
STEP TWO
Take stock of what you have, and what your immediate needs
are.
If you are reading this, you have quite a lot to work with, as this kit
contains an extensive amount of gear to help in any situation.
Be creative. Most of the items can have multiple uses, and
are limited only by your imagination.
As for your immediate needs, here are a
few simple rules.
A healthy human can survive for several weeks without food,
and several days without water, but in many cases only several hours without
proper shelter from the elements.
Evaluate the weather for where you are, and to what extremes
it may go. Shelter from the elements or a fire may well be your first priority.
There are multiple items in the kit to help you build a fire.
As for shelter, the clear plastic painter’s tarp and the
survival blanket can help.
The survival blanket can also help to reflect the
warmth from a fire. Be careful not to damage them or any other piece of gear.
You will most likely need them later.
Example: instead of poking holes in the tarp to tie it off,
push a small pebble up from under the tarp, and tie off around it. Try using
rocks instead of stakes to hold down corners, etc etc.
Once you have some
shelter from the elements, you can take a little time to plan for your other
needs.
STEP THREE
Step three is water. You must drink plenty of water even if
you do not feel thirsty.
An adult should drink at least a couple of litters per
day (more in hot climates).
If you spent the night on high ground, then plan on moving
camp. In most areas, just continue to walk downhill and you will eventually
find water.
Watch animals or follow their tracks.
They will usually lead
to water. Birds also tend to congregate near water. In dry areas, you may have
to consider other means, such as a solar still.
If you are getting water from streams or ponds, boil before
drinking, or use water purification tablets or straw or better still buy a Purificup.
STEP FOUR
Signal. Some of the signalling items you have are the
whistle, the mirror, the blanket, and of course, fire!
Signalling is best accomplished by making
yourself as big as possible. Smoke signals work well as does anything that can
be seen or heard from a long ways off.
STEP FIVE
Food, as mentioned above is probably not something you need
to consider unless you are reasonably sure that rescue is a good many days or
weeks off.
As a general rule, avoid plant life unless you know for a
fact that something is edible.
The easiest rule to remember is that if it
walks, swims, crawls, or slithers… thump it, and chuck it on down!
Use the knife, hooks and line, make a spear, make snares
with the 80lb test cord.
Use your imagination!
The facts are, ALL fur bearing
animals are edible. ALL birds are edible with no exceptions.
Grubs found in
rotten logs are edible, as are almost all insects with (6 legs).
THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND
The kit was packed tightly in its container, but once
unpacked, figure out where and how you want to carry everything.
Keep the items
you will use frequently close at hand (in your pockets if they are free of
holes).
You can wrap cords, fishing lines, etc around the sheath to keep them
tangle free and ready to use.
Use slip knots or those you can undo easily, and
therefore get the most use out of every piece of gear.
Getting a good night’s sleep will make everything easier on
you.
Try to build as good a shelter and bed as you can.
The extra
time and effort will pay off. Use everything you can think of for insulation.
Crawling inside a big pile of leaves or pine needles is actually pretty warm
and comfortable (do not attempt this near a fire).
A large pile of fresh pine sprigs is not only a springy
mattress, but is good insulation from the ground.
Fire
When starting a fire find dry wood. Look for the dead
branches at the very bottom of evergreen trees.
Good tinder will greatly
enhance your chance for success.
Take small branches and shred them with a knife or your
fingers. You can use dead grass, dried moss or fern, or a strip of cloth from
the tail of your shirt.
Use anything that will ignite quickly. Place this in
the centre. Around this, build a tee pee of small dry twigs.
Once this is burning, slowly feed your fire with larger and
larger pieces of wood.
Always making sure the fire is burning freely before you
progress to a larger piece of wood.
Once this fire is burning DO NOT let it go
out.
A fire is man’s best friend in the wild. It provides heat,
protection, a good signal, etc etc.
Shelter
Do not make the mistake of trying to construct a large
shelter.
Make it just large enough to accommodate you and not much else.
This
is important, especially in cold climates, because your body heat may well have
to heat it.
Be extremely careful if you are going to use fire to heat
the shelter, as most natural shelter materials are flammable! Plan ahead, and
use common sense.
Food
Do not even think about looking for food until you have a
good (and plentiful)water source, and your signals are set up.
Once you have these, and are ready to go in search of food,
small animals, fish and insect life are always your best bet (remember, do not
eat spiders or anything else with more than 6 legs).
Setting multiple snares and fishing lines in ways that you
do not have to baby-sit them is a good idea.
Check them from time to time for a
catch.
This allows you to “hunt” without expending much energy. If
you must eat plant life, stay away from mushrooms and any plant that has a
milky sap, except Dandelions.
Common edible plants include cattail roots, acorns, clover,
dandelions, almost all grasses that are seed bearing and the inner bark of
trees such as Poplar, Willows, Birches and Conifers.

 

 

The Survival knife

There are so many different kinds of knives available and as
survivalist’s we will carry one or even several knives depending on the kinds
of activities we are pursuing.
However in a survival situation a knife has to serve a
number of purposes and be able to handle things like chopping, cutting, slicing
and when out hunting and fishing.
A good, practical knife will usually be made out of
high-carbon, spring tempered steel.
Not only can this withstand heavier and
more intense use, it also tends to keep its sharpness for longer.
A good survival knife can serve many useful purposes. It
might be used to cut cord or rope to manageable lengths for things like helping
with shelter erection or to set a snare for trapping and it can even be used
for cutting things like bandages to size in a first aid situation.
You can use it for making other make shift tools out of
wood, for example an arrow to act as a spear whilst out hunting.
It can be used
to help cut through thickets and branches if you’re trying to navigate your way
out of a particular dense area of forest or for splitting wood and making
shavings to start a fire.
It’s also invaluable if you intend to go out hunting as you
might wish to skin an animal you’ve trapped or need to gut a fish.
A knife will form a crucial part of any survival kit but you
need to ensure that you use it safely.
You should always cut away from your
body, never towards it and if you should drop your knife, let it fall to the
ground as trying to catch it could cause you serious injury.
You shouldn’t run whilst carrying a knife and never point it
at anybody. If you trip and fall suddenly, you could be in danger of harming
yourself or others nearby.
If your knife is of the folding variety, you should keep it
folded away when you’re not using it or keep it in a sheath.
Ensure that you
only use your knife when you can clearly see what you’re doing. If there is no
daylight, make sure you have a torch positioned nearby so you can carry out
your task without running the risk of injuring yourself.
More injuries are caused and more damage is inflicted on a
knife by incorrect use.
It’s important to remember what your knife is designed
to do. It’s not designed to pry open lids off tins.
That can not only be dangerous to you but will also damage
the tip.
Neither is the handle or butt designed to be a hammer. Your knife can
assist you greatly during a survival situation but it is no use if you break it
by using it as a substitute for another tool.
It’s important to keep the edge of your blade sharp, as a
dull knife can be more dangerous than a sharp one.
You shouldn’t have to exert
too much pressure or use force to make a blade cut through something.
Buy a
sharpening stone to accompany your knife and keep your knife clean and dry.
Knives come in all shapes and sizes so it’s important to buy
one in person and to test holding it to see if it feels comfortable in your
hand.
With its multitude of uses, it certainly ranks high on the list for items
that will help you cope better in a survival situation.

 Primative Peoples and how they Survive

I/we
live in an era of survival gadgets, equipment and solutions that can be
bought off the shelf online from the comfort of our homes, in fact it
is only the amount of money we have that limits the quality and
proficenly of the kit we choose to purchase.
I have become
intrigued by primitave civilisations alive today in the remoter parts of
our world and how they SURVIVE, as 4th world low tech citizens of our
planet.
I know that I cannot try their foods at source, or trap and hunt as they do for the animals they share their forests with.
BUT,
surley I can learn from them when it comes to fire lighting, shelter
building, cooking, hunting methods, blades and tools and I want to try
and learn these skills and then pass this knowledge onto others.
I
understand that this path will not be easy but even as preppers we will
eventually run out of certain supplies if not all of them.

Survival Page Two

iuRB5DU65X

Survival Skills in Your Head

People sometimes forget that the smallest 20 Skills You Can Trade After SHTF and most convenient storage space is in their own heads.

If you find yourself in the midst of a disaster and you need to either build or fix something, having the knowledge and experience already in your mind will hugely benefit your ability to survive.

And if there’s something you need from your neighbours but you’re not willing to trade any of your supplies, you could do some work for them in exchange.

But what sort of skills will be the most useful after SHTF?

Knowing Microsoft Excel might not do you much good, but knowing how to make soap could mean the difference between health and sickness.

Or maybe you could trade your soap for more food. The point is, you need to learn a few skills that will be useful in a post-disaster world.

I suggest you take up one as a hobby while you still have time to learn.

Here, then, are 20 skills you can trade after the SHTF, listed in alphabetical order:

Animal Husbandry The ability to raise animals such as chicken for eggs, rabbits for meat, goats for milk, etc.

There is a limit to how much meat and dairy people will be able to store, and there will be a huge demand for fresh food.

Cleaning Not just washing your hands, but the ability to clean clothes without a washer and dryer, make cleaning products to use around the house, and keep your home germ free.

Clothing. If times are tough, people won’t be able to go out and charge new clothes and shoes any time they need them.

They’re going to need to fix shoes, patch torn pants, and mend shirts. This is an important skill that has become very rare in modern society.

Construction Especially without power tools. Is worth knowing, how to properly fix roofs, board up windows or build outhouses using only basic hand tools.

Cooking skills will be very much sought after as people are going to get sick and tired of eating canned soup and freeze-dried food.

If you can cook a tasty meal and dessert without power, people in the neighbourhood will thank you with favours or supplies they don’t need.

Most people live their entire lives without realizing how much misery they would experience if not for the dentist.

A perfect example of this is in the movie Cast Away where the main character has to knock out one of his own teeth.

Someone who knows how to clean and remove teeth could be a great help.

Fire Making will be a great skill to have as people won’t know how to start a fire once they’re lighters run out of fuel. People in your area will be safer and healthier if you can help them get a fire going so they can boil water and cook food.

First Aid/Medical skills will become vital as people tend to take doctors for granted. Without them, they will need help sewing up wounds, setting bones, performing CPR, and deciding which herbs and medications help with which ailments.

Food Storage. Canning, dehydrating, sealing, smoking skills will come into their own as people don’t know how to store food without a refrigerator.

Offer to preserve someone’s leftovers in exchange for help or supplies.

Gardening. Yet another skill that has become more and more rare. Learn to grow fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables, preferably indoors unless you have a secure backyard.

Gathering is great and the main thing here is knowing which naturally-occurring plants in your area have nutritional and/or medicinal value and which ones are useless and/or poisonous.

Gunsmithing will also be a vital skill If you’re facing a long-term disaster, people are going to need guns for hunting and self-protection.

It will help if you know how to repair guns and reload shells. But only help people you completely trust.

Hunting and Fishing. When food supplies get low and gardens fall short, people are going to have to hunt and fish.

If you can provide meat for your friends and family, they’ll have time to take care of other necessities.

Mechanic. Even if the Great Recession turns into Great Depression II, most people are still going to have jobs (remember, unemployment only got up to 25% in the 1930′s), which means they’ll need a way to get to work.

The problem for many people is that they won’t be able to afford to get their cars fixed.

If you learn how to work on cars, or any machine for that matter (lawnmowers, generators, etc.), you’ll have a particularly valuable skill.

Plumbing. People will still need their sinks and toilets, even more so if they’re washing clothes in the sink.

Learn to remove clogs, fix toilets and replace leaky pipes.

Psychology. A lot of people will crack up under the stress of seeing their entire world turned upside down, especially those who lose friends and/or loved ones.

It is important to know how to help these people and keep them from wallowing in despair.

Security. In a world full of criminals and looters, someone is going to need to stand guard when others are busy or sleeping.

This person will need to know how to use weapons and be practiced in hand-to-hand combat.

Soap/Candle Making. If the disaster goes on for long, soap and candles will be in high demand and a valuable trade item.

Teacher.

Even if the schools are closed, it’s still important that children spend part of their spare time reading and learning.

Remember, these are the children that will grow up and rebuild the world.

Water Purification. One of the most important skills of all! In the weeks after a major catastrophe, many people will die from dehydration or from drinking unsafe water.

It will help a lot if you learn all you can about cleaning and filtering water.

There are several other skills I thought about including in this list such as bee keeping, brewing, and electrical work, but I think the 20 listed above will probably be the most in-demand skills.

Surviving the Coming Collapse
Poor economic times usually spark the fear that total
economic collapse is just around the corner.
When the UK pound weakens and the
price of goods such as oil, grain and gold rise, many people find themselves
worrying about the economic stability of the country and how a downturn or even
a total economic collapse could affect their bottom line.
So, how does one survive total economic collapse? There are
a variety of survival skills, concerning both finances and day-to-day living
that you can adopt to help you and your family survive total economic collapse,
if such a situation befalls you.
Make a plan for how to survive a total economic collapse.
List your debts and assets. How quickly can you pay off your debt, while still
purchasing necessary supplies?
Your goals should include no debt and the
procurement and storage of valuable assets. Your preparation timetable should
be as short as possible.
Pay off debt and avoid new debt by paying with cash instead
of credit cards. Concentrate on paying off high-interest debt, loans with
adjustable rates and unsecured debts first.
Sell expensive vehicles that have
loans to pay off what you owe and buy cheaper replacement vehicles using cash.
To survive a total economic collapse, you need to have assets, not liabilities.
Convert your liquid savings into silver and gold. If the
pound collapses, having precious metals will preserve your money, and precious
metals can be used as currency or exchanged for a currency with value, such as
Swiss francs.
As the pound continues to lose value, silver and gold
preserve their value or go up in value, thus protecting your assets in the
event of an economic recession, allowing you to financially survive a recession
or depression.
Purchase goods and valuables such as guns for hunting and
personal protection, and basic food and water supplies such as whole grains and
legumes, like beans peas and lentils which are easy to store.
Invest in water
purification bottles and tablets, and keep some bottled water on hand to meet
immediate needs in the event of a shortage.
All of these will make it more possible to survive a total
economic collapse in the event of panic-induced disaster.
Prepare a first aid kit, sewing kit and other practical
necessities of daily life to aid in survival of a total economic collapse.
These are good things to have on hand anyway, for regular daily life as well as
for emergencies.
Get to know your neighbours and build a community wherever
you are. In the event of total economic collapse, life will become very local
and survival will depend on working together with others, beginning with
families.
Grow some of your own food and raise animals for meat, if
possible.
Chickens and rabbits are small and easy to look after.
Chickens provide eggs as well as meat and are excellent
sources of protein and fat, both of which are
critical for survival. In economic downturns such as a recession or
depression, being able to produce food is an important skill to have.
Learn how to barter, and stock items to trade. Think about
necessities (wool blankets, soap, boots, duct tape, ammunition) as well as
luxuries (chocolate, tobacco, alcohol).
Useful tools will be more valuable than money if there is a
currency collapse. Useful barter items will be helpful to have on hand as you
prepare to survive an economic collapse.
The severity and flavour of a collapse
will alter the value of one’s skill set and its favourable contribution to your
own self-reliance and/or that of a group.
You could say that the more severe the collapse, the more primitive
of skills and strengths will be necessary for basic survival.
As the severity
lessens, and as a rebuilding phase begins, a much broader set of skills will be
required to establish systems of convenience and the rebuilding of an
infrastructure.
During the post-collapse period, and during most attempts to
interact with others, a question will be: “What do you bring to the table?” It
may not be said out loud, but it will be part of the interaction.
So ask yourself:
“What do I bring to the table? What skills
do I have that will be useful or valuable after a collapse?”
Typically, a person’s skill is exemplified in their career
choice. Their job. Many people also have hobbies, which often are not related
to their job. Do any of these talents, interests or hobbies apply to skills
that may be valued after a collapse?
If you are at all concerned about the possibility of a
collapse scenario, one in which a major portion of society would be badly
affected… meaning that you would probably NOT be able to escape it one way or
another, then you may want to think about your existing skill set.
It may help to first jot down on a piece of paper, a number
of collapse scenarios, particularly those that you feel in your gut may
actually be of legitimate risk today. After you have completed the list, write
down what it is that you believe will be lacking in such a world.
Which
services? Which utilities? etc…
try and imagine HOW you would get by with what you have
and what you know, in order to simply stay alive. If that’s covered (which it
probably is not if you are honest with yourself), then move on to something
else, like security…
HOW will you be able to keep or protect what you have from
others who WILL wish to take it from you? (Desperate people do desperate things)
There are a handful of basic categories to initially
consider – those that basically keep you alive and keep you fed and sheltered.
Once you’ve covered that, then move on to the next level. Know that you cannot
make it long-term entirely on your own.
You WILL need others. This is the level at which a broad
skill set of individual talents will be more sought out. Initially these will
still be fairly basic requirements. However even a basic requirement coupled
with a targeted skill set will be extremely valuable due to the efficient and
targeted application of said talent.
Unfortunately (for post collapse skills) in today’s modern
world, many people’s skills are focused on high-tech in one way or another.
While this is all fine and good for today, much of it will probably be
completely nullified and useless in a post-collapse world.
One suggestion may be to acquire a hobby (which will become
a skill) that is down to earth.
Something practical, basic, but more
importantly something that is FUN for you. Most of us like to get away from our
modern day hectic lives once in a while, to get back to our roots.
Explore those feelings and experiment with some of the
interests and curiosities that come to mind. Quite likely THESE ARE THE THINGS
that will be valuable in a post-collapse world.
I believe that SO MUCH of our roots has been rotted out,
that there will be a sort of re-planting in the not too distant future. Common
sense tells me that you can only venture out so far on a plank, before you fall
into the water.
The plank being highly leveraged modern day living by way of
the systems that enable it. The water being the collapse.
It will do you good to better understand the risks that we
face today, and to understand your existing skill set. If you need to make
changes,
I suggest that you do it soon…
Crossing Rivers
The beauty of a mountain stream flowing through a forest can
be the highlight of the day. But knowing how to cross a river is a critical
Survival skill.
The fact is that crossing rivers, especially when they’re
running high, is among the riskier things you can do on the trail. Rocks and
logs may offer a bridge to the opposite bank.
But they’re often wet or covered
with algae and mosses.
That can lead to slips and falls, and, therefore, any number
of things that you really don’t want to experience: head injuries, broken
bones, and the chance to get swept downstream.
The rate of runoff in streams and rivers is highly variable.
In years of light snowfall and hot spring days, streams may run at
low-to-moderate levels by early summer.
However, in years with heavy and late-season snows, rivers
can run so high that trails, even ones with actual bridges can remain
impassable well into summer.
Two keys to remember:” Don’t take any unnecessary risks. And
don’t push anyone past their skill and confidence level. You’re only as capable
as the weakest person in your group”
Check on conditions. Identify your destination or trail.
Then check for updates on weather conditions.
Carry a Staff or a pole. They can help you assess water
depth and rate of runoff, then provide additional stability when you do cross a
stream.
Wear shorts or convertible pants. Long pants will increase
drag in the stream and can be uncomfortable to hike in once they’re soaked.
Pack hiking sandals or gym shoes. If a stream is shallow
enough to cross, it’s often easier to walk through the water instead of trying
to boulder hop on slippery rocks. With spare shoes or hiking sandals, you can
keep your hiking boots dry.
But don’t cross barefoot or use flip-flops because the
current can easily sweep them off your feet.
Get out early. Cooler overnight and morning temperatures
mean that the volume of snowmelt is lower early in the day, which means that
streams will flow more slowly.
Thunderstorms are also more common in afternoon and make
currents more treacherous.
At the Crossing assess the situation. The actual point where
a trail meets a river may not be the best place to get to the other side.
Scout the river (ideally from an elevated perspective) or
look both up- and downstream for alternatives. If you can’t identify a safe
crossing location, then don’t take the risk and turn around.
Wishful thinking has no place in this decision, so be
conservative and assume the worst. Invariably, streams are faster and deeper
than they appear.
Straight, Wide, Shallow. That’s what you’re looking for when
identifying a place to cross.
Watch out for debris. If the river is carrying a lot of
debris, such as branches and small logs, it’s not a good idea to cross.
The debris is an indication that stream flows are high. And
objects flowing downstream can create a serious hazard if they strike you as
you’re crossing.
Look for braided channels. The crossing may be wider where a
river breaks into separate channels. But the current’s intensity will be
dissipated and there may also be small islands or gravel bars where you can
take a break and plot your next steps.
Test the current.
Toss a branch and watch how swiftly it moves downstream.
That will give you a better sense of the direction of the main current and how
fast it’s moving.
Don’t cross where flows are much above your knees. Even
comparatively shallow water can knock you off balance and carry you downstream
if it’s flowing rapidly enough. The only time to wade through deeper water is
when you locate a flat pool with little or no current.
Loosen your pack before crossing. Undo your waist belt and
let out the shoulder straps so that it’s easier to remove. If you fall in and
your pack gets soaked, it can drag you down or get snagged. You might lose your
pack but consider the alternative.
Look for low and open exit points on the opposite bank. Once
you reach the other side, you’ll want to be able to get out of the stream as
quickly as possible. A scramble up a steep bank could lead to a slip that puts
you right back into the stream.
When crossing the Stream face Upstream and Shuffle Sideways.
Slide your feet along the bottom while facing the river.
Angle yourself diagonally to the flow and move in a slightly
downstream direction toward the opposite bank.
Always maintain two points of contact with the bottom. Use
your staff or pole to steady yourself as you shift your feet. The more contact
you have with the bottom, the more stable you’ll be.
There’s strength in numbers. Crossing with a partner or with
a group of people creates additional stability. Link arms and coordinate your
movements.

 

Tips for Over Night Survival
In the UK, most people who become lost are often day hikers
or climbers who fully expect to sleep in their own bed (or at least in their
own sleeping bag) that night.
But a turn onto the wrong trail or an extra
twenty minutes of late afternoon climbing can result in an unexpected overnight
stay. Not forgetting an injury event either.
If you don’t carry a “survival kit” as such, there are a few
inexpensive yet essential items I seldom venture far from home without.
Among
these are:
A reliable, sturdy knife (I recommend the Chris Cain
Survival knife).
A good-quality multi-tool.
A length of Parachute cord.
A competent knowledge of how to use these three items will
allow you to cut poles, prepare kindling, lash together a shelter, make a
bow-drill fire, and perform a host of other tasks.

 

 

 Other items include:
A foil emergency blanket can also be used as an improvised
poncho, ground cloth, or tarp.
First aid kit. It should include gauze, bandages,
butterflies, antibiotic cream, plasters etc.
Compass: Worthwhile if you know how to use it, or know the
approximate direction of nearby major landmarks.
A Wooley hat (even in warm weather). In addition to keeping
you warm, it can be used as a bag.
A magnesium striker
A method of water purification (such as a Purificup or
lifesaver Bottle).
A whistle. In really remote areas, a signal mirror is also a
worthy addition.
Tips:
Learn to construct a simple cold-weather survival shelter.
It doesn’t take a freezing night to bring about fatal hypothermia. Temperatures
even in the fifties can be disastrous if you are improperly dressed or wet.
Always carry or wear a bandana. It can be used as a bandage,
sling, or carrying bundle. A belt is useful, too.
Wrap a quantity of duct tape around your water bottle. Use
good quality tape.
Stay put: You arrive at “lostness” from one direction, a
single degree out of 360.
You have 359 chances to depart your situation in the
wrong direction.
Make a base camp: As humans, our sense of well-being is
improved when we have a place to call home, even if it is a temporary one.
Locate it in an area that is out of the wind, and where it won’t be flooded
during a rainstorm.
Learn how to tie and use half a dozen or so simple but
useful knots. Overhand knot, square knot, clove hitch, bowline, sheet bend,
lark’s head, timber hitch, and variations on the half-hitch are good
suggestions.
Customize your list: Include items specific to your needs
such as daily or emergency medications, inhalers, or epi-pens.
Practice your skills and become familiar with your gear
before you need them, so you know what to expect! when the time comes to use
them, as it is then too late to learn them.
Having to night –out even with what some would see as
sub-standard kit is not the end of the world so don’t panic.
Having clothes on is better than being naked, being behind a
wall, hedge or tree is better than being exposed to the elements.
Being under a poncho is better than being wet, being in a
cheap tent is better than being in a poncho, being in a sleeping is better than
being without one, I think you get the message.
Any shelter is better than none.
You main priority in
finding shelter is to defend your body from the weather that is it you must
keep dry and warm to have a chance of survival.
And as long as you
understand the basic principles you can go on survival exercises even without
the top of the range designer kit, because people have survived with far less
before they were invented and I promise people will continue to do so in the
future.
Small Game Hunting Strategies
I have really concentrated on which techniques and tricks to
employ to harvest grey squirrels at certain periods of the season. Give these
tips a try in your area, you may find your hunting success and pleasure really
intensifies!
EARLY SEASON
(SEPTEMBER- EARLY OCTOBER)
As the squirrel season starts, I totally concentrate on the
feeding pattern of the squirrel. My favourite technique is to SLOWLY stalk
through the woods, LISTENING for falling debris from feeding squirrels in the
trees. Beech trees are my first target, so a little preseason scouting to
locate productive trees will pay off in dividends.
When I hear evidence of an overhead squirrel, I immediately
look for movement of the game. 
If all goes well, the sun will be right and the
falling particles will be easily seen, giving away the squirrel’s location.
From this point the stalk is on.
Don’t hurry your shot! If you move slowly, avoiding downed
branches and their tell-tale “snap” the squirrel will be busy feeding
and pay no attention to you. Don’t forget, the early season canopy of leaves
will work in your favour as well..
If the action is slow, I resort to calling to the squirrels
to liven up the forest.
MID SEASON (MID
OCTOBER – EARLY NOVEMBER)
By now, the beech nuts have gone and I have to concentrate
on another food source… corn! I set up for action now as opposed to my
stalking technique.
Obviously, I am going to select hunting grounds that are
proximate to cut corm fields. A typical set up is near a hedgerow between
hardwoods and the corn itself. Hunters can attempt to do some quick scouting by
looking for fallen corn husks or squirrels tracks in snow if any is present.
From here it is a waiting game.
When a squirrel is shot, stay put because more
squirrels will often be following in pursuit of the corn.
LATE SEASON (DECEMBER
– FEBRUARY)
If you are still pursuing squirrels at this point, use the
snow to your advantage. Look for abundant tracks near tree bases so you know
where the busiest section of woods will be.
It is best to be hunting at day
break, as squirrels are said to be most active from dawn to mid-day and spend
the rest of the day in sleep.
SQUIRREL CALLING…
DO THOSE THINGS REALLY WORK?
Well it is a known fact that squirrels spend most of their
day in their dray after am feeding which can mean that the woods seem devoid of
this little tasty creature so you need to call them, to expose them to be able
to shoot them.
While squirrel calls are available commercially, I like to
strike a coin against the butt plate of the gun, to imitate a bark and by
striking two coins together, I can imitate feeding chatter.
Doctor’s practice, lawyers practice and so must you as
hunting is a skill that must be practiced.
Wood Pigeon Shooting
As with squirrel hunting the most popular weapon used will
be the air rifle and therefore we must maximise our chances of gaining some
free tasty grub as failing to do so will lead to the land of groaning stomachs.
In my opinion there are only two ways to take wood pigeon
with an air rifle (with the exception of the odd one sat on a fence or tree
top) they are decoying and roost shooting.
Decoying
Woodpigeon decoying is the art of building a hide on a field
where pigeons are feeding and using artificial or dead bird decoys to attract
pigeons to within air rifle range (20 to 35 yards). The sport requires
considerable reconnaissance and much patience and field craft to achieve
results.
Hides may be built with camouflage nets, straw bales or
natural cover. When using bales remember to ask the farmer’s permission to move
them and always replace them after the shoot.
Natural hides are made with
materials found on the farm and should be dismantled at the end of the shooting
day.
Do not cut into hedgerows or otherwise damage the farmer’s
property. The hide should be large enough (3ft. square) to accommodate the
shooter, his dog and equipment, and have as level a floor as possible.
Roost shooting
For roost shooting Guns position themselves before dusk in
woods where pigeons are known to roost during the winter and wait for the birds
to return from their day’s feeding.
Mixed woods of conifers and hardwoods are
the most popular and pigeon droppings under the trees will show the places to
stand.
As it will be almost dark before the shoot ends fallen birds should be
retrieved immediately. 
Both of these methods will more that fill your game bag and
provide many free tasty meals indeed.
Remember hunting is just that and to be successful you must
employ all your senses and use nature to your advantage combined with your
knowledge on your preys habits and your ability to be patient and when the time
comes shoot straight.
Surviving Flooding
The news around a month or two ago read as follows:
Hundreds of people are facing a night in temporary
accommodation after a second day of heavy rain brought flooding and travel
chaos to parts of the UK.
More than 300 properties have flooded across the country
since Sunday, including in Morpeth, Durham, Chester-le-Street and Stockton on
Tees, the Environment Agency said.
Elderly residents at a council care home in North Yorkshire
had to be carried to safety by firefighters after it became swamped by 3ft of
water.
And a modern block of flats had to be evacuated in Newburn, Newcastle,
after its foundations appeared to have been washed away. Meanwhile, roads and
railways ground to a halt because of the rain and flooding, with the A1 and the
East Coast Main Line among the routes hit by the conditions.
The Met Office said an area of low pressure measuring 973
millibars had been recorded near the coast of the north east of England – the
lowest in the UK for September since 1981.
Some areas have seen more than a month’s rainfall in 24
hours as downpours and strong winds battered parts of Wales, northern England
and Scotland. Parts of north Wales and northern England were expected to get
25mm to 50mm (1in to 2in) of rain during the day
Just up the road from me the weather division of the Press
Association, said Ravensworth in North Yorkshire had seen the highest amount of
rain, with 123mm recorded since the start of the heavy downpours on Sunday
night.
Some 93mm of rain had fallen in Leeming, North Yorkshire, which is
almost double the average rainfall for the village in September (50mm). Rhyl,
north Wales, had recorded 93mm of rain since Sunday, while Northern Ireland has
also seen heavy downpours.
The Met Office said many places have had between 50mm and
70mm (2in to 2.8in) in the past 48 hours. And heavy rain and strong winds are
forecast to return to some southern areas with 20mm to 40mm (0.8in to 1.6in)
likely in places.
The Environment Agency had issued 83 flood warnings for
Potential River flooding tonight, and 139 less serious flood alerts.
The agency warned that river levels will continue to rise
through Wednesday along the River Ouse in Yorkshire and the River Severn, which
could cause further flooding as the water moves downstream.
Communities in
Yorkshire, the North West and north Wales were urged to remain on their guard
for further floods.
This time my kitchen flooded and the mess is still there as
I wait for the insurance company to get around to me.
So what can I do, what can you do to prevent flooding in the
future well firstly you can sign up for Floodline Warnings
Direct by calling
Floodline on 0845 988 1188
Floodline Warnings Direct is a free service which sends you
a direct message when flooding is expected and may affect your property.
Flood
warnings will give you time to prepare for flooding which could save you time,
money and heartache. You can receive warnings by telephone, mobile, email, SMS
text message or fax, whichever you prefer.
But what can we do in practical terms to defend against the
threat of flooding. Well here in my village we have a sand bag store as the
local river does frequently flood and our parish councillors contacted the
Borough council who supplied the sand bags and built a store for them, perhaps
you could do the same.
If this is not an option then look into making your own sand
bags of using another flood prevention product available on the market today
such as http://www.floodgate.ltd.uk
Remember if you are under threat of flood make the following
arrangements before it happens.
Make sure your insurance is up to date
Plan to move soft furnishings upstairs or at least well off
the floor
Plan to live upstairs
Take with you water, food, emergency lighting and heating,
medicines, mobiles, radio, warm clothing, method of cooking, your bug out bag
don’t forget your insurance policy and all other important documents.
Treat fast flowing water as a river and use river crossing
methods to move across it, remember: be aware of missing manhole covers people
have been sucked into these and drowned before, watch out for heavy objects
moving with the flow like cars and buildings etc.
Leave your home if ordered to by the emergency services as
they may be aware of a more serious impending threat to life that you are.
As a last resort if trapped upstairs by rising water, break
through the roof and climb out onto it using your mobile to call for rescue.
Perhaps having a pry bay in the loft would be a good survival decision.
Surviving flooding is like surviving any other disaster it
is down to planning that is all.
Route Planning
Route planning is an essential navigation skill and one you
must master if you are planning bug out.
Even for the more experienced
survivalist or prepper who has been training for years and only walks for
pleasure, a few minutes route planning is very valuable.
Some experienced
survivalists and preppers see it as an unnecessary chore but I say that even in
a familiar area it can make you think about things you may have missed and help
prevent you becoming complacent.
Think of route planning as a sort of risk assessment, the
important thing is to think about what if, and how you would deal with that.
Also it is vital not to overestimate your fitness that of of your party. You
may be much fitter than other members so escape routes and alternative routes
are very important.
Many people who are experienced day walkers also
underestimate the difficulty of multi day walks with a full pack on.
Route Cards
A route card is quite simply the route you plan to take
broken into stages with the time you expect to return on. It can be written on
anything in any form as long as copy is left with a responsible person who will
be able to contact help if you do not arrive back when you should.
This means if you get into trouble help will know where to
look, for a multi-day expedition a card should cover each day. Make sure when
you do get back safely that you inform the person with the card.
The more detailed a route card the better, as it is much
better to work out compass bearing etc at home than up a mountain and allows
you to plan a more enjoyable trip and means if something does go wrong from a
sprained ankle to a broken leg you are much better prepared.
Designing your own
route card is fairly simple and most navigation books have an example. Below is
an example, which you can use or adapt.
Date:
Members in group:
Weather Forecast:
Starting grid Ref:
Description:
Departure Time:

To (Grid Ref)Finishing Point Grid Ref:

 

Estimated Arrival Time:
Phone Check in Time:
Party leaders Mobile No:
Escape route
Estimating Time
The speed which you cover ground will depend on many things,
fitness, how much your pack weighs, experience, weather and ground conditions,
and the terrain.
If you have time the best way is to work out a pace card where
you time the number of paces and time it takes you to cover a set piece of
ground say 100 meters and then work out your average speed over a 1km, but this
takes time and experience to do.
Generally you will cover 3km or 2 miles an hour over rough
trails with a pack on with this falling to about 2km over hilly or steep
ground.
A large group will travel more slowly than a solo or pair of walkers as
it must travel at the speed of the slowest member but also more time is needed
while the group waits as they cross obstacles such as styles and streams or
wait while people go to the toilet.
One good way of estimating time is Nasmith’s Rule.  W. Nasmith was a Scottish mountaineer in the
late 19th century who came up with a formula for estimating the time needed to
complete a hike in the mountains which is still widely used today.
The rule states that you should allow 1 hour for every 5km
(3 miles) adding 30 minutes for every 1,000 ft (300 meters) that you gain in
height.
This rule assumes a fit experienced party and does not allow for rests
(and is therefore used by the British military in its training).
It also doesn’t allow for bad weather and makes no allowance
for downhill (steep descents will also slow a party and contra to what people
think you do not tend to gain time coming down compared to if the ground was
flat).
This rule works well for UK land ranger maps (1:50,000) where you can
add 1 minute for every 10-meter contour line.
Example a 20km (12 miles) walk gaining 2000ft of height
would take 5 hours without breaks (4 hours for distance plus 1 hour for ascent)
Escape Routes
You will note on the example route there is a space for
escape routes. This is an easy way off the mountain at a certain point or a
quick route to the nearest shelter or help.
They should be easy routes to
follow even in bad weather (which may be the reason for needing the escape
route in the first place) and should not be too steep of difficult as you may
have a party member with a minor injury.
The reason for using an escape route may not be serious, it
could be that members of the party are not as fit as they thought or the
weather is worse than planned.
IF IN DOUBT, USE THE ESCAPE / ALTERNATIVE ROUTE,
many groups get in trouble when they soldier on despite problems which then
become much more serious, it may not be macho but it is sensible and mountain
rescue will not thank you for getting yourself in trouble when you had a chance
to get out of danger earlier.
The simplest Survival Navigation Technique
Things happen…your GPS or compass may become lost or
broken.
You may find yourself needing an alternate method of finding your
bearings. You can use terrain association, if there is some readily
identifiable features in view, but you really need to orient your map to a direction.
Anyone who has gone through any survival courses has been
taught a variety of methods of survival navigation. Most have two problems in
common, first they only apply to certain conditions, second they are a little
too complicated and very easy to forget.
If you wish to use the North Star, it must be night, you
need a clear night sky and must be in the northern hemisphere. The watch method
of survival navigation is difficult since almost no one can remember which hand
does what, and how north is indicated.
Also most people now wear digital watches without the hands
on them, especially during outdoor activities. The stick shadow technique for
survival navigation is simple, easy to remember and works anywhere on the
planet in conditions where you can see a shadow.
The improvised Survival Navigation Technique is the simplest
and most versatile method for direction finding without a compass. 
It works
anywhere on the planet as long as the sun throws a shadow. Equipment needed is
simple: only a stick or straight object such as a pen, and two small objects
like pennies or rocks and you will be able to find north.
Step One of the Stick
Shadow Technique for Survival 
Navigation
Place your stick or any straight object into the ground, so
it throws a shadow.
Step Two
Put a rock or penny at the tip of the shadow, something
easily identifiable and wait 15 or 20 minutes.
Step Three
Place a second object at the tip of the shadow’s new
position.
Step Four
Place your left foot on the first rock or penny and your
right foot on the second object. Just remember that you read left to right so
your left foot goes on the first object and right on the second object, or if
you are military-minded you always start off with your left foot.
You are now facing
north!
All you really need to remember is to place the two rocks at
the tip of the stick’s shadow. Then place your left foot on the first rock and
right foot on the second rock. if you ever find yourself without a compass and
in need of a little help orienting yourself, then this technique is easy to
remember and needs little equipment or special conditions.
Survival Mistakes
Wilderness survival techniques are arguably a matter of life
and death. Turning into a self-sufficient survivor does not happen at the snap
of a finger.
It takes knowledge, proper gear, and preparation. By planning for
the worst before it happens you could be saving your life and other’s.
According to some of the top wilderness survival websites,
there are eight common mistakes that can cost you big in the wild. The first is
no shelter, which really turns into a double barrelled mistake. If you do not
have a proper shelter with you or lack the knowledge to build one with what is
around you-you might be in trouble.
It is vital to create a shelter that keeps
you dry and limits exposure to the elements, especially the wind.
The second biggest wilderness survival mistake is being
caught without a working navigational tool. It is easy to get turned around in
the middle of thick bushes and trees. A map and a compass are failsafe
standards any wilderness adventurer should pack.
Thanks to technology, a GPS is a handy tool as well. GPS
devices are small, compact, and generally able to work for a descent time
period if kept at full charge. Keep navigational tools with you at all times.
Learning how to utilize cardinal directions by the sun and stars is also
beneficial.
Another common mistake that can cost you is lack of
knowledge and preparation.  
There are five key things you should be
knowledgeable of first:
How to build shelter
How to signal for assistance
What is safe to eat and how to find it
How to build and maintain a fire
How to locate water and safely prepare it
Never underestimate the risk factor. The most innocent of
outdoor excursions-fishing, hiking, hunting-can turn into a wilderness survival
situation. Always be prepared.
Don’t be caught with the wrong clothing. A rule of thumb is
to always dress in layers, making the outer layer warmer than what you should
need. Research indicates that most hypothermia cases develop in temperatures
over 40 degrees Fahrenheit thanks to lack of proper clothing.
Water is essential to survive.
The problem is finding
drinkable water. Waterborne organisms can cause severe diarrhoea and vomiting,
which increases dehydration. Carry a supply of pure drinking water along with
the ability to filter water by boiling, chemical tablets, or filters.
Finally, be sure to have a signal plan and know how to
create and maintain a fire. Almost any outdoor/camping supplier has sections
dedicated to signal devices. Whistles, mirrors, high beam torches, and fire
starting devices are all easy to carry signal devices. Couple these with
learning how to create your own emergency signal by using trees, rocks, dirt,
or even snow.
Fire is vital to wilderness survival. It can warm, protect,
and heat food or boil water. You can even use it to signal for help.
Do not
underestimate learning how to make and maintain a fire. Take time to prepare
for your outdoor excursions and you will be able to tackle whatever kinks come
your way.
When it comes to survival skills, the smallest of mistakes
could have a huge impact on your ability to stay safe.
However, there are a few
things which can help to avoid making such mistakes, and will ensure that your
survival skills are as effective as possible.
If you find your survival skills being put to the test
unexpectedly, then the natural reaction can be to panic.
However, this is often
the worst thing you can do, as you need to be thinking as clearly as possible
in such situations.
You might not be able to simply google ‘survival techniques’
whilst checking your facebook page and playing cheeky bingo, but if you have
done your research, then you will already be well prepared.
You simply need to
keep a clear head, and remember all the skills which you have learnt.
Often, people panic the most when it comes to putting up a
shelter, and tend to rush the process. In actual fact, it is worth spending
extra time making sure that your shelter is safe and secure, and unlikely to
collapse without warning, OH! And water and wind proof as well.
Keeping Warm in the Wilderness
In the woods when you are around pine trees look for old
stumps, fallen trees, or limbs that have fallen and rotted into a hard core.
Scrape into them to see if there is a hard rich golden colour. If you have hit
the right stuff, it will smell like fresh pine sap, and will not appear in the
least bit old or rotted, although it may be taken from the centre of a very
rotten knot or stump.
This is the best fire starting material you will ever come
across.
Split off a few splinters and set your fire. It will flare as if
lighter fluid was dropped on it. It will burn for a good while, but will put
off a very black sooty smoke. Carry a few small pieces in you survival gear for
those rainy days.
Reflectors or as boiling rocks, be sure that the rocks are
collected from a high and dry area. It may take a little more time to secure
good rocks, but the effort is certainly worth it and could save you from a
painful accident.
Rocks that are collected from a creek bed or in a damp place
can hold moisture in them that forces itself out when the rocks are heated.
This creates an explosion of incredible force. Not only is it dangerous, (i.e.,
loss of eye, puncture wound, etc.), but the loud pop sounds like a gunshot and
may scare away any wild game you hope to harvest.
Nine out of ten accidents in the woods are self-inflicted,
so be careful and use your head.
Dehydration is one of the leading causes of fatigue in the
outdoorsl. If you feel thirsty you are probably dehydrated already. One of the
most convenient ways I found to keep my intake of water up, was to purchase
a  hydration system.
You’ll be amazed at
how much you do drink without noticing , and how much better you feel on the
trail.
One extra tip is to pack a small bag of salted peanuts with
you. The salt helps you to retain the water, the fat and protein will give you
an energy boost .
THE FOLLOWING ARE POINTERS FOR PREVENTING HYPOTHERMIA
Which
dulls the brain–the most important survival tool you have to help you
survival:
Seek and create shelter from cold, wind, snow, and rain. If
possible, retreat to timbered areas for shelter construction and fire.
Use natural shelters: the windless side of ridges, rock
croppings, slope depressions, snow blocks, a snow hole at base of standing
trees, dense stands of trees, or under downed trees or dry stone walls and
hedges.
Improvise a windbreak or shelter from: stacked rocks or snow
blocks, tree trunks, limbs, bark slabs and evergreen boughs, or dig a snow cave
or snow trench with a cover.
Conserve, share, and create warmth.
Conserve body heat by putting on extra clothing. Replace
damp undershirt and socks. Place damp wool clothing over dry wool clothing.
Loosen boot laces to increase circulation.
Place feet with boots on in a pack.
Use evergreen boughs to insulate body from ground. Place hands in armpits or
crotch.
Share body heat. Sit or lie front to back or back to back.
Warm the hands and feet of injured person or companions.
Create body heat.
Nibble high energy goods–candy, nuts, energy bar. Sip water
kept warm with body heat. Use solid fuel hand warmer, igniting both ends of
fuel stick, which is good for four hours of heat. Do isometric exercises to
stir up body’s circulation system.
Build a fire.
Find dry wood–dead lower branches and bark from underside
of trees. Look under downed trees and inside dead logs for dry kindling.
Remember wet wood will burn as it dries in a strong fire.
Select a sheltered area, protected from strong winds, as the
site for an emergency campfire. Under snow conditions build a fire base first,
with large, four-inch diameter or larger pieces of wood (use your wire saw from
your survival kit).
Put fire starter on the base, surround a fire starter with
branches to hold kindling above the fire starter, then place a hatchwork of
kindling and slightly larger wood on the branches. Light fire starter and blow
lightly to help its flame ignite kindling.
Add progressively larger wood to the
flame area.
Prevent heat loss.
Remember the body loses heat by respiration, evaporation,
conduction, radiation, and convection.
To prevent loss by respiration, cover the mouth and nose
with loosely woven or knitted wool.
To reduce evaporation through excessive perspiration, wear
clothes that breathe and are in layers.
To avoid loss by conduction, put a layer of  cover between the body and a cold, wet
surface. This insulation is particularly important if you’re already wet.
To prevent loss by radiation, keep the head, hands, and feet
covered.
To prevent loss by convection, protect the body from the
wind.
In stage one of hypothermia, the victim begins shivering,
has poor coordination, slurs speech, and shows poor judgment.
By stage two, when the body temperature is below 95 degrees,
muscular rigidity replaces shivering, and the victim becomes more irrational
and needs warmth immediately from external sources and protection from further
heat loss.
Know that the victim is the LAST to realize s/he’s in danger.
Trapping and Snaring for Food
Having spent well over 30 years studying survival skills I
have had first-hand experience of the many processes that each learner will go
through to finally achieve each element of natural wilderness survival.
As we all know food is the LAST thing you should worry
about. Shelter, fire, water and signalling for help are far more important.
Remember the rule of 3’s… You can die from exposure to the
elements in 3 hours,
You can die from lack of water in 3 days,
But it takes 3 WEEKS or more to die of starvation.
3 weeks is a long time, so plan for your essentials first.
If you have your other bases covered, then you can start planning for food.
Snaring and fishing are your best bets, as they allow for you to
“set and forget”, which means that you conserve
energy.
All hunting should be done with as little energy expenditure
as possible. Find a comfortable spot and wait for dinner to come to you.
Rabbits, being very common worldwide, are a good wild game food.
They can typically be found grazing in fields and clearings
where grasses and other low lying plants are found. Watch to see where they
enter and exit these areas to provide the locations for snares.
Some people
have been known to add impassable brush and wooden stakes along both sides of
the path leading to the trap creating a funnel effect.
They can then drive rabbits or other small game in the
direction of the trap and be relatively sure that the game will head straight
into the snare.
The Rabbit Snare can be used for many types of small game
depending on how and where you deploy it. It consists of a noose loosely draped
over twigs, brush, or any low-lying points where you can drape it.
The noose is
smooth cord that can easily slide through the small metal ring it is tied to
(small key rings work very well for this).
The key to this snare is the bowed branch overhead, and the
catch or trigger mechanism. A simple trigger consists of a very simple stake
that is wedged at an angle very close to that of the line to the branch.
It is
also sharpened and sits on a smooth rock so that any movement at all will free
it.
A rabbit is not very smart, and assumes that the string
across its path is simply grass, and typically does not slow down. 
The looseness
and breadth of the noose allows the game to proceed a couple feet before it
tugs the branch and releases the catch.
You must remove all human scent and two good ways that I use
are firstly to place the complete snare over a fire and let the smoke do its
work (remember smoke is a natural smell) or secondly to place the complete
snare into fresh cow dung don’t worry it is only digested grass.
Fishing
Survival fishing is quite different than normal fishing.
Survival fishing is often done without you even being there. It’s more akin to
trapping and snaring than it is to conventional fishing. There are several ways
in which this can be accomplished.
Absentee Fishing
If you have fishhooks and line (in a survival kit), then
you’re way ahead of the game. You can bait a whole bunch of hooks, string them
on a line across the waterway, and then walk away. This is “absentee
fishing”.
Be careful that the line you string across the waterway is
strong (10 – 15 lb line).
Tie it between a couple trees a couple feet above the water,
and then you can either rely on the water flow to keep the bait near the
surface, or simply put just enough line down to your hooks to not allow them to
sink.
If the water is moving, your bait will be dancing to entice the fish. If
there’s little or no movement, you can tie some leaf covered branches to the
paracord to catch the wind, which also makes your bait look lively.
While waiting for a catch, you can keep yourself busy with
important things like fire and shelter, and simply check your lines every few
hours.
Fish Fences
If you don’t have any hooks and line, then I recommend a
“fish fence”. A “fish fence” is just what it sounds like.
It’s a fence that you make out of sticks that will corral the fish for you.
The fence should be dense in fact the denser the better, as
long as water can flow through, and fish cannot! This is built on land in
sections, and then inserted in a likely waterway by pushing the posts into the
mud at the bottom.
There are several versions of this… it really depends on
the waterway. If it’s a pond, and there’s no flowing water, then you’ll just
make a corral in a shallow area with only one opening that funnels fish in.
Once they’re trapped in the small area, they can be speared or grabbed more
easily.
If you’re working with a stream, then it’s important to
determine the direction of flow. Observe whether fish are moving upstream,
downstream, or both.
If the fish are moving in one direction then a basic fence
placed diagonally across the stream will concentrate the fish in a small area
making it easier to spear one.
If the fish are moving in both directions, you may want to
make a “corral” that will catch in both directions as shown below.
If
you have built your fencing in sections, it’s easier to try different configurations
to see which works best for you.
Crayfish Trap Guidelines
As you need the Environment Agency’s written consent to use
a crayfish trap, it’s sensible to get permission from them before you buy a
crayfish trap. You must make sure that the trap you buy is legal for crayfish
trapping.
There are strict rules about the size and design. This is to
protect other wildlife such as otters.
The entrance to the trap must be no more than 9.5 cm across
If the entrance is more than 9.5 cm across, there must be an
otter guard or restriction on the funnel leading into the trap
The holes in the mesh must not be more than 3 cm across
The trap itself must not be more than 60 cm long or 35 cm
wide
If you want to use a trap that does not comply with these
rules, you will need written permission from the EA. Phone the National
Customer Call Centre on 0370 8506506 and ask to speak to your local Fisheries
Officer. They refuse many applications because of the risks to otters and water
voles. These are protected species. Don’t break the law.
Please note: The owners of fish farms, and their employees,
do not need our written consent to use crayfish traps on their fish farms.
However all traps have to comply with these rules so please contact your local
fisheries officer before you start trapping.
Water voles
If there are water voles nearby, the EA may refuse your
application to trap crayfish. This is because trapping can put these protected
animals in danger.
You are breaking the law if you:
Use illegal traps, recklessly allow water voles to drown in
crayfish traps place traps in the entrances to water vole tunnels
Sites with lots of water voles are unlikely to have many
crayfish – they prefer different habitats. But if there are water voles where
you want to trap, we may ask you to use baited drop nets. These are open traps
that are safe for water voles, unlike the more traditional, funneled, closed
traps.
You must not block a water vole burrow with a crayfish trap
If it is safe to do so, position your traps away from the banks. (traps in the
middle of a stream or watercourse are less likely to catch voles)
If you do accidentally catch a water vole, stop trapping
immediately and let your local Fisheries Officer know
You can modify your trap by cutting escape holes into the
roof. Holes that are 6–8 cm across will be Remember:
Do not put traps near
water vole burrows
Surviving
Unemployment
In the UK recent figures have revealed that UK unemployment
levels continue to be on the up. In fact, in the three months to the end of
November 2010, UK unemployment rose by 49,000 to almost 2.5 million, according
to the Office for National Statistics (ONS). The UK unemployment rate now
stands at 7.9%.
But it’s the young who have been hit hardest. One in five 16
to 24-year-olds are now out of work, taking the total to 951,000 without jobs –
this is the highest figure since records began in 1992.
If you’re one of the many who have recently been made
redundant, or perhaps you’re self-employed and struggling to find work, rest
assured, there are lots of constructive steps you can take.
Reassess your
financial priorities
Firstly, you need to take a good long look at your budget.
For example, if you have a standing order to your savings account , you may
need to cancel this and use the cash for everyday expenses, instead. Or perhaps
you’re no longer able to overpay your credit card each month. See how you can
save your money.
Focus on the skills
that matter
If you’re unemployed, you’re going to have to fight tooth
and nail to get ahead of other candidates in your field and nail that next job.
And if you’re self-employed, you’ll know that it’s a constant battle to bag the
next commission.
Either way, you need to focus on the skills that will make
you stand out from everyone else. Salsa dancing is a lovely hobby to have but
some perspective will be needed, depending on the job you’re going for.
A good place to start is surveying job adverts in your
sector and work out what skills, qualifications or experience they all seem to
be asking for. Talk to other people in your profession and work out which
skills are in short supply and high demand. Then focus on getting your head
round them.
Strengthen your brand
This is particularly important if you’re self-employed,
because very often future commissions rely on your portfolio and your
reputation as much as on your CV.
Here are a few ways to get you into the public eye:
Build a website – Register an internet domain under your own
name and build yourself a simple website showcasing your skills and experience.
This doesn’t have to cost much, and you don’t have to be a tech whizz to get
things off the ground.
There are various web hosts and site-building programmes
that you can use to get the whole thing going for well under £50. Your main
outlay will be the time you spend getting it right.
Get some business cards printed – Make yours stand out by
choosing an unusual colour, material or shape. The more recognisable, the more
the chance is of an employer taking the time to review it in detail.
Tailor your stationery – Get correspondence paper that’s
tailored to your needs. A stylish, well-placed design that’s unique to you will
look professional and sophisticated.
Keep your spirits up
If you feel yourself sinking into despair/apathy/complete
inactivity, you need to drag yourself out of it as soon as possible. That could
just mean getting out of the house, even if you don’t feel like it.
Or, to help motivate your job hunt, you could set yourself
inexpensive rewards for getting things done. So three solid job applications =
ice cream and a DVD – or something on those lines.
Finally, try to keep yourself groomed and in reasonable
physical shape. When you’re out of work, it’s all too easy to live in your
pyjamas. Look good and you’ll feel good.
How to prep
cost-effectively.
Often individuals watch shows and see others prepping for
what is described as doomsday events. Often the individuals that we watch or
hear about spend thousands of dollars on prepping supplies.
If you are like
most individuals and do not have thousands of dollars to spend on prepping
supplies, you must find another avenue to acquire your prepping supplies.
Be reassured that there are other means of acquiring a large
storehouse of food and supplies for a SHTF event than spending thousands of
dollars in obtaining them.
One way an individual can acquire a stockpile of
food is by purchasing an extra item of the regular types of foods that they
normally would use.
When shopping instead of Buying two cans of corn by three.
Take one can of the corn and put it in your prepping storeroom. You can then
rotate the food as you need the food and replace the extra food while shopping
the following week.
This is a great way to acquire a very large cachet of food
over a period of about six months.
Another way an individual can save money on purchasing
prepping items is by visiting your local pound shop. Some may laugh at this
idea. Some may think this idea is absurd.
The facts of the matter are that your
local pound shop often has first aid supplies that are normally very costly at
other shops, mine also sells food.
Usually most pound shops offer the supplies for a pound or
less. I have personally seen in the past were the same supplies often cost more
than £5 apiece.
Things like Band-Aids, swab sticks, aspirin, and even vitamins
are often offered at your local pound shop. A substantial savings can be
amassed by purchasing your items at this type of venue.
Often individuals think that a survival kit must have a
beautiful label with a beautiful amount of individually packaged items to be deemed
what is called a survival kit.
The real fact of the matter is that as long as
the survival kit is capable of administering treatment to an individual that
has been injured the first aid kit is completely functional.
It doesn’t take a pretty package to have the perfect first
aid kit. In actuality, these pre-packaged first aid kits often contain items
that are inferior in quality compared to the items that you could obtain from a
pound shop, in other words you can design your own kit.
Another factor to consider while at the pound shop is buying
items such as batteries, flashlights, tools, vitamins, paper products,
disinfectants, personal hygienic items; the list goes on and on.
An individual
can purchase a small duffel bag from your local army surplus store and
stockpile these items into it creating one heck of a bug out bag for less than
£15.
The same bag with inferior items contained inside may be
offered at more than £100 when commercially prepared for the public. I am not
against buying these commercially prepared bug out bags or first aid kits.
What I am concerned with is providing the same opportunities
to individuals that are on a shoestring budget as compared to those that live a
lifestyle where money is abundant.
The fact of the matter is that everyone
should be entitled to surviving and having prepping supplies readily available.
To buy good but cheap food preps I suggest that you check
out http://www.approvedfood.co.uk
Approved Food & Drink is the biggest online seller of
clearance food and drink and they deliver to your door across the UK.
I hope this information has provided some food for thought
and will help individuals that live on a limited budget.
Wild Camping
Only those with strength and great determination can be
extreme campers.
Do you have what it takes?
Anyone can go camping, but only extreme campers can do it
with limited supplies and tools. Also known as primitive camping, the article,
“Primitive Camping – Dos and Don’ts,” describes extreme camping as
reverting back to the caveman lifestyle where the camper kills his own food and
relies on nature for survival.
These tips are helpful if a camper is ever
stranded or wants to test his/her limits in the wilderness.
Setting up Camp
Having a shelter is a big priority when out in the
wilderness that’s a given. They say a person can survive three hours without
shelter, so when a tent is not available, the extreme camper should know how to
build a simple dwelling.
One of the most basic structures to build is called the
wickiup. Wickiups have been used for hundreds of years by Native Americans. In
order to craft a wickiup, the camper should first gather as many sturdy
branches as possible, preferably branches that don’t bend easily.
You can
construct a half wickiup by leaning branches against a large tree trunk or a
full wickiup by creating a circular dome and tying the branches together at the
top.
The wickiup will then look like a small tepee. If string or
rope is not available, the camper can rip up strips of clothing or find some
vines. For more coverage, lightweight branches with leaves can be laid on top
of the structure. This will provide more protection from rain or sunlight.
Fire Building
Extreme campers are able to build a fire without using
matches or a lighter. Some techniques however require tools that an extreme
camper will not have handy. Only two of the methods would be helpful to an
extreme camper without supplies, and they include the hand drill and fire plow
techniques.
The hand drill method is the most difficult of all only
requiring wood, hands, and gritty determination. A tinder nest can be created
using dry grass, leaves, or bark. The purpose of the nest is to create the
flame from the spark. A flat piece of wood is needed with a v-shaped notch cut
out and a depression adjacent to it.
Next, a wooden stick or spindle, about two feet long, is to
be placed in the depression on the flat piece of wood. Rub the spindle between
both hands, moving hands in an up and down motion. This is where the process
becomes long and tedious and requires a lot of patience.
Continue this process until an ember forms at the bottom of
the fireboard. The ember should be dropped onto a piece of bark and transferred
to the nest that was created earlier. Then you gently blow on the ember to
start a flame.
The fire plow method is similar to this, but instead of
rubbing your hands up and down the spindle while spinning it in the depression,
the spindle is placed in a groove cut out in the fireboard and rubbed back and
forth to create the ember.
Finding Food
Regular campers bring hotdogs and hamburgers to cook out
while camping, but extreme campers rely on nature to provide them with food.
One way to eat without store bought items is to go fishing, but since extreme
campers won’t have a fishing rod, one will have to be crafted out of wood.
This can be done by breaking off a branch of the desired
length and cutting off any shoots or leaves. Find some green vines to use as
fishing line, or use the fishing line in your survival kit.
Tie two vines
together using a surgeon’s knot or however you are able to keep them secure.
The vine should then be tied to the pole and wrapped around it a few times.
A hook can be made by carving a v-shaped green stick and
attaching it to the end of the line. It shouldn’t be too difficult to find some
bait in the woods. Just look in shady or mossy areas or lift up some large
rocks.
If constructing your own fishing rod is too complicated, you can try
spearing fish by sharpening the edge of a branch with a knife. An even easier
way to gather food is to find edible plants.
Here is a list of what to look for and what to avoid when
searching for plants to munch on. Steer clear of plants with any of the
following:
Milky or discoloured sap
Fine hairs or thorns
Beans, bulbs, or seeds inside pods
Bitter or soapy taste
Dill, carrot, or parsley-like foliage
Almond scent
Grain heads with pink, black , or purplish spurs
Three-leaved growth pattern
Some of the common plants that are safe to eat are cloves,
burdock, chickweed and dandelion, and plantain. But if you really want to know
which plants to eat and which ones not to eat then check out http://survivalinfo.co.uk  For the Wild and Edible Nutrition E Book
Boiling Water
Water from streams, ponds, or any other natural source
should never be ingested unless it has been boiled first. Boiling the water
removes bacteria that could cause you to become ill. This task would be simple
if a camper brought along some sort of container, but there is an option for
boiling water when the camper has no such supplies.
Once the fire has been created, the camper can use birch
bark to craft a container for water. The flame on the fire cannot be too high
or the birch bark container will ignite, but building a circular rock wall for
the bark container to rest upon will help prevent burning. Boiling water this
way takes impressive skill, but it can be done if you’re an extreme camper.
Or simply forget boiling water and buy a Purificup HERE
Best for Wiping
There aren’t any toilets in the wild, and extreme campers
who don’t have supplies will not have toilet paper. With that said, what is a
squatter supposed to wipe with? Well some choices are the finger and water
method; not very pleasant, but it gets the job done in a few swipes.
Others can opt for something like smooth stones or green
leaves. Just make sure the leaves aren’t going to leave a rash. You should
squat down and if necessary brace your back against a tree or a wall and then pull
your cheeks apart and that way you will not have much if anything to wipe away.
Extreme camping can be a challenging but rewarding
experience for those who are willing to stretch themselves and test their
limits.
It takes a great amount of patience and determination, and only the
strong survive.
Interesting and Strange Ways to Start a Fire?
I will be honest and tell you that I have not tried all
these methods and I am not even sure that some of them will work in the UK anyway.
Have you ever been out camping and realized that you forgot
the matches? If you didn’t have any matches, would you know how to start a
fire? What if the situation was one of survival and you needed to start a fire
to keep warm, cook food, and ?
Would you know what to do?
Fire making is a skill that everyone should be competent in.
Knowing how to create a fire could someday save your life and/or the lives of
your loved ones. After reading this article, you should have the knowledge to
be able to create one whenever or wherever it is needed.
Things to Consider
When Starting a Fire
All fires need three ingredients to be self-sustaining. They
need: 1) Fuel, 2) Oxygen, & 3) Heat. If you are missing any of these three
ingredients, you won’t be able to make a fire.
When outdoors, be mindful of
such things as relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and temperature.
All of these things can affect your ability to create a fire.
Another key thing to remember is to start out small. By this
I mean, start by heating a small amount of very fine kindling.
After you see
some glowing embers, slowly add more and larger pieces of fuel while fanning or
gently blowing on it to add oxygen to it. Remember, you can’t start a log on
fire without first building up enough heat to ignite it.
And lastly, a word about safety. Safety should be your
number one priority, especially in a survival or disaster situation. Be aware
of your surroundings and be sure you know what you are doing prior to doing it.
Before you start a fire, you should also make sure that you have the tools to
put it out properly.
You don’t want to start a forest fire or harm yourself or
your friends now do you?
Light Magnification
Methods
The sun can easily be used to start a fire by magnifying and
focusing the solar radiation that is hitting an object. Almost any kind of
transparent lens can be used to refract light and focus it on a single point.
There are several ways that light can be magnified.
Magnifying Glass – A magnifying glasses lens bends the sun’s
light and focuses it on a single point. This intense amount of light energy can
heat up some kindling enough to ignite it.
Just about every type of magnifying
glass can be used to start a fire given enough patience and the right
conditions. In fact, some sporting good store sell special lens that have the
sole purpose of starting fires.
Binoculars – When you
place binoculars in such a way that it directs the sun’s light to focus on a
single point, a fire can be
created. Simply hold the binoculars with the eye
piece pointed toward the object you are trying to ignite.
Keep a steady hand
and be patient to allow the material to heat up and ignite.
Ice Lens – In a cold climate you may be able to find a small
block of ice that can be turned into a magnifying lens. If you can find one,
begin shaping it by rubbing it on a hard surface such as a stone or boulder.
Keep doing this until you develop a perfect convex shape.
Be careful not to
move too fast or all of your hard work may end up melting away. When you are
done, use it to start a fire just like you would a regular magnifying glass.
Bag of Water – Fill a typical sandwich bag with some water
and squeeze it into the shape of a lens. Hold the bag tightly over your tinder
and don’t allow any water to drip onto it. Allow the light to be refracted
though the bag and to focus on a single point. Pretty much any kind of
transparent and flexible plastic can actually be used here.
Broken Light Bulb – The top of a broken light bulb can be
turned into a fire starting implement very easily. Simply add some clean water
to the glass and allow the sunlight to be refracted through it.
Wine Glass – This has basically the same concept as the
broken light bulb. A small amount of clean water added to a wine glass can
create a lens with the ability to start a fire. This won’t work all of the
time. You will need to find a drinking vessel that has that perfect spherical
shape.
Camera Lens – An old camera lens may be small, but it can be
quite powerful if used in the correct manner. A camera lens has a perfect
convex shape and is thus perfect for focusing light. This works the same as a
magnifying glass, but will be more difficult because of its small size.
Light Intensification
Methods
A mirror with a parabolic shape can focus light into a
single point by reflecting it. The reflected light is intensified by the mirror
and can easily create a flame. Almost anything that has a parabolic shape can
be used to start a fire.
Starting a fire with
a soda can and a chocolate bar
Aluminium Can – The bottom of an aluminium can has a near
perfect parabolic shape. This means that it is great for focusing the sun’s
rays into a single point. You will need to find something to polish the bottom
of the can to make it really reflective for this to work.
A very fine clay-mud
and a cloth can be used for this. You can use toothpaste or a candy bar like
they did on the hit Discovery Channel Show Myth busters to polish the
aluminium. Unfortunately for the environment, you can probably find some empty
beverage cans anywhere you go.
Metal Pot Lid – Some steel and aluminium cooking pots have
lids with a parabolic shape. Use the inside of the pot’s lid to focus the sun’s
light onto a single point. It may not be too difficult to find the perfect lid,
you just may one tucked away in your cupboard right now.
Flashlight – Inside of almost every camping or survival
flashlight is a parabolic mirror. After cracking open the flashlight, you can
use the mirror to direct a focused beam of light toward your tinder.
Salad Bowl and Foil – After finding a nice parabolic shaped
salad bowl, carefully press aluminium foiled into the bowl to make a reflective
surface. You may need to add a sticky substance to the bowl such as tree sap,
glue, or caramel candy to allow the foil to stay in place.
You will also need
to lightly buff the foil so that it becomes very shiny. Use the completed
device to focus light on a single point and start a fire.
Spark Methods
If you can find a way to create a spark, you can
effortlessly create a fire. Sparks can be easily created from a variety of
tools and materials.
Flint and Knife – This is probably on of the easiest ways to
create a spark. Simply force the knife blade over the flint stone surface.
Flint can be purchased at your local camping store or big box retailer.
Steel and Stone – If you strike a stone on a very hard piece
of steel, a spark can be created. When striking them together, be sure that the
objects are hitting each other at an oblique angle.
Your striking motion should
be such that you are “aiming” the sparks toward your kindling. You
can also use a second hard stone in place of a piece of steel if needed.
 9-Volt Battery and
Steel Wool –
A fresh 9 volt battery will very easily make a spark when touched
to a steel wool pad. This is actually one of the easiest ways to create a spark
as it is basically instantaneous.
Pencil and Car Battery – Use a knife to remove the eraser
end of the pencil and expose the graphite. Carefully touch the ends of the
pencil to the battery terminal by dropping it onto the battery. Use extreme
caution with the method has the pencil itself should ignite rather quickly.
Use
the burning pencil to ignite your tinder.
Friction Methods
If you can find a way to generate a lot of heat through
friction, you may be able to start a fire. Here are some methods to start a
fire using friction (assuming no electricity).
Bow Drill – An old shoe string tied around a curved piece of
wood can be used to start a fire. Use the string and curved stick to form a
bow. Then twist a straight, cylindrical stick into the bow. Use the bow to spin
the stick and create friction.
Creating a fire with this method takes an
incredible amount of work. The image at right should help you understand how
this works.
Fire Rope – Use a long (2-3ft) piece of rope to start a
fire. The rope will need to be made out of cotton, leather, or some other
organic material.
Nylon ropes will melt before a fire is created. First, find
an old and dry log. Carefully partially split the log and wedge it open with a
rock. Stuff some kindling into the crack at the bottom of the split. Next,
insert the rope through the split in the log and grab each end with your hands.
With rapid and short strokes, “saw” the rope back and forth until you
see smoke. This is extremely difficult and should only be used as a last
resort.
Fire Saw – This is the old “rub two sticks together
method.” Again, this takes an incredible amount of work to complete. To
increase your chances of success, use a very dry and soft piece of wood. Rub
one stick on the other in very a short and rapid back and forth motion.
Place
tinder at the end of the rubbing region. Continue this effort without stopping
until an ember is formed.
Pigeon Shooting for Beginners
Pigeon shooting In the summer, when the days are as hot as
your barrels, pigeon shooting comes into its own.
Since pigeons are capable of
devastating agricultural crops farmers will often welcome responsible Guns, so
how do you get started?
Well here is a beginner’s guide.
I am a strong believer in field craft.  Go out and practise it, enjoy the sport and
its many rewards, and remember the most important rule: do your reconnaissance
and look for pigeons in the air not on the ground.’
There you have it, field craft and reconnaissance: the be
all and end all of pigeon shooting.
However, it’s not quite as easy as that, you need a starting point, so
let’s start with the bird itself.
The woodpigeon
I have chosen the woodpigeon because it is easily the most
common edible size bird we will see in an urban and a rural environment and it
will form the backbone of our small game food intake along with the rabbit.
The woodpigeon, Columba palumbus, has been native to Great
Britain for centuries, its cousin in mainland Europe is migratory but we have
the only sedentary population of the species that exists.
We probably have as many as 15-20 million birds
in the UK.
The population is healthy, the bird breeds at least twice,
and in good warm summers three times, a year and they lay two eggs at a
time.  It has been guesstimated that we
shoot around a third of this increasing population and more than 200,000 people
hunt the woodpigeon in the UK every year.
The woodpigeon is easy to recognise; a delicate grey overall
with white wing bars and, in the adults, a white neck band.
The underside of the body is a rich mixture of colours from
pink to mauve.
A bright yellow eye, a
wingspan of just over two feet and an extraordinary capacity for aerobatics
which can leave the decoyer with two empty cartridges and nothing in the bag
more often than you would believe.
Our bird weighs around 20 ounces and is capable of more than
50 miles an hour in level flight.
By the way, if the bird you are aiming at has no white wing
bars don’t even attempt to shoot it, it is most likely a stock dove and
protected under the 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act
Now you know how to recognise the bird you need to find it
and go about hunting it.  Wood pigeons
are a flock bird, they eat almost non-stop to keep up with their rapid
metabolism and they spend many of their waking hours on the ground with their
fellows eating the poor farmer out of house and home.
This is where you
come in.
You are driving home on a summer’s afternoon (one the best
times of day to go decoying), when you pass a recently harvested field of
oilseed rape; as if at a signal the field bursts into life.
One moment there is a stubble field, the next
the air is full of grey and white birds twisting and turning as they lift of
the field as one.  Pigeons.
 How can you get some?
The answer lies in field craft, to be precise in flight
lines.
Woodpigeons arrive, and leave, their chosen field on flight
lines and to decoy successfully you need to know what a flight line is and how
to find it.
A flight line is quite
simply a ‘road in the air’ which the birds use to get from home to food and
back again.
The woodpigeon sleeps, and breeds, in woods, he feeds in
fields and he has chosen routes on which he flies to travel between the
two.
Drive to a field on which you have
spotted pigeon feeding, sit in your car on the edge of the field with a pair of
binoculars for half an hour or more and watch.
If the birds are using the field you will see traffic, birds coming into
and going out of the field.
Pigeons like to fly and they usually fly, and decoy,  better in a wind; the prevailing wind in this
country is from the South West.  Study
the wind, look for staging posts along the line that they use, single trees in
the field, hedge lines, streams, farm tracks etc.
The lines are really just like roads, they
have cross roads, corners, junctions, lay-bys and so on. Once you have
established the line that the birds are using you merely have to build your
hide under that line and go decoying.
The logic behind this piece of field craft is easy.  If you don’t do your reconnaissance and
merely build your hide on the field where you have seen the birds feeding you
will scare them away when you approach to construct your hide, and you have no
way of knowing if they arrived to feed haphazardly in that spot or that they
chose to be there.
If, however, you have watched the field and you build your
hide under their flight line into that same field, you know, even if you scare
them away when you start shooting, that when they return to feed (because you
have attracted them with your decoy layout),
they will all fly along the flight line.
Hides
The next step is to build yourself a hide under the line and
start decoying.  Hides come in various
guises; natural, bale and net.
Today the
technology in hide making belongs to the net and pole manufacturer.  Buy yourself 20ft x 4-5 feet of light
coloured camouflage netting and half a dozen telescopic, purpose made hide
poles and you have enough to build a hide anywhere which will serve you
throughout the changing colours and seasons of the year.
Build your hide so that you have background cover, enough
room to sit comfortably, see out of the hide without showing your face to the
incoming pigeon, stand and swing the gun and leave room for the dog.
Hides can also be built from natural materials, but don’t
ever cut down any of the farmer’s fences if you want to return.
Decoys
Now for the decoy pattern; I could give you several thousand
words on the theories but  just take my
word for it and set out a basic ‘U’ shaped pattern, watch the pigeons on their
approach to your pattern and go from there.
Pigeons like to feed with their friends, you therefore need a few (a
dozen will to do to start with), decoys to get the ball rolling.
A ‘U’ shaped pattern will give the most encouragement to the
birds to land and, with the wind behind you, give you the easiest shooting.
There are many artificial decoys  in the shops, they should not shine in either
the sun or the rain, and the lightest are usually the best as they are the
easiest to carry long distances.
Set the
front of the pattern 25 yards from the hide, leave 2-3 yards between each decoy
and extend the arms of the ‘U’ at least 15-20 yards from the front of the
pattern and finally make the open end of the ‘U’ at least 15 yards wide.
Once you have been successful with the ‘U’ you can
experiment with other shapes.

 

 

A basic rule of all patterns is that, if the birds don’t
come into land and jink away from your decoys; you and not the pigeons have got
something wrong.
Guns
Shooting, guns and cartridges:  The gun (to start with), 12-bore, double
barrelled (28″ barrels are good), choked improved and ½  firing 1 ounce (28 grams), of No 6 shot will
drop pigeons stone dead at between 25-35 yards all day long.
A 20-bore with the equivalent load (13/16
ounce (23 grams), will do the same.
An air rifle can be used to take birds on the ground or in trees for
food.
The pigeon shot takes some practice but instinct is usually
better than maintained lead.  You know
that the decoys are placed within the range at which your gun patterns best,
wait for the bird to come into the decoy pattern, mount the gun and swing
through the bird in the same movement and squeeze the trigger.
Don’t move until you are going to shoot or
you will scare the bird away before he comes within your chosen range.
Practice will make perfect.
Forget about averages, if you are happy with your shooting then that is
a good average, if you are not then that is a bad average and you should return
to the shooting school.
There are a host of other areas which we could touch on in
this article, dogs, dispatching birds, gaining permission to shoot, camouflage
clothing, ‘pigeon magnets’, roost shooting, plucking and preparing birds for
the table, in depth study of the bird and its habits, advanced decoying, crop
protection or sport and so on but there should be enough here to get you
started.
Good luck and keeping looking for those birds on their
flight lines in the air.
How to stay warm at home when cash is low
How to stay warm at home if without turning the heating on
when low on cash? Here are some thoughts…
Fool the eye: Sometimes warmth is a matter of perception.
Warm colours and textures make you feel warmer so change out your decor. Try a
throw so you can snuggle under it.
Cut a rug: Cover up your bare floors with a rug.
Bake something: Stews, roasts, casseroles and soups are made
for the cold weather because they cook at low temperatures for a long period of
time and, of course, they warm you up going down.
Drink something: Wrap your hands around a warm mug of tea, cocoa
or coffee.
Let the sun in: Open curtains and blinds during the day.
Change your bedding: Switch to flannel sheets, a down
comforter, use extra blankets.
Clean the house: Not only will your house be cleaner but
activity will get your blood pumping.
Cover your head: It sounds silly but wearing a hat (and
socks) to bed at night, even if the rest of you is clad in skimpy clothing,
will keep you warm.

 

 

It’s muggy in here: Use a humidifier. Humid air feels
warmer.
No humidifier? Open the bathroom door while you’re showering.
Reverse the fan: We know that, since heat rises, running
your ceiling fan in reverse will push the warm air back down to the ground.
Do your laundry: Nothing warms you up like clothing straight
from the dryer.
It’s drafty in here: Block drafts with weather stripping, a
rolled up towel or a draft stopper.
It takes two: Snuggle up with your significant other.
Something old fashioned: Try a hot water bottle or, before
you get into bed, running a hot pan over your sheets. Bags of rice or dried
beans, warmed in the microwave, are another option.
How to stay warm with no heating for whatever reason.
Wear layers of clothing in real times if it is very cold
then dress for the outdoors, wear a hat and gloves.
If you have a real fire build it up and gather the family in
that room.
Block all drafts with rolled towels, rolled newspapers or
fix weather strips.
Y
ou can create a double glazing effect by nailing up Perspex
over existing windows remembering to leave an air gap between them, remember
not to bang the nails home as that may by your only escape route in the event
of a fire.
How to stay warm while sleeping outside
Put a warm hat on – your head 75% of your body heat.
Use your coat as another warm layer on top of your sleeping
bag.
Are your socks dry? If damp, they might be chilling your
feet.  
Put on clean and dry socks.
Add layers – put on clothing – clean and dry clothes are
best.
Drink something hot or warm.
Wake up.
Eat something – just a snack.
Go for a pee – your body is using energy to keep that extra
liquid warm.
Get up and build a fire to get warm. Then go back to bed.
Tense and relax
muscles for a while – the passive equivalent of getting some exercise.
Use a hi-tech
solution – instant hand and feet warmers – those little packets that you
squeeze and get warm.
Make sure you are
well enough insulated underneath.
If you are in a
primitive shelter, ensure no breeze is getting in, and that you are not exposed
to the sky.
Cozy up with a partner. If you are getting seriously cold,
this is the most effective way to get warm, and it is no time to be shy or
reluctant.
If you have an empty water drinks bottle then fill it with
clean or dirty water but right to the top then put the lid on tight and place
it on your fire.
It will not explode or burn after 10 minutes it should be hot
enough to act as a hot water bottle.
The best way I find to keep warm in the woods when on a
survival session is to chop some wood for the fire, it really warms you up.
To get or keep warm while out and about:
Stay out of the wind. Seek out a sheltered spot.
Wear a warm hat
Build a fire – remember that in the winter, in most places,
you can always stop and make a fire (provided you have the means to do so!).
Drink something hot.
Go for a pee – your body is heating that extra water for no
reason.
Be comfortable – being uncomfortable can make you colder by
being mentally stressed.
Be mentally prepared to be a little bit cooler than your
ideal of being “nice and warm”.
Stay active, but don’t sweat.
Use a hi-tech solution – instant hand and feet warmers –
those little packets that you squeeze and they get warm.
Eat something, more like a snack.
Put on more clothing.
If your feet are damp, put on clean dry socks, and wear dry
boots.
Eat fatty foods.
If the sun is out, tilt your face towards the sun – you can
absorb a lot of heat this way.
Sit close beside another person.
Exercise is your body’s best friend when it comes to keeping
warm. 20 – 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise will help your body warm
up and keep warm even after you are done exercising.
And exercise also helps
your body to tolerate cold better and develop better circulation.
Keeping hydrated is also a must if you are always cold so
drink plenty of water because proper hydration is crucial for a
well-functioning body.
Caffeine, alcohol and soda are not good for hydration,
so have some warm soup or a cup of decaf tea instead.
Walking Home – Survival Tips
Here are three survival (security) tips that are free, and
won’t cost you anything.
There is a caveat though, that is you may need to
force a slight change in your behaviour and habits.
In today’s world of increasing economic woes, more
individuals are turning towards criminal behaviour as they become angrier,
looking for someone to blame, and may be downright desperate.
You, as a
‘normal’ person, may be walking among them from time to time and you don’t even
know it or recognize it.
To a large extent, the key to avoid being victimized is to
simply be aware. Awareness consciously (and subconsciously) changes your own
behaviour such that you will be more likely to avoid dangerous situations that
could escalate into violence.
Let me define ‘awareness’ in the context of your
self-security:

 

 

Well firstly you should know what is happening or has
happened in your field of travel, you should also look around you (and behind
you) while moving (walking, driving, etc) and even outside your home, make eye
contact while scanning in crowded public places.
Whether by paying attention to the news or ‘hearsay’,
understand the history of the area you are about to travel in.
Most people over
time will come to understand where the ‘bad’ areas are in their local region –
areas especially vulnerable to crime.
If you are new to the area, or if traveling outside your own
area, make an effort to discover where these ‘bad’ areas are.
A great tool to
look for crime reports is on CrimeReports.com, which shows maps dotted with
crime reports in Canada, the U.S., and the U
This simple behaviour is more effective than you may
imagine. The reason being, is that so many people do not do this, they are
ignorant to their surroundings, and are the first to become victims.
Predators look for the weaker prey. Someone who is looking
down, or who appears to be in their own little world, they are prime targets
for criminals.
Instead, you should scan around you from time to time, with
your head up straight, as you walk with purpose – shoulders back, and
confident. Not only might you avoid an unruly-looking gang of troublemakers,
but they might avoid targeting YOU.
Make eye contact while scanning in crowded public places
Making purposeful, but quick eye contact is another very
effective deterrent to a criminal.
Here’s the reason… Most people purposely
avoid eye contact in public places.
They want to remain in their own little world and by looking
down or avoiding eye contact, they are convinced that they will remain in that
cocoon. The reality is that they are entirely wrong.
Sure, that type of behaviour may avoid unwanted conversation
that otherwise might initiate from a stranger, but that’s about it… By
occasionally scanning and making quick eye contact with others, tells any
potential criminal that you are not afraid.
‘Quick’ eye contact simply means
don’t stare. Staring will provoke a stranger.
Is this type of
behaviour simply a bunch of paranoia? Do you have to walk around being paranoid
to avoid being in the wrong place at the wrong time? No, of course not.
Granted, for some people, learning to do these simple things
will feel uncomfortable at first – and they may feel as though they are being
paranoid. However, after a while, this will become part of you, just like being
able to carry on a conversation with someone while driving a car. It’s no big
deal…
Bolster some confidence while you’re out and about. It may
unknowingly ward off a pick-pocket, purse-snatcher, or worse criminal, without
you even knowing it happened!
WHEN NATURE CALLS AND YOU GOTTA GO
What do you do? When you are on a survival exercise, the
time will come when you’ve got no choice, you have to go
What’s the etiquette? What do you do if you’re a female?
How
can you be certain that you’re alone? Trust me, it’s not all that bad – once
you get used to it.
You should always ensure that you are at least 200’ from any
stream, lake, creek, etc. This applies to all body wastes.
You don’t want to
foul the water, and your waste WILL travel within the earth farther than you
might think. Remember this rule when you’re getting your drinking water from a
stream or lake
Start by digging a hole at least 6 to 8 inches deep and wide
in a locale that you feel is both comfortable and private. You might wish to
locate a good-size rock or log against which to support yourself.
Women might
wish to go in pairs – one can act as a lookout.
Carefully burn used toilet paper in the hole or in your
campfire. This would also apply to women’s feminine hygiene items. Cover the
hole with the dirt you removed – there should be at least 6 inches of covering
dirt, I like to add a large rock to deter forest creatures from being too
curious or hikers from stepping there.
Women!!! If you are quite concerned with privacy, buy a
roomy, non-transparent poncho.
You can wreath it for added security. It makes a
wonderful outhouse while doubling as rain protection. NO extra weight to carry.
Obviously, you’ll want to be careful not to soil the poncho.
Always carry a plastic trowel and toilet paper in your pack
– even when day hiking.
For groups, I like to dig an 8 inch deep, 8 inch wide trench
long enough to accommodate the group size and planned time in camp.
Choose a site which will be safe and easy to locate in the
dark. Leave a trowel or shovel behind. Don’t leave a roll of paper behind
unless it is well secured and waterproofed – soggy paper is no fun, and neither
is toilet paper blowing through the forest.
Each user simply covers their use;
this saves everyone from locating and digging separate holes.
This way all users know to allow privacy in that spot, as
well. Before leaving camp, always return the group toilet area to “no-trace
condition.
Scatter rocks, level the ground, etc.
Finally, if the ground is frozen or too hard for digging,
pack out both waste and paper. Please do not take the easy way out – think of
others. In snow, be sure to dig through the snow and into the earth.

 

 

And please remember don’t drink yellow snow!!!!
Survival Napping
As expert survivors we often think in terms of taking action
in order to survive.
For example we have our bug-out bags pre-packed and are
ready to go, so that we may walk or drive many miles with enough supplies to
get us there.
Survivors know how to build a fire in many different ways
under a variety of adverse conditions. Survivors can obtain drinkable water and
forage edible foods from a plethora of sources.
As survival experts we can
defend ourselves and our property to the best of our ability.
And that is just the beginning. When the going gets tough
the experienced wilderness and urban survivor springs into action, taking
adversity head on.
But not always. A wise old friend of mine once told me,
“Sometimes the best thing you can do – is do nothing!”
When the going gets tough sometimes the best thing to do is
to take a long nap. During very bad weather or social unrest it is often not
wise to continue on with your plans.
Rather than flail about in wind and storm
or risk altercation during social unrest, simply go to sleep and wait it out!
You will save your energy, reduce the risk of injury, and get a good rest
besides.
Sometimes the best thing you can do- is do nothing!
This strategy has been employed by experienced wilderness
survivors such as the northern Native Americans during foul winter weather,
arctic explorers, and high mountain expeditions like those on Mount Everest and
K2.
Even the very squirrels and other animals, natures experienced survival
instructors, will hunker down during the worst of conditions. They simply curl
up in their dens and go to sleep.
During a survival situation of any kind, the ability to
sleep warm, dry, and comfortable is very important and can mean the difference
between health and the ability to take action during waking hours or possibly
not making it out alive.
If you have the proper survival gear and knowledge, your
outdoor sleep system can get you through the most trying of times with little
expenditure of precious energy or exposure to danger.
Types of Campfires
I have to believe that one of the first things a creature
did once it climbed out of the primordial ooze was to seek warmth.
I can
certainly relate to that quest at the end of a long survival exercise. Despite
the fact that proper clothing should provide its wearer with adequate warmth,
there is still something about the glow and radiant heat of a good campfire
that all the right garments can never provide, it just feels natural to me.
Like bubbling stew, any fire can give you feelings of
warmth. However, knowing how different fires direct and produce differing
amounts of heat can help you make the best fire for different circumstances.
The “science” of a fire is based on three elements: fuel, oxygen and
heat.
The fuel is the material that will start and then keep the
fire burning. In order to burn it must have oxygen.
The oxygen combines with
the gases emitted from the fuel as it is consumed – that gas is released by
heat applied to the fuel.
Eventually the fuel is consumed, the energy is released in
light and heat and the process is sustained by adding more fuel or reinitiated
when a fire is needed again.
The key to any good fire is a quick start, sometimes with
only one or two chances to do so. Good tinder – small dry shavings or strands
or globs or drippings of quickly combustible material used to start a fire – is
critical.
Practice with whatever fire igniter you prefer and practice
lighting the myriad varieties of tinder you can find outdoors: cattail fluff,
birch bark, shredded dry leaves, small blades and stalks of grass, lint from
you washing machine – practicing what lights quickly and produces enough heat
to start your tinder burning is a key skill in becoming a competent fire
starter.
Tinder is the base of your fire.
Most any larger fire will usually be started from a tiny,
burning pile of tinder. Once you’re comfortable selecting and using tinder,
learn what type of kindling can be used to further fuel your fire.
The tinder should burn long and hot enough to generate the
gases that will ultimately ignite and start the combustion process with the
larger pieces of wood or burning material that will be used to sustain your
fire for a longer period of time.
Tinder is usually dry sticks and twigs that can usually be
collected on the ground, or in wet country, from downed and dead branches and
trees.
In America the native peoples called it “squaw wood” inferring
it can be gathered without tools and much effort.

 

 

Sometimes larger, thicker pieces of bark or even stout canes
and stalks from vegetation can be used as kindling. Tinder can also be used to generate
a quick burst of heat for cooking, or light for better visibility around the
camp.
Once a fire is up and going, the larger pieces of wood can be used to
maintain the fire with less monitoring than with smaller, more quickly consumed
materials.
All fires are not the same; they can be built for specific
purposes, to accent either heat or light, and can be constructed so as to
radiate heat in a certain direction.
TEEPEE FIRE:
This is probably the
most basic of fire designs. It is often used as a starter upon which bigger,
longer-lasting fires are founded.
It’s also a great fire for a quick warm-up or water-boiling
snack break. This fire uses mostly kindling, but larger teepees can be created
by adding larger logs vertically to the fire.
Many beach fires are large teepee
fires where pole-sized driftwood is laid upright against others to form this
familiar shape.
A teepee fire is a good fire to direct heat upward and can
be used beneath a hung pot on a tripod for fast heating.
PYRAMID/PLATFORM
FIRE:
This fire consists of a foundation framework of large logs
laid side by side to form a solid base. A slightly shorter log is laid
perpendicular and on top of this first layer. Each subsequent layer is slightly
shorter as the platform or pyramid rises.
This solid mass of right angle
firewood takes a little effort to light but it’s well worth it for the huge
amount of coals it produces, especially when the fire is lit on the top most
layer and burns down through the layers.
A lighter version of the Pyramid fire is the platform. It’s
similar in shape to the pyramid fire except the logs are layered only along the
outside edge (like walls on a log cabin) with each level of logs slightly
shorter than the ones beneath.
This creates a hollow wood platform into which smaller
kindling can be placed and ignited. It can provide quick warmth and be the
start of any number of larger blazes.
PARALLEL FIRE:
Sometimes a fire is built between two long logs. If the logs
are the same size, the tops of the log can be used to place pots for cooking.
It has the added advantage of prolonging the fire since the
insides of the log are burning too, and it’s easy to direct the fire up or down
the length of the side log, literally until the entire log is eventually
consumed.
A similar fire is the trench fire, used almost exclusively
for cooking. These work by either blocking the wind or in funnelling the wind
into the fire for a more concentrated and hotter “burn”.
Several pots
can be placed over the trench and the fire can be maintained at different
levels for a variety of cooking options.
STAR or INDIAN FIRE:
A star fire, or
Indian fire, is the fire design often depicted as the campfire of the old West.
Imagine five or six logs laid out like the spokes of a wheel (star shaped).
A
fire is started at the “hub” and each log is pushed towards the
centre as the ends are consumed. It’s another fire that can be kept burning all
night long with little maintenance.
REFLECTOR FIRE:
A reflector fire is really any fire that has some sort of
flat surface behind it to direct the heat back out past the fire. This surface
is erected behind the fire and pointed, for example, at the face of a tent,
lean-to or other shelter.
This back reflector can be made out of a few large slabs of
bark, several logs laid against supports and stacked upon each other to form
the surface.
Rocks can also be used but just like those used to ring a fire,
make sure they do not contain moisture.
That trapped moisture can be heated to where it’s like a
steam engine with no release valve. Exploding rocks can send shrapnel and
shards flying in every direction!
Several fire starters are on the market, from the basic
match to clever kits that contain a flint-like material and striker unit all
packaged together.
Space-age lighters and water and stormproof matches can be
your choice of fire starter. The most important thing to remember about fires
is learning how to build and lit them long before you need one to save your
life.
Practice at home, make it a ceremonial task at your next camp out.
As humans I am convinced that the feelings evoked by a good
campfire are remnants of our cave-dwelling ancestral days.
Even if we have a
good coat on our back, and a belly full of warm food cooked on a camp stove,
there is something about a fire that makes the campsite complete.
When the Power Stops
It is a fact that our country is more reliant on electrical
power today than at any time in its history.
Our way of life – from everyday
conveniences and the security of local emergency services to commerce and
communications – is contingent upon an always on, always available flow of
electricity.
But an aging infrastructure coupled with a rise in natural
and man-made disasters threatens our entire modern day digital infrastructure.
According to many experts from the private and public sector, we’re just one
major catastrophic event away from a complete meltdown of life in the United
Kingdom as we know it today.
So, what happens if and when the grid goes down for an
extended period of time? Aside from the aggravation of not being able to
determine what is happening through traditional media channels, for the Average
person, his problems have only just begun.
Our dependency to the
power grid doesn’t just stop at the lack of electricity in our homes to power
our appliances or an inability to charge our mobile phones; it Is much broader
and affects every aspect of our lives.
We are regularly inundated with news reports covering power
cuts that last several days or weeks resulting from bad weather or snow storms.
During those times, when entire metropolitan areas or regions experience power
cuts, we get a glimpse into what a truly widespread emergency might look like.
It is often the case that the first thing residents of
affected areas do is rush to the supermarket and DIY stores hoping to acquire
critical supplies like food, water, batteries, flashlights and generators.
And while these supplies acquired at the onset of crisis may
provide short term sustenance, any long-term power cut situation that lasts for
many weeks or months will prove dangerous, and perhaps fatal, to the
unprepared.
Consider, for a moment, how drastically your life would
change without the continuous flow of energy the grid delivers. While
manageable during a short-term disaster, losing access to the following
critical elements of our just-in-time society would wreak havoc on the system.
Challenges or shut downs of business commerce
Breakdown of our basic infrastructure: communications, mass
transportation, supply chains
Inability to access money via atm machines
Payroll service interruptions
Interruptions in public facilities – schools, workplaces may
close, and public gatherings.
Inability to have access to clean drinking water
The last widespread outage in the Northeast with over 80,000
homes without electricity, showed how intimately interconnected and alarmingly
fragile our power grid is.
If our society is more reliant on power than at any time in
history – without it, we’ve got no commerce, no communications, no clean water
– and if power becomes less reliable in the future, the big question is: Will
we be able to hack it?
THE TROUBLE with the future of power isn’t that there is one
big problem that could knack us. It’s that there are a host of them, any one of
which could knack us.
These things that could knack us I would class as Extreme
Natural Disasters
This includes earthquakes, hurricanes, snow storms,
thunderstorms as well as massive solar storms that have the potential to
seriously damage the electrical grid. You don’t think it could happen?
“It took just 90 seconds for a 1989 solar storm to cause the
collapse of the Hydro-Quebec power grid, leaving 6 million Canadians without
power for up to nine hours.
A 2008 NASA-funded report noted the risk of significant
damage to our interconnected grid in light of the forecast for increased solar
activity. The 11-year solar cycle is expected to peak in 2013, and just two
weeks ago we saw one of the biggest solar-radiation storms in years.
Acts of Terrorism
This category includes, but is not limited to a physical
attack on the bulk power system, either at its source of generation or
somewhere along its transmission route, cyber attack on the computers
controlling our interconnected grid, electro-magnetic pulse, or an EMP, weapon.
Have you read me “effects of EMP” article. EMP’s will create
long-lasting damage that would incapacitate electronic systems across the
country and forever change our way of life.
Cyber-threats are another concern
and someone with serious hacking skills could easily take out computers,
networks or information stored therein to cause lasting damage to our way of
life.
The Ailing Grid
Our ailing power grid is almost as sick as our failing
economy. With one malicious event, be it man made or by natural means, it is
down. Our power delivery system is as old and stooped as a pensioner.
As it is
upgraded and its capacity is expanded, our rapacious need for more electrical
power races to max it out once again.
A wide-spread emergency, such as a massive power surge,
solar flare or a rogue electromagnetic pulse (EMP) detonation have the capacity
to render our entire power infrastructure useless.
Transformers and other key
elements on which the grid depends could be permanently damaged as a result of
massive electric surges.
In an event such as this our immediate problem will be finding
a way to order, manufacture and take delivery of the components needed to
replace the faulty ones.
Most of the parts made for our electrical grid are made in
China – and many are decades old. It would take months to get the parts shipped
to this country and replaced.
During the power cut, millions would be adversely affected;
some even suggesting that within a year 9 out of 10 Britons would be dead from
starvation, disease and violence.
Ladies and gentleman, if there’s one thing that can cause
the veritable “S” to hit the fan, this is it.

 

 

So how do we remedy and or prepare for a grid down scenario?
Think retro – like pioneer retro- and by that we have to go way back to when we
were not so dependent on the luxury of on-demand energy in its various forms.
When preparing for a grid-down scenario, we must comprise
different contingency plans for short-term and longer-term issues. That being
the case, we have to admit to ourselves that it could last longer than we
expect and be much more than just a minor inconvenience.
Therefore, the best way to prepare is to start with your
basic needs. That is the need for light, heat, water, and food. Therefore we
must employ the usual SHTF plans to overcome this potential disaster situation.
The vulnerability of our grid is nothing new to us as
preppers. Some have seen this problem coming for a long time and changed their
entire ways of life by going off-grid.
They have found alternative sources such as solar, wind and
diesel to power their homes and machinery. A majority of us, who have not gone
off-grid, are making a concerted effort to avoid dependence on this ailing
infrastructure and preparing for life without it.
That being said, all we can do is stay the course, prepare
accordingly and continue on.
Surviving in your Car
Living in a car isn’t something that anyone would recommend.
However, when you get laid off, your emergency fund runs out, your home is
foreclosed (or you get an eviction notice) and there’s nobody to help, living
in your car might be the only choice, especially if you don’t feel safe at a
local shelter.
Unfortunately, in many places, sleeping in your car is not
only frowned upon, but also illegal. Here’s how to get by until something
better comes along.
Firstly remember, you are not alone and you have a vehicle.
Lots of people have survived and even thrived while sleeping in cars
You can only live in your car successfully if your car
works. You’re going to need a new or “newish” car or be a good
mechanic to live in an older car. If you have an old car keep in mind that
you’re liable to break down at an inopportune moment if you don’t stay on top
of maintenance.
Find a safe and inconspicuous place to park. First, check to
see if there are any organizations or businesses in your area (or a nearby
area) that designates parking lots specifically for people in situations like
yours; For example, some supermarkets allow people to camp overnight in their
parking lots.
It’s not only legal, but the organization might screen the
people who use the car park. If there are no such car parks available, and you
live in a urban area, look for streets with no footpaths, no overlooking
windows, and adjacent to woods; the area should be sparse enough to avoid nosy
onlookers but populated enough that the car does not stand out.
Truck Stops or service stations on A roads and motorways (especially
those that are open 24 hours and have toilets etc. are great to clean up in and
have security, as long as you spend a couple of quid there and don’t park in one
place too often.
Truck stops  however can
be noisy, particularly in the morning as trucks arrive carrying food and goods.

 

 

Church car parks are often quiet during week days. If you
check around, you may find a church that is less used than others. This could
be a good place to park, and you may be able to ask for assistance at the
church.
Industrial estates and business parks are often noisy by
day, but very quiet at night. Small ones close to residential areas are best.
They have to be quiet at night.
You may encounter security in some places like this, but if
you are honest, saying you are just sleeping the night in your car, they
usually won’t bother you. Their main role is to protect the property.
University car parks are okay if you are a student, but not
so good if you are not associated with the university. If required, get a
parking permit.
Camping grounds are another option, although they usually
have time limits and some are almost as expensive as a hotel room. Some offer a
shower for a nominal fee. National Forests have some free camping with a limit
of 14 days.
If there’s no shower room, having a river nearby helps for
rinsing purposes. Know how to safely defecate outdoors and make a poop tube. Five
gallon bucket with a lid for example.
A free hospital parking space is another option. If
approached by a guard, you can say that you’re waiting to visit a sick
relative. However, note that due to attacks on nurses, you may attract police
attention by parking in a hospital car park.
You may be asked to move on by
security.
If you can establish rapport with the manager of a retail
store or restaurant, they may not give you problems about staying overnight,
especially if they see your presence as a form of overnight security.
Once you find a spot, try to arrive late at night, and leave
before 7am. This will draw as little attention as possible to you.
Due to noise, you might find that you will need ear plugs to
sleep. Ear plugs will block a lot of background noise to a level that is
bearable. Ear plugs are good for blocking out traffic, birds, animals, talking
and background music. They will not block out very loud noise or close noise,
such as someone tapping on your car.
Find a place to shower. The most logical place would appear
to be a gym. This will help you keep your sanity and give you a purpose to your
morning. Don’t settle for the first gym you find. If you look around, you may
find nearly deserted gyms in which you can shower and fully clean yourself
without embarrassment.
Remember: the people
who can least afford to sport the dishevelled look of a homeless person are
those who ARE homeless, so try not to look the part! Don’t “let yourself
go”, as once descent starts, it
is hard to pull out.
Maintaining a well-kept appearance can only help you
maintain a positive self-image during a time when it is being seriously
challenged. Gyms can be an expensive option. Many
Gyms range in cost from a few
£’s per day to many, many £’s per week. This is pretty expensive just for a
shower. Many councils, churches and support organisations have free showers.
It
can be a false economy to use a gym just for showers, particularly as there are
many free ways to keep in shape without a gym.
Try to remember the flip flops or water shoes as not to get
a foot fungus and let the towel dry out in the car.
Community or Recreation centres that have gyms and showers
are a cheaper option than the nationwide chains. Many Rec or
Community centres
yearly memberships cost about the same as the monthly memberships at a national
gym. You may not be able to store your items as safely in these places though.
The next best choice is to book into an affordable caravan
park one or two days a week. These usually range from about £8-£15 a night. You
will have a spot to park your car, you can do laundry (usually an extra fee),
fill up on water, have a shower and even pitch a tent if you have one.
They
usually have powered sites, so you can recharge your electrical devices or run
a fan or heater.
Another option, though possibly more expensive, is to book
into a cheap motel or hostel once or twice a week and clean up thoroughly there
(if you can afford it).
Swimming pools have showers, depending on whether they have
private stalls or are set up gang style, they may provide a discrete place to
shower.
Another option to consider- when you can’t shower, use
unscented baby wipes to clean up, or take a “bum shower” in a public
restroom where you feel comfortable doing so.
At a truck stop, you can ask around for a shower coupon, if
you feel safe allowing people to know that you’re without a place to stay.
Truck stops are good to sleep at too. Truck Stops can be noisy at night though,
so ear plugs are recommended.
Be discreet.
Keeping your situation under wraps minimizes
the embarrassment and helps avoid becoming a target for police officers and
criminals alike.
It is common sense to rotate among several parking locations
to avoid getting noticed.
When you move around in the parked car, move slowly to avoid
rocking the car.
You could consider using a car cover. Not only will it
maintain privacy (especially since condensation on the windows will otherwise
make it obvious that you’re in there) but it will also keep the car warmer
during winter.
This is not a viable option, however, when it’s hot outside.
When it’s sunny in the daytime, use a sunshade for the
windshield.
You may find that you need and want more privacy than
windows offer. There are a few cheap ways to gain this privacy. Reflective
window shades in your back and front window help. Similarly fold up shades on
the side windows are good. You can also buy some cheap cloth and either stuff
them in the windows, tape them in, or hold them in place by magnets.
Black cloth
is best for privacy and blocking out light.
If you can afford it,
local laws allow, and you don’t mind driving with it. Get your windows tinted
as dark as legally possible. This along with the front sunshade and dark cloth
or towels can provide a lot of privacy. If you hang a towel or cloth on a
untinted window it screams homeless person.
You hang the same on a tinted
window it’ll be impossible to see inside and won’t draw attention.
Keep the windows slightly open while you sleep, not wide
enough for someone to reach in, but enough to allow fresh air and reduce
condensation on the windows.
Get the things you’ll need.
The basic essentials for living
in a car are a blanket, a pillow, and a mattress or some other padding. Due to
the angles involved in the seating setup, you may develop dull back pain from
the cramped quarters.
Should this happen, be sure to have pain medication on
hand.
Once you have your sleeping gear, you’ll want a blanket to
place over the back seat, and draped over the two front seats.
This will block
light and people’s views.
A cheap fridge will help make life easier. The main thing
the cooler needs is to be water proof. Cold food will cause condensation, while
ice will melt. You don’t want that water inside of your car.
A fridge will help
keep your perishable food cool. It will work most efficiently when full, so add
bottles of cold water to it as you take out food. If you choose to buy an
electric fridge, it will need good ventilation to work.
For this reason, it will not work well in your car’s boot.
It is best placed within the car when running. Make sure it is only running
when the engine runs, or use a low voltage cut out device, as explained below.
Make sure the cooling vent grille is not touching anything as it exhausts waste
heat and may set some things on fire.
One essential item, if you can afford it is a porta potti, a
chemical toilet. These devices can really make living in a car bearable. They
can be purchased for under £50 new these days.
If you can’t afford a porta
potti or don’t have room for one, you can pee into wide necked bottles, or make
an improvised bucket style toilet.
Find alternate ways of generating electricity. A cigarette
lighter converter is one option. These are useful for powering low consuming
devices (100 watts), but if you plan on using your vehicle for cooking, then
you’ll need to draw power more directly from your battery or you’ll blow the
fuse.
Running electric cooking appliances from your car though is fairly
impractical without an expensive dual battery and inverter system.
There are small 12 volt water heaters and skillets, but
these generally are not very efficient. You will also need a much more
expensive inverter if you plan to run things that use mains voltage.
You may
need to idle the vehicle while drawing this power if you don’t have a dual
battery system, however even then, car alternators are not designed for such
use and may not be able to produce the current you need.
A good buy for any car dweller is a low voltage cut out
device. This device protects your car’s battery by cutting off the electricity
once the battery reaches a voltage where it can still start the car, but can’t
really run plug in devices much more.
These usually retail for about £10 to £20.
They are a very good investment for a car dweller, as
continual flattening of your battery will damage it, resulting in a costly
replacement, and inconvenience of not being able to start the car.
An alternative to electric cooking devices is to use gas for
cooking, but do not use this inside the vehicle for safety reasons. There are
many dangers associated with cooking inside your car; unstable surfaces, fire
hazards, burns from hot metal or spilled liquids, carbon monoxide build up,
smells.
Cooking is for outside of the car. If you live in a van with a stable
set up for cooking, then cooking inside is okay, provided there is ventilation.
Have a place to store items that is portable. Get bags you
can fill with your soaps, clothes, mobile phone, etc. Keeping things in order
will save you a lot of hassle. A vehicle may seem like a small space, but
losing things can be extremely easy.
Also, keeping things neat inside the car
will draw less attention from people passing by who happen to look in the
windows.
Hiding your bedding might be a good idea (consider the boot).
If there is no room in the car for a weeks’ worth of clothes and supplies, try
to leave them at a friends for safe keeping and then you can have a reason to
come over, and they may give you a shower and a place to hang out.
When you do your laundry, be sure to get them bone dry, as
you do not want damp clothes to mildew or smell bad in the car. When you’re not
in the car, leave windows cracked and dryer sheets scattered about to keep the
interior smelling decent.
Wash your sheets once a month, or else you risk
smelling like a homeless person, which will blow your cover and get you treated
like a homeless person.
Keep dirty clothes separate in plastic bags so they do not
smell up all your clothing.

 

 

Evaluate your food options. Peanut butter, tuna and crackers
are great staples. Have a box for food so it does not get smashed. Gallons of
water are a necessity for a lot of things.
They will be limited by the lack of
refrigeration.
Fast food is expensive when you’re living off of it. With
old fashioned (large flake) rolled oats, powdered milk, bottled water, plastic
cups, and chocolate protein powder, you can ensure that you always have a nutritious
snack to fall back on.
Before you start living in your car, use your permanent address
to:
Rent a P.O. Box or a Private Mail Box (PMB). 
Although PMBs
tend to be more expensive, you can receive packages at them and some services
will let you use an address format which makes it appear to be an apartment,
which is useful for when someone requires a physical address.
Sign up for a gym membership. (This however, can be
expensive, and if your resources are limited, you may find it to be a drain.)
Renew any paperwork that will require an address to process
soon.
Put valuables in a safe deposit box at a bank.

 

 

Lastly if you have friends or family who can’t (or refuse
to) help you with your living situation (or you refuse to ask them for help)
think about at least asking them if you can use their address.
Stay positive. Keep reminding yourself that the situation is
only temporary. Spend each day hitting the pavement and looking for jobs.
Use
the local library and bookstore not only to search for jobs, but also to become
more knowledgeable in ways that will
help you get through this and find a job.
Most importantly, talk to people like social workers and
religious organization workers who will sympathize and understand, and try to
help.
Here are some introductory steps to sleeping in your car for
the first time.
If your car has the capacity, install a hanging bar. This
will provide a bit more storage space as well as keep clothes wrinkle-free for
job interviews, etc.
Tint your windows for privacy as I have already said;
tinting works better than using barriers (blankets etc.) because it enables you
to see out while others cannot see in. This could be helpful when trying to
live unnoticed.
Barriers also attract attention and advertise what you are
doing, while tinted windows are very common on many cars.
If you wear contact lenses you will need a disinfectant for
your hands. Better yet, wear glasses. Sleeping I know only too well will likely
be a challenge at first because there is a good chance that your vehicle is not
large enough for you to fully stretch out your body.
Find a position where you can comfortably sleep with your
legs bent or against your chest. Alternatively, you can try sitting up in the
back seat and propping a pillow against the wall of the car.
Get an AA or RAC membership. This will help you if you drain
your battery, or break down.
Make sure you have vehicle documentation and insurance.
Without them, your problems will increase.
Personal safety should always be your number-one priority.
Knives used for food preparation and tire irons can be used as weapons.
Criminals seek out people who appear vulnerable, or travel alone.
Police
generally do not regard homeless people well and there has been many unfortunate
cases of harassment homeless people by police.
If you are spending the night in your car and you have been
drinking alcohol, do not have the keys in the ignition, If it is winter and you
need to run the car for heat, move over to the passenger or back seat.
Otherwise,
you could get a “drunk in charge” just for being in your car.
The bin lorry or other neighbourhood noises can wake you up.
Consider earplugs.
Pay attention to your instincts. If a parking spot feels
weird for any reason, find yourself a new one.
If you have little cash and can’t afford deodorant or car
deodorizer, baking soda is really good substitute that works very well.
Also
visit a pound shop and buy hydrogen peroxide along with baking soda, as they are
a phenomenal toothpaste. If for some reason you cannot bath for a day or two,
baking soda will make your hair clean and grease free.
An outdoors shop is a great place to get cheap things you’ll
need to live outside of an house.
A 24hr Asda usually allow all-night parking and sleeping in
cars.
Using swimming pools for shower can be very cost effective.
A single time swim costs around couple of quid and there are options for month
passes at many public pools.
Avoid driving the car. While it seems harmless, police do
not take kindly to marginalized people.
A danger is that they may write a
report about you to a government office in the hope that they’ll cancel your
license.
Never sleep in the driver seat if you can avoid it.
Your
body will quickly associate that seat with sleeping, creating risks when you
are driving – especially when you’re tired. Recline the passenger seat or lie
down in the back if there is room, plus in the passenger seat there are no
pedals to entangle your feet.
If you are sleeping in the car on a regular basis, do as few
other things in the car as possible. Don’t eat, read, or anything else that
will cause you to spend more time than necessary in the car.
The more time you
spend in it, the more smells will accumulate.
If you use a car cover, never run the car or smoke while it
is on. You could easily suffocate or get carbon monoxide poisoning. Also, do
not use it on a warm day without adequate ventilation.
Be careful who you tell about your living in a car. If
they’re not likely to provide assistance, then don’t bother, because you might
end up endangering yourself.
Don’t drink alcohol. Don’t even bring any alcohol into your
car.
If cops find you with alcohol in your blood or in your car, you could get
in serious trouble, even if you’re not driving at the time
If you have been homeless for a while, you may not have money
for car insurance. Be aware that you can be considered a vagrant.  
Your car will
be impounded.
No money, no recovery of your car and the impounder has just
stolen your car. Now where can you go??????
Basic Survival Skills
You might be asking, “What is the best way to approach basic
survival skills,” especially since there is so much information available. Here
are 6 primary components of wilderness survival to help you thrive in any
situation:
More than any other skill, your attitude determines how
successful you are in a survival situation. This first of the basic survival
skills might even determine whether you live or die!
To start, consider “The Rule of Threes.” A human can survive
for:
– 3 minutes without air
– 3 hours without a regulated body temperature (shelter)
– 3 days without water
– 3 weeks without food
The “Rule of Threes” provides a guideline of how to
prioritize basic survival skills: first shelter, then water, and lastly food.
Surviving a difficult wilderness situation also requires
meeting many challenges while avoiding panic.
When faced with a potential
survival situation, remember to use a “SPEAR”:
Stop
Plan
Execute
Assess &
Re-evaluate
By systematically assessing, planning, and executing your
basic survival skills, you will help keep your mind and body actively engaged
in addressing your situation. This will greatly aid in avoiding panic and other
negative states of mind. By upholding an upright attitude, your chances of
survival are greatly improved!
Many people who are forced into survival situations often
get into serious trouble because of direct exposure to the elements. Most
people in survival situations die of hypothermia, which can be easily avoided
with basic survival skills.
Being able to build a shelter is of paramount importance in
a survival situation. It is extremely important to prevent or minimize heat
loss, or if in a desert environment, to minimize water loss.
Here are some
things to think about when planning to build a shelter:
– Location (away from hazards, near materials)
– Insulation (from ground, rain, wind, air)
– Heat Source (body heat or fire-heated)
– Personal or Group Shelter
There are many types of shelters to consider including
natural shelters such as caves, hollow stumps and logs, as well as building
shelters such as a debris hut, lean-to, debris tipi, or snow shelter. Of the
shelters listed, the debris hut is often the most practical to construct in
almost any environment. Learn how to construct a debris hut.
Since the human body is composed of 78.2% water, it should
be no surprise that water is higher on the list than fire or food. Ideally, a
person should drink about a gallon of water per day.
Many lost persons perish due to dehydration, and or the
debilitating effects of water-borne pathogens from untreated water. In addition
to water-borne pathogens, minerals and metals can be found in waters downstream
from industrial and agricultural operations.
The best sources for clean
drinking water in a wilderness setting are springs, head-water streams, and
collecting morning dew.
Popular modern methods for purifying and treating water
include filtering pumps and chemical treatments, such as iodine. These can be
efficient and effective solutions if you have access to these items in a
survival situation.
The most widely used and proven method for safely purifying
water is boiling. Bringing water to a boil and allowing it to continue to boil
for 2-3 minutes will kill bacteria and viruses.
By maintaining a level attitude, creating a shelter, and
obtaining clean water, a person can successfully survive for many weeks.
Even though it is not directly a survival need, fire is one
of the most useful basic survival skills. It can help warm your body or your
shelter, dry your clothes, boil your water, and cook your food.
Also, fire can
provide psychological support in a survival situation, creating a sense of
security and safety.
Ideally, when traveling in the wilderness, it is best to
carry multiple fire-starting tools, such as a lighter, matches, flint and
steel, etc… Even with these implements starting a fire can be challenging in
inclement weather. We highly recommend practicing fire starting in different
weather conditions within different habitats.
Good fire-making skills are
invaluable. If you were to find yourself in a situation without a modern
fire-making implement, fire by friction is the most effective primitive
technique. Popular friction fire-making methods include bow drill, hand drill,
fire plow, and fire saw.
Learn how to build a fire using the bow and drill friction
fire technique.

 

 

You might be surprised to see food so low on the basic
survival skills priorities list, though we can survive for much longer without
it as compared with shelter and water.
Remember “The Rule of Threes”: humans can survive without
food for roughly 3 weeks (though I’m sure you would not want to go that long
without food!).
Thankfully, most natural environments are filled with a variety
of items that can meet our nutritional needs. 
Wild plants often provide the
most readily available foods, though insects and small wild game can also
support our dietary needs in a survival situation.
Be sure that you properly identify any plant you plan on
consuming (using field guides and or the guidance of an experienced expert).
Many plants can be difficult to identify and some edible plants have poisonous
look-a-likes. If you cannot identify the plant, do not eat it.
The more you know about nature, the better you will be able
to survive in the outdoors. To be great at wilderness survival, beyond the
basic survival skills, requires an in-depth understanding of a variety of
nature skills.
For example, wildlife tracking skills allow one to
effectively locate wild game for food, and knowledge of herbal medicine allows
one to heal illnesses with wild plants. Especially for the situation where you
may choose to purposefully practice survival living for a lengthened period of
time, naturalist knowledge is absolutely invaluable.
All of our hunter–gatherer ancestors had classification
systems for living organisms, knew their names, understood their uses,
recognized how they inter-related to each other, and were aware of exactly how
to utilize those resources in a sustainable fashion.
This knowledge was at the
foundation of their ability to thrive within the natural environment.
For even the recreational wilderness skills practitioner, a
basic knowledge of the natural sciences (such as botany, ecology, geology,
etc…) can be very useful and enriching.
A great place to start is by purchasing
the relevant plant and animal field guides for your region. These resources can
help you begin to identify species and understand how they relate.
Now, with these keys to basic survival skills, you are well
on your way to thriving in the outdoors!
Evading Trackers
I am for sure no expert when it comes to evading trackers,
if they were intent of doing me harm I would give it a bloody good go at
getting away from them that is for sure using some of the methods below having
seen a few films etc LOL seem common sense to me anyway.
In many Hollywood films you see the hero evade hordes of
pursuers and packs of bloodhounds with ease, in reality it is much harder to
evade a well-trained and determined pursuit.
Evading pursuit is always a balance between speed and
misdirection; the general aim is to put as much distance as possible between
you and any pursuit while using misdirection to obscure the tracks you leave.
The first point to make is that tracking a human over rough
ground is not easy and in most cases the pursuers will have a massive advantage
in man power and resources, they are likely to have trained dogs, vehicles and
even airborne assets to aid in the capture of any fugitive.
Secondly don’t even think about hiding and waiting until
your pursuers give up, they won’t and successfully hiding if they have dogs is
nearly impossible. All of the following techniques take time, the idea is that
if they are successful you will gain time to make good your escape, if they
fail then you will have wasted time.
One of the oldest tricks in the book is to simply brush away
your tracks from an area using a branch from a tree or other improvised tool.
The idea is that your tracks will just stop at a certain point and it will take
time for pursuers to regain your trail.
This is a waste of time, the tell-tale marks left by
brushing will inform your pursuers that you are on to them, use up time and
energy and take very little time for a good tracker to re discover your
direction of travel. If the tracker has dogs it may not even slow them at all.
Another favourite of the movies is to enter a stream to
throw dogs off your scent. This has several problems, firstly it slows you down
considerably and running through even shallow water can quickly sap reserves of
strength. In winter icy water can very quickly tire you and could even lead to
hypothermia and increased chance of frostbite.
With muddy banks it becomes clear where you entered and left
the stream and the stream may not be heading in exactly the right direction again
wasting time. In upland areas streams can rapidly head downwards and suddenly
lead to waterfalls or plunge pools, which can be very dangerous at the best of
times, more so to a tired person evading pursuit.
In dryer, warmer areas you will leave a dripping trail as
you leave the stream and in tropical areas breaking vegetation becomes
unavoidable as you leave the stream, let alone the risk from water borne
parasites. Even shallow streams can leave a trail in the streambed and stony
ones often have a thin film of algae on the stones, which can be disturbed by
your passing allowing a tracker to follow.
Dogs will quickly pick up your scent once where you left the
stream has been determined. If a stream can be found that is going in the
direction you want, is deep enough for you to float in, is flowing faster than
walking pace and has no rapids or waterfalls then it could be used to your
advantage but this is highly unlikely I think.
You can avoid leaving tracks by hopping from rock to rock.
This requires hard stony ground with plenty of large rocks that won’t shift
dangerously when you tread on them. This is normally alongside a stream or
river. This is slow work, which drains strength and stamina and risks a twisted
ankle or a fall.
Clean the soles of your shoes first to avoid smudges on the
rocks as you travel. It will slow a tracker down, as it will take time to
follow such a trail.
Used by military units where a few members of the group jump
clear of a trail to circle round and ambush a pursuer. Less useful alone as a
tracker will quickly pick up your new trail once your own trail ends suddenly.
Also jumping clear can risk injury to ankles etc.
Backtracking is literally walking backwards in your own
footprints and can be useful when combined with other techniques. The problem
is when you walk backwards your stride is shorter and your feet further apart
which can alert a good tracker.
Your prints will also become more well defined and deeper as
they will have been trod in twice with earth displaced towards the heel rather
than towards the toe as is normal. It is best to do this near a stream or rocks
where tracks are becoming harder to follow that way a tracker might not
immediately notice when your trail stops, buying you further time to get away,
then once back 10 or 15 paces jump off or enter the stream possibly crossing it
far back from where your trails stops.
Corner cutting is a technique used as you approach a road or
a stream, as you get within 100meters alter your course 45 degrees to the right
(or left) continue until you reach the stream or road then turn right again
making sure that it is obvious your trail is heading on the road or has entered
the stream.
Then you back track to where you met the road or stream and
continue along it making sure you leave very little trail then leave the road
or stream and continue up country. This will hopefully make your pursuers think
you saw the road or stream and decided to cut the corner to avoid it as you
intended to head right.
If the trackers have dogs then few techniques will be
effective. The human handler can be fooled by visual deceptions such as
backtracking and jumping off but the dog’s sense of smell won’t.
Remember the dog is fast but the handler will slow it down,
so climbing tall fences, rocky outcrops etc will slow dog and handler down.
Your scent sticks to vegetation so try to find hard stony ground near running
water this will make it harder for the dog to track you.
A decomposing animal
such as a dead sheep or road kill can also help mask your scent, drag it behind
you on a length of rope but don’t let it touch you or you will carry its scent.
In urban areas seek out large groups of people, strong
smells, butchers shops with meat hanging up outside, perfume counters, anything
which could overload the dog’s senses.
One trick in an urban area is to get some pepper from a café
table and pour it liberally behind your scent, or even cover some leftover
hamburger or food item, as the dog investigates the food it will get a nose
full of pepper, which can be very effective.
In rural and woodland areas patches of ransoms or wild
garlic can also upset the dog, as can mint, and covering a small item of your
clothing with stinging nettles can also put the dog out of action long enough
for you to make good your escape.
Moving through livestock such as cows or sheep can slow the
handler and distract the dog. Heavy rain will also help disperse your scent
quickly and remember your scent can also be carried on the wind so try to keep
downwind of pursuers.
Psychology of Survival
So you think you will never have to learn about sea
survival, or how to survive in a life raft? But you take the ferry to Calais on
holiday without a care in the world wearing only shorts and a T-shirt, have you
forgotten the herald of Free Enterprise way back in 1987.
So you, as you never intend to climb the Alps don’t bother
to learn about mountain survival but you sit on a plane on your holidays in
shorts and a T-shirt as you fly over the Alps, What if?
And you do survive the
crash?
You just give up and die. Sadly this is often the case as
many disasters are full of tales of how people just give up and die, and it can
be surprising how many people actually do this in an emergency.
An unconfirmed story tells of how a passenger airliner
crashes in the sea, and many of the passengers seeing the plane go under the
water don’t even try to escape and are found with seatbelts still tied often
holding hands with a loved one.
While those that tried to escape found themselves only a 100
meters from the shore and help. Although this seems unlikely psychological
research has often shown this to be the case. On the other side of the coin the
human body is capable of incredible feats of survival when the person involves
doesn’t give up.
In modern times one of the best examples of this can be seen
in the film “Touching the Void” a dramatized documentary about a climbing
expedition in the Andes which goes horribly wrong. One British climber broke
his leg badly in a fall near the summit and during the attempt to return to
camp his partner was forced to cut the rope, which in complete darkness dropped
him into a deep crevasse.
Believed to be dead he knew no aid was coming, frozen with
no food or water and a badly broken leg he then proceeded to crawl his way back
to base camp which he reached days later and fully physically recovered from
his ordeal. All this is inspiring and interesting but how do we react to an
emergency situation and how can we prepare ourselves mentally to be the
survivor if the worse happens.
Firstly it is important to consider the effects of fear upon
a person. Everyone gets afraid if someone tells you they aren’t afraid of
anything they are either lying or an idiot. What’s important is recognising the
fear, separating what’s rational (realistic) fear and what’s irrational fear
and using your fear to help not paralyse you.
Uncontrolled fear leads to panic and irrational and possibly
dangerous behaviour, controlled your fear will boost your body’s strength and
endurance with a flood of adrenaline hormone. Uncontrolled fear in a survival
situation can lead to the following;
Angry or violent outbursts
Selfish behaviour, not willing to share resources, or work
as a team
Suicidal thoughts, people just giving up and dying or
seeking death
Low motivation or energy levels and Carelessness or mistakes
When in a life threatening situation the body will release
adrenaline hormone, this is often called the fight or flight hormone and is
designed to prepare the body for escape or combat.
Heart rate increases, as do
energy levels as circulation speeds up moving more oxygen through the body and
the body releases energy reserves, physical strength actually increases but
mental focus can decrease as what is often described as a “red mist ”
descends clouding judgement, as the body wants action NOW not careful planning.
This burst of energy won’t last long and a prolonged period
will lead to exhaustion so the survivor must make best use of this free burst
of energy while it lasts to prepare shelter, escape from immediate danger etc.
It is important to recognise this survival rush as what it is and act
accordingly.
After the initial danger is passed longer-term psychological
stressors set in, the most dangerous being isolation. Human beings are
naturally social creatures and prolonged periods of isolation can be very
psychologically harmful.
Completely isolated from human contact the survivor
can become paranoid or give in to feelings of desperation as they feel that no
one is looking for them and rescue will never come.
There are ways to counter this, a constant effort to keep
busy and improve the survivor’s situation by building a more elaborate shelter
or signal fires can offset the desperation and the creation of an imaginary
friend often focused on an inanimate object or even a person’s faith talking to
their god can all help.
People often find creative or survival skills they did not
know they possessed and it is important that any set backs are seen as
temporary or depression can set in. During any survival situation the person
involved will face setbacks these can seem major at the time but in the long
run are not important such as a caught animal prey escaping, a rope snapping or
a shelter leaking.
It is how people move on from minor setbacks, which
determines survival.
Guilt can also be a psychological problem for lone
survivors. The question arises in their mind of “Why me?” Faced with
the death of comrades or loved ones it is a natural human reaction to wonder
why others have died and they have not, a sort of “I’m not worthy ”
mentality.
This can be used in a positive sense, if people see
themselves as now owing a debit to those who died to survive and striving
harder to survive to honour the dead. Again for those of a religious outlook it
can be that they believe that their god has spared them for a reason, whatever
works is fine. There are ways in which you can prepare yourself psychologically
in a survival situation;
Focus on family, pets or personal faith
Be realistic about what you can achieve but not defeatist,
hope for the best but prepare for the worst, better to be surprised by minor
victories than depressed at failure
Try to maintain a positive attitude
Remember what’s at stake, how your friends/ family will miss
you if you just give up
Learn to take pleasure in your surroundings and have time in
the day to switch off and relax
Hopefully none of you will need this advice but
it is important to remember than more often than not a person’s strength of
will can be more important than pure physical strength.
SURVIVAL ESSENTIALS
This part is why you need to stock up on all of the other
items now. Most of us live a cashless lifestyle. We use checks, debit cards,
and credit cards. When we lose power in a disaster, so do the shops. If the
shops were not damaged too badly, and their goods were not damaged too badly,
the owner might even open the shop for business.
You could buy whatever didn’t break. Well, some people
could. You see, the owner can’t run your credit card or debit card through any
machine. You have checks, but he isn’t set up to deal with them either without
electricity. That’s okay because you have three £50 notes in your wallet. But,
his cash register is electric and won’t open. You can use one to buy whatever
you want to, but he can’t give you any change.
The ATM machine that would have
been able to give you smaller notes doesn’t work without electricity. So, an
important item to stock up on is cash. Twenties, tens, fives and ones, and even
some coins.
Those who didn’t prepare were the first ones to go the
shops. That includes lots of people. There is a run on water, milk, bread, baby
food, batteries, matches and candles. To prevent a riot, the owner has to put a
per-person limit on all these items.
The queue is around the corner. Two
hundred people want to buy water at the very least, and there are now only
about forty bottles left.
Your credit cards, debit cards, checks, and even your cash
probably won’t be able to help you survive a disaster after it strikes. Most of
where you live is broken, damaged or destroyed. Grocery items are delivered
daily, and supplies could certainly be brought in from other counties. But, the
motorways all have major damage and trucks can’t get the supplies through.
Trains won’t dare run until every inch of track is checked
for movement or breakage that would throw the train onto its side or worse.
Even if you could get to another town for supplies, your car is almost out of
fuel.  Don’t forget petrol station pumps
work off electricity.
Too many people, not enough supplies, no spendable money, no
fuel, and family members at home waiting for you to bring home dinner. Dinner?
It could be at least three days before a safe route can be found for supplies
to reach the stores – or it could be three weeks.
Please start stocking up on essential items now, and stock
up for at least a month’s worth. Three months would be better if a major power
station were to be put out of commission. It would take so little to give you
so much peace of mind.
You can’t even balk at the cost for two reasons: 1) buying
for such a long period of time can be done in bulk, resulting in a lower price
per item than buying one or two at a time; and 2) you can use all of these
items now if you simply replace them right away. In fact, this replacement
method will insure that everything will be safe and usable when it is actually
needed.
Your only real worry at the time of a disaster should be the
immediate safety of you and your family, and taking care of any injuries that
may have occurred as a result.
Firstly you need to check to be sure that no one is injured.
If there are any injuries, you will have to use your own first-aid kit. Phone lines
may be down so you may not be able to call for help, and rescuers will be
helping those most seriously injured first. Even if the phone lines are down,
your mobile will probably work.
If a disaster strikes while you are at work and
your family is at home, you might need a mobile phone on both ends to check on
each other.
Think through possible injuries so you can be prepared in
advance. Butterfly bandages can be used as “stitches” in smaller
wounds.
Menstrual pads can be used to cover and protect large wounds. You may
actually need to stitch a large wound yourself if medical help simply can’t
reach you and you are unable to get to help.
St. Johns and the Red Cross both run first-aid courses
locally, you should sign up now.
Many types of disasters can severely damage your home. If
you are not sure if your home is safe after the initial strike, stay outdoors.
Go “camping.” If your home seems unsafe but your garage looks very
safe, get the car out of there and move into the garage.
You can get an idea of a building’s stability by looking at
the walls, ceilings and floors. There may be many thin cracks, but these should
not be a real problem. Large cracks, broken beams, or any new gaps or openings
are not good signs, neither are creaking or cracking noises.
Before September 11, 2001, most wives thought that having a
mobile phone simply was an essential. If a woman’s car broke down in the middle
of nowhere, she could either call roadside assistance or her husband for help.
And, she could tell her husband she was late but safe. This spread to parents
feeling safer about their teenage drivers if their kids carried a mobile phone
at all times.
Watching all of the disaster news, we kept hearing about
people who called their wives, husbands and mothers (etc.) to say good-bye or
“I love you” when they knew they were going to die. That was like
being hit with an emotional hammer.
Some people who were trapped during the disaster were able
to tell people where they were because they had a mobile phone.
We now know that a mobile phone can be a critical
“survival essential” in more ways than we ever imagined.
If we lose phone lines during or after a disaster, wives
will most likely still be able to call their husbands if they both have a
mobile phone. Kids with their own mobile phones can call their parents to let
them know where they are and if they need immediate medical help or if they are
safe. Etc.
You will need a solar or battery-operated radio to find out
what is happening in your immediate area and the rest of your city, possibly
even the rest of your county. It can be comforting to hear that all is well in
many areas and that help is on the way.
You will probably also hear warnings like the water supply
is not safe to drink or looting is occurring three streets away. You can
protect yourself and your family from problems only if you are able to find out
that they exist.
If you don’t hear any warnings about the water supply being
tainted, you may want to quickly clean out the bathtub, rinse it well, and fill
it with water because the water may be shut off soon.
Rinse the dust out of any
buckets you have on hand, then fill them with clean water. If you do find out
afterwards that the water is not safe to drink, there are many more ways that
it could come in handy in the next few days or weeks and of course there are
many ways to make it safe to drink if necessary.
The atmosphere of most disasters is one of helping each
other and sticking together. But, sometimes you have those few who think it is
a good time to go looting. In an extended disaster scenario, you could be
threatened by people who are desperate for food and water.
It is totally up to you, but you may want to have some sort
of weapon on hand for emergencies. Even in a disaster, children could still
find a gun and the bad guys could still turn your own gun on you. So, if you do
arm yourself, you must keep the gun locked up and separate from ammunition that
is also locked up.
Baseball bats seldom fire unexpectedly.    
You need an ample supply of all of the medicines that anyone
in your family take on a regular basis. The need for other medicines may arise
later. An unbreakable thermometer is a good item to have on hand. Vitamin
supplements for all members of the family will be very beneficial with a
limited diet, and will be needed more than ever due to stress.
It is not likely that you will be able to get antibiotics in
advance, but you could ask your doctor saying that you were going off on a long
trip, or you could buy OTC vetinary drugs as they will work on humans. Some
people have been putting some away from what they get from the doctor.
This is a dangerous method because the full dose that you
are prescribed is necessary to kill an infection. On the other side, you would
need to save up enough antibiotics to make a full dose to receive any benefit –
and that is only for one infection for one person.
Since you know that a biological attack is possible in the
immediate future, start a fasting regimen now. This doesn’t mean you stop
eating. A fasting regime includes eating less, which puts your body in its own
protective mode.
Besides eating less food overall, a fasting regimen includes
giving up fast foods, junk foods, and most sugars; adding natural fruit juices;
and making all of your food healthy, whole or raw foods as much as possible.
In addition to eating correctly, start taking multi-vitamins
now.
And, take natural Vitamin C.
Since you may be on your own for all your first-aid and
health care needs, it is a good idea to learn now how to take care of yourself
and your family.
Don’t forget to stock up on any medicines or vitamins that
your pets may need.
Building a Camp Fire
The days are long, you are out in the wilderness, and the
night sky sparkles.
With that in mind, here are some tips for building a
campfire!
Use dry firewood as freshly cut wood contains up to 50 per
cent moisture. If steam bubbles and hisses on the fire, it’s wet or green—plus,
it will make more campfire smoke, which burns your eyes. Prepare a good supply
of “fuel.”
When collecting your fuel choose dry leaves, pine needles,
grasses, wood shavings, rolled paper balls kindling dry, dead twigs, chopped
firewood (thicker than 3 inches in diameter)
Now start your fire with the tinder and kindling—which
provides surface area without a lot of weight to get a fire going; logs are too
much weight in the beginning.
For an average fire, I suggest two “hats” worth of kindling
and tinder. Once you’re in the process of fire-making, you don’t want to run
out of fuel!
You need to clear a site at least 10 feet across.
Debris should be removed so that you are starting the fire
on bare soil. The cleared circle should be about 10 feet across. Never locate
your site near overhanging branches or standing deadwood—or, too close to your
shelter. A fire ring can be built with stones and rocks to contain the fire.
Keep a bucket of water or soil close to the fire for emergency use.
There are two basic types of fire base: the tepee and the
log cabin.

 

 

With the tepee you make a loose pile of tinder in the centre
(a couple of handfuls) and place the kindling vertically around the tinder in
the shape of a tepee. After lighting the fire, feed it with more branches and
then firewood as the fire grows.
With the log cabin place four large logs (about 8 to 10
inches in diameter) in a 2- to 3-foot square—well bedded down.
Stack logs to
form a short horizontal stack.
Fill the centre with tinder and kindling. There are variants
of the log cabin, such as the lean-to, which is easier for novices/kids and
will burn wood more slowly.
I recommend the teepee for its informal beauty and higher
burning flames.
Now light your fire use matches or a lighter and light
tinder from all sides. You can blow on the fire to get it going with oxygen,
but blow gently! Never use charcoal lighter fluid or white gas (such as Coleman
lantern/camp stove gas) as a campfire accelerant.
Eventually, the base logs will burn through. As this
happens, move them into the centre and replace with new logs. Pace your burning
to make sure that your log supply lasts as long as you wish to have a campfire.
We’ve all prematurely burned out of wood at one time or another in our
enthusiasm to have a big, robust fire.
If you want less fire, dampen it with a shovelful of dirt,
sand, or ash. If you desire more blaze, add kindling to the top. Don’t put a
giant log on the fire at the end of the night; make sure that you time the
fire’s natural end with quitting time
If putting your fire out for the night be careful not to put
your hands in the ashes for the next couple of days; ashes can remain extremely
hot even under the water and cool ash mud.
Hot ash from underneath is helpful
if you want to have a fire the following night.
I love to roast pieces of tined meat on a stick over the
fire as they taste fantastic when crispy
So how do you roast perfectly crispy luncheon meat, well
firstly avoid putting your roasting stick right into the flames; place it to
the side over glowing coals. And enjoy.
Urban Survival Skills for Surviving Disaster
Making disaster survival preparations has never been more
important than they are today. How soon we forget, but it was only a century
ago (less in many cases) that people had to do daily what is now considered
“prepping” in order to live from day to day.
Surviving disaster has now brought the past back to the
future for many concerned citizens as the “what if” list seems to
grow daily. These basic urban survival skills are once again necessary,
because…
Political, social and economic instability have never been
greater. Tack on the growing number of, and very powerful, natural disasters
happening around the globe and prepping for disaster survival is no longer a
fringe craze, but a necessity in your life.
Disasters can come in many shapes and sizes and aren’t
always as extreme as the Indian Ocean tsunami (death toll 250,000+) or the
tsunami in Japan (death toll over 19,300), the earthquake in Haiti (death toll
between 46,000 and 85,000), attacks of September 11th (death toll near 3,000),
but they can be much closer to home.
Although hardly newsworthy certain events can take a
devastating toll on you and your family. What if…
Long Term Job Loss
Major Medical Issue
Fire Destroys Your Home
Major Bread Winner Passes Away
What would you do? Would you be able to feed yourself, your
kids or your pets if you didn’t have an income for the next 6 months, a year,
maybe longer?
Would relying on government hand-outs be your plan for
surviving disaster whether large or small? Sorry to say, but our government is
bankrupt by all definitions. When the UK has to borrow money each and every
month to pay its bills we’re broke.
Sure they can always print more money, but each time that
printing press is fired up each one of our pound coins is worth less and less
and less…Until the pound is worthless!
Most legitimate economists feel that the only way out of
this massive debt – our trusty politicians have created for us – is
hyper-inflation. What does that mean? You can say triple or quadruple costs for
bread, milk, gas and the list goes on and on. Thanks Osborne.
I don’t know about you, but my disaster survival plans don’t
include trusting a government to remain solvent that has us TRILLIONS of pounds
in debt and spends our money like there is no tomorrow.
It’s not all gloom and doom however…Surviving disaster is
all about preparation and the more prepared you are before one strikes the
greater your likelihood of success getting through the tough times.
“Never put off until tomorrow what could and SHOULD be
done today!”
‘s do a quick comparison of disaster survival
preparedness to car insurance. If you have a car accident and then try to buy
coverage it’s going to be too late and you’ll be stuck (fortunately for you
it’s only a financial loss).
The only way to cover yourself is to buy car insurance
“before” there is an accident. You may never have an accident, but
the coverage was there to protect you if you had.
This couldn’t be any more true with regards to preparing for
some sort of disaster. It’s too late to prepare after the disaster and you
stand to lose much more than some money.
In fact, you get more value preparing for disaster survival
and one never happening than you would buying car insurance and never having an
accident.
With car insurance it’s simply money that is shelled out
each month and you get no return on your investment. On the other hand,
preparing for surviving disaster will teach you extremely valuable skills and
you’ll be stocking up on supplies that can be used whether or not disaster ever
arises.
Assuming it doesn’t spoil, can you ever have “too
much” food? Can you have “too much” water? Of course not! In
fact, for most people, not a day goes by where you’re not eating or drinking.
How is investing in something you use daily and is quite
necessary for you to live a bad investment? Answer: It’s not!
So What Can You Do?
First off, you want to educate yourself. I hope this show
and my blog are a very valuable resource for you and I will constantly be
updating it with new inform on surviving disaster.
It is time to make a firm commitment to start preparing for
disaster survival. Tomorrow is a good time, but right now is a great
time…There’s no time like the present!
Surviving a Flood
I see that flooding is the major natural disaster that most
Britons will face during their life time. Recently over 70,000 people in the
North east were without electricity due to recent flooding and bad weather,
here is some advice to help you survive such an event.
When possible, take photographs of the damage to your
building and contents or film the footage; they may help with the settlement of
your claim
Don’t throw away possessions without first discussing it
with your claims adviser, as they will need to be assessed
Do not use electrical equipment or the gas supply until it
has been checked by a qualified tradesman
Wash taps and run them for a few minutes before use
Do not rush to redecorate your home as it can take weeks for
a flood-damaged property to fully dry out
Do not lift wet carpets unless absolutely necessary as they
may shrink
Ensure any drains and gutters are clear of debris so
rainfall can drain from your property effectively
valuable and electrical items in high cupboards to
reduce the impact of any flood damage. Also store important documents,
including insurance policy details and useful contact numbers in a watertight
bag in a dry accessible place, preferably upstairs
Ensure outdoor furniture and other items likely to float
away are safely restrained to reduce the risk of these items causing secondary
damage
Establish an evacuation plan for your family. This will
reduce the risk of injury to your loved ones and give you more time to save
items of sentimental and material value
While it is safe to use electrical equipment, keep up to
date with the latest weather and flood warnings by monitoring local television
and radio services
If your property has flooded, switch off your mains power
supply to reduce the risk of electrocution and fire caused by floodwater
Make up a flood emergency kit and keep it in a safe
place.  Include key personal documents, a
torch and portable radio with spare batteries, warm clothing, blankets, rubber
boots and gloves, cleaning equipment, disinfectant and detergent, heavy duty
refuse bags, a first aid kit and any essential medication
Make a list of useful numbers you may need – your insurer,
your local council, the emergency services and the number of
Floodline, tel:
0845 988 1188
Buy air brick covers or flood boards to block doorways
My Flood Survival Kit
includes
Copies of my home insurance documents.
Other important documents all in a waterproof wallet.
A torch with spare batteries.
A battery radio.
Warm, waterproof clothing and blankets.
First aid kit
My prescription medication.
Bottled water.
Non-perishable foods.
Care items.
A Mobile phone (with important contact numbers programmed
in)
Air Rifle Hunting Advice Post SHTF
Hunting with air rifles is challenging, demanding and, in
the purest and best sense of the word, real hunting.
A number of factors combine to make a clean, humane and
effective shot at a rabbit a lot more than simply yanking on a trigger with
hope in your heart, though.
It’s true; pests form the vast majority of legal and
suitable air rifle quarry, and therefore your wild food supply. But there’s
more to simply knowing what you can shoot when you are out in the countryside.
Fair enough, something defined as a pest doesn’t need much to qualify for a
well-aimed pellet, but no matter how lowly or nasty a creature might seem to
be, it still deserves a clean, quick and humane end with no suffering involved.
You, as an air rifle hunter, must behave with sportsmanship
and with respect for your quarry at all times, and because of its relatively
short range, using an air rifle will also make more demands of you than almost any other type of shooting. Field
craft, the ability to get close enough to your target to ensure an accurate and
humane shot, will test your abilities to the utmost.
Quite often you’ll be
frustrated if a tiring stalk ends in failure, but you get a real sense of
achievement, and pride, when you do succeed.
There are one or two unwritten rules of air rifle hunting pre SHTF which make it clear that some
species never qualify as legitimate or sporting quarry. All the game birds, for
instance, will frequently present easy targets, but don’t be tempted because
your permission to shoot will be very quickly withdrawn if you are seen to be
poaching!
Hares can become pests but
they are too large to be shot humanely with airgun pellets, and that applies to
foxes, too. There are plenty of sporting species that qualify as air rifle
quarry and all most of them will taste great, without any need to look any
further.
Also as an air rifle hunter, you must not only abide by the
Country Code pre SHTF but uphold it too and possibly gain brownie points from
the landowner in the process. If you see some example of the code being broken,
like a dog worrying sheep, kids vandalising farm buildings or machinery, a
picnic fire that’s not been properly extinguished, or simply rubbish left
behind by thoughtless people do something about it.
As a privileged and authorised person who you are, since
you’re out hunting on some farmers land you owe it to him to help police his
land, so even if you can’t immediately do anything about a problem, report it
as soon as possible.
The farmers bush telegraph soon spreads good news and bad,
so showing that you’re prepared to help will
quickly become known and you’ll more than likely be made welcome on other
farms. Even if you never see another soul when you’re out hunting with your air
rifle, there are right and wrong ways to behave and more often than not someone
will be watching!
Open gates carefully and ensure they shut behind you but
don’t slam them this only weakens the hinges. If the gate should be locked,
climb over at the hinged end, not the latched end, because your weight will
have far less effect if you cross where the gate is best supported, by the
hinges.
If you have to cross a barbed-wire or stock-mesh fence, push
the wire down at the centre of a run between two posts and, provided there’s
enough slack for you to cock one leg and then the other over, hop over. If the
fence is too tight, climb as close as possible to a fence-post, but don’t force
the fence down and leave it sagging in the middle. Farm animals escaping into crops or neighbouring
land is a sure-fire way to lose your shooting rights!
Whenever you cross from one field to another, make sure your
rifle is safe. If it has a sling, which is best and safest whenever that’s
possible, you can leave it on your shoulder when opening and closing a gate.
But at all other times, especially when you have to climb and need both hands
to cross an obstacle safely, make sure the rifle is unloaded and lay it down
parallel with the fence or gate, so that you can reach over or through when on
the other side, and retrieve it safely.
Resting the barrel on the wire is dangerous because the
rifle might slip and fall if the fence wobbles as your weight is on it, and
also because you might walk past the barrel once you’ve crossed the fence.
Even though you know the rifle is unloaded, never walk in
front of a barrel that’s pointing at you.
When you fancy decoying pigeons you’ll often need to build a
hide but if you don’t take hide-poles to support the net with you, ask the
farmers permission first before cutting any. Don’t cut slow growing hardwood
sticks, such as ash, from close to where the hide is to be built, choose
quick-growing species like hazel.
Cut the poles with a fine-tooth saw or secateurs, at a steep
angle, which gives you a point to make pushing them into the soil easier, and
leaves behind a stump from which buds will more quickly sprout.
Use side branches to dress the hide netting to blend it in
with the surroundings, and when you pack up, tuck these brashings into the base
of the hedge and leave the hide poles where you can find them next time, or
take them with you.
Leave the area as you found it. That’s part of the Country
Code too.
When rabbit shooting, it might seem to make sense to paunch
the rabbits (taking out the stomach and intestines) to make carrying them
easier, but in fact cleaning out rabbits that have cooled off for a few hours
is much easier than cutting open warm and floppy ones, and you won’t leave
piles of guts around to attract foxes.
Most large areas are crossed by some form of path. As an
authorised person, you must know where they are and make every effort to ensure
that anyone using such paths is not in any way put at risk by any shots you
might take. What this means is that the most sensible thing to do is keep well
away from footpaths, tracks, rights of way and bridleways, and public roads.
All responsible air rifle hunters must know the laws on
hunting and as well as shooting safely.
This means you should be able to recognise your quarry and
whether it is legal to shoot it or not. As long as you have permission to be on
the land or property where you are shooting, you may legally shoot the
following species:
GREY SQUIRREL : Common and destructive pest, especially
damages trees. Has displaced native, protected, Red squirrel in many parts of
the UK.
CARRION CROW : Major predator on game and songbirds, eggs
and chicks, will also peck eyes from new born lambs. Very wary and difficult to
stalk.
FERAL PIGEON: Cheeky chappie town scrounger actually carries
a variety of nasty diseases. Creates mess and damages buildings, I would not
eat one.
COLLARED DOVE: Same size as protected Turtle dove but
Collared variety can steal and soil large quantities of stored grain in
farmyards it needs controling.
ROOK: Although officially a pest and predator, at certain
times of the year they can be beneficial to agriculture, eating harmful insect
pests.
WOODPIGEON: Vast flocks hoover-up
crops in all parts of the UK. It is one of the most destructive pests in
constant need of control and very good to eat.
RABBIT: Back in plague numbers in many areas, the rabbit is
as destructive and greedy as the woodie and in need of continuous control and
again great to eat.
RAT: Public enemy number 1. They do untold millions of
pounds worth of damage worldwide plus carrier of several highly dangerous
diseases.
MAGPIE: One of the most voracious and destructive predatory
pests, hitting young broods of garden songbirds in particular.
There are other birds, like jays and jackdaws which are
defined as pests, but don’t as a rule pose the same threat as those listed.
Greater and lesser black-backed gulls and herring gulls, although also on the
list, are too big or because of habitat not to be considered as suitable air
rifle quarry.
birds, except the named pest species, are legally
protected. Even pests may only be shot by authorised persons defined as the
landowner, or one who has permission to shoot on the land where the quarry is
present.
The Wildlife and Countryside Act, which governs avian pest
species control, requires that a shooter must be sure that the quarry was
causing or about to cause damage at the time it was shot. By definition a pest
is a species whose numbers, appetite and destructive nature result in damage to
food crops etc. so the need to control their numbers is obvious.
Using an air rifle to hunt at night, together with hand-held
or scope mounted lamps, red-dot sights or modern Night Vision devices, is
exciting. Both rabbit and rat numbers have surged over recent years so, with permission;
of course, there’s plenty of pest control available.
All hunting lamps should be used sparingly. Just a quick
flash round with the beam to pick out the targets, close the range down with a
silent approach, pinpoint the rabbit in the light and take the shot. This
method will save your battery, increase the time you can be out, and help to
gain a bigger bag by not disturbing other potential targets.
Any risk, no matter how slight, involved in your intended
shot must mean giving up the stalk and simply trying somewhere else on the
shoot. You must also be aware that it is illegal to shoot within 15 metres of
the centre of any road, track, path or right of way.
The Country Code, mostly unwritten and defined over many
centuries, has fundamentally changed recently, due to the Right to Roam. The
Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 (CRoW) allows the general public access
to far larger areas of the countryside than ever before but not unlimited
access.
Large expanses of moorland, heathland, down land and
mountain areas are now open but the act does not allow unlimited public access
on private land, except via the many footpaths and bridleways that already
exist.
Ordnance Survey maps
of the British Isles include a key
which defines the difference between county
and parish boundaries, bridleways, tracks and paths with public footpaths and
rights of way represented by red dotted lines and the word PATH or FP.
Road access points are indicated by signposts and the latest
legislation has brought in another sign which indicates access to suitably
designated areas. Footpaths are also a standard width, 3 feet, which is wide
enough for two people to pass without bumping into one another.
But whatever the status of a path that crosses your shoot,
the best advice is to avoid them whenever you can, and certainly when you are
aware that there’s anyone using them. As an air rifle hunter, respect for the
countryside includes having the same sort of respect for yourself, and your
sport.
Prioritizing
Survival Needs Using the Rule Of 3
Life must be prioritized and priorities are never more
important than when you are in a survival situation.
Decisions have to be made
quickly and they must be the right decisions. To prevent panic and to keep from
making the wrong decisions you need to prepare and prioritize.
The Most Commonly Accepted Survival Rule Of 3
You Cannot Survive:
Longer Than Three Minutes Without Air
Longer Than Three Hours Without Shelter
Longer Than Three Days Without Water
Longer Than Three Weeks Without Food
Three minutes without air is accurate. However, there have
been cases where people have survived longer than three weeks without food and
longer than three days without water.
Shelter is subjective; it can be a hollow spot under a log
or burying yourself in a pile of leaves. A lot depends on what you call
shelter.
Remember your priorities: you must escape the vehicle within
three minutes if submerged, or find the shore if dumped out of your canoe in
the middle of the rapids. You need air and it is your first priority.
Begin Prioritizing Survival Needs Using the Rule Of 3
Assume for a moment that you have plenty of air, so your
next priority is shelter and water. The reason you need to focus on shelter
first is you will become weaker from lack of water and calories.
Therefore,
build your shelter first. Keep in mind this must happen within a matter of
hours. You must also soon be hydrated, it will help keep you warm at night and
hydration will keep your energy level high enough to forage for food.
If you became lost on a day hike, for example you probably
have a water bottle to get you through the night. It typically takes rescue
operations 72 hours to find you or be close to finding you.
Your pack should
have:
A knife to help you in building a shelter,
Fire starting tools,
Water purification tablets or 2% liquid iodine for water
purification,
Protein bars,
A full quart canteen or water bottle. The average person
requires 4 liters of water a day for drinking and hygiene.
For now, your priority is shelter and fire to survive the
night.
Get a fire started for your comfort and moral. Fire is needed to signal
rescue personnel, as well. If you are lost, stay put. If you knew how to get
out you would not be lost, so wandering around lost is dangerous and makes it
harder for rescue personnel to find you.
If you are hiking to a campsite, you may have a tent or
canvas. If you do not have any type of shelter material in your pack you need
to put a shelter together using what nature provides.
The ground next to a
fallen log can be scooped out. Pick the south side if you are in a cool
climate. Prop pine boughs and saplings against the log and ground. If you do
not have a knife or small axe or hatchet you will have to break the limbs.
If
you have to break limbs use dead ones, live saplings will bend but not break
easily.
Leave one side open; the opening will face along the log and
not away from it. Build your fire close to the entrance but not inside. You
will be overcome with smoke if it is too close.
If you have rain gear or a
poncho set the gear so it collects the morning dew. Dew is simply the
condensation of air that has been heated by the sun during the day.
Once the air cools down it allows moisture to settle on
surfaces typically, in the very early hours. The moisture will collect on
foliage and your poncho. Create depressions in the poncho for water to pool.
Begin the process of gathering water regardless of your current supply. You can
never have enough water.
Start another fire in a clearing if you are in the deep
woods. The fire can be spotted from the air and ground.
Do not wander at night
but stay in the shelter and maintain the fire.
In the morning, consume the water from dew and save what
water you may have brought with you. Work on enhancing your shelter and begin
looking for a stream, natural ground springs or fissures in rock faces that
seep water.
Gather pine cones and place in the fire to split open for
the pine nuts and if you find a stream look for fish. Other animals will need
water so there will be game trails. Set snares or wait for rabbits, squirrels,
game girds and other game to come by.  
Spear or stone the game.
If you do not panic and begin running in circles you will
survive. Stay calm and rely on your common sense. Remember prioritizing
survival needs using the rule of 3.
Crossing Rivers
The beauty of a mountain stream flowing through a forest can
be the highlight of a hike.
But knowing how to cross a river is a critical
hiking skill.
The fact is that crossing rivers, especially when they’re
running high, is among the riskier things you can do on the trail. Rocks and
logs may offer a bridge to the opposite bank.
But they’re often wet or covered
with algae and mosses. That can lead to slips and falls, and, therefore, any
number of things that you really don’t want to experience: head injuries,
broken bones, and the chance to get swept downstream.
The rate of runoff in streams and rivers is highly variable.
In years of light snowfall and hot spring days, streams may run at
low-to-moderate levels by early summer.
However, in years with heavy and
late-season snows, rivers can run so high that trails, even ones with actual
bridges, remain impassable well into summer.
Two points to remember: Don’t take any unnecessary risks.
And don’t push anyone past their skill and confidence level. You’re only as
capable as the weakest hiker in your group.
Before You Leave
Check on conditions. Identify your destination or route.

 

 

Carry a staff. 
They can help you assess water depth and
rate of runoff, then provide additional stability when you do cross a stream.
If you don’t have a staff, find a pair of sturdy branches that you can use
instead.
Wear shorts or convertible pants. Long pants will increase
drag in the stream and can be uncomfortable to hike in once they’re soaked.
Pack hiking sandals or gym shoes. If a stream is shallow
enough to cross, it’s often easier to walk through the water instead of trying
to boulder hop on slippery rocks. With spare shoes or hiking sandals, you can
keep your hiking boots dry.
But don’t cross barefoot or use flip-flops because
the current can easily sweep them off your feet.
Get out early. Cooler overnight and morning temperatures
mean that the volume of snowmelt is lower early in the day, which means that
streams will flow more slowly. Thunderstorms are also more common in afternoon
and make currents more treacherous.
At the Crossing

Assess the situation. The actual point where your route
meets a river may not be the best place to get to the other side. Scout the
river (ideally from an elevated perspective) or look both up- and downstream
for alternatives.

If you can’t identify a safe crossing location, then don’t
take the risk and turn around. Wishful thinking has no place in this decision,
so be conservative and assume the worst. Invariably, streams are faster and
deeper than they appear.

 

Straight. Wide. Shallow. That’s what you’re looking for
when identifying a place to cross.
Watch out for debris. If the river is carrying a lot of
debris, such as branches and small logs, it’s not a good idea to cross.
The
debris is an indication that stream flows are high. And objects flowing downstream
can create a serious hazard if they strike you as you’re crossing.
Look for braided channels. The crossing may be wider where
a river breaks into separate channels. But the current’s intensit