This Weeks Show 17th January 2019

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SHOW NOTES

The water-to-Go 15% discount offer, The Blizzard Survival 20% discount offer, The Titan Depot 15% discount offer, The Wilderness121 10% discount offer, Now you can get 10% DISCOUNT on all products at OFF GRID TOOLS, Campfire Skillet Breakfast, How to Store
Meat for Years With Out Refrigeration, Be Prepared… For a Power Cut, What is a BOV, and Do I Need One? BREAK Prepping/Survival Tips, Caching Supplies, Catapult or Slingshot Small Game Hunting, Ground to Air Signals, How do you make char cloth?

The Water -to-GO 15% Discount Offer

Now you can drink safely from any water source with the water-to-go filter bottle. It removes fluoride, chlorine and heavy metals from tap water.

It removes Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa, Cysts, bad taste and odour from dirty water sources.

In fact if you drink water, then get yourself a Water-to-Go filter bottle as it’s cheaper than drinking bottled water and it’s cleaner too. Get 15% discount at the checkout, code word premprep

https://www.watertogo.eu/ukpreppersradionetwork

Water-to-Go is looking for your support | Water-to-Go is crowdfunding to further their mission)

Water-to-Go seeks to address 2 of the biggest problems facing the world at the moment access to safe, clean drinking water and the pollution caused by single-use plastics.

Their mission is to create a commercially sound business in the developed world so they can get their product to those who really need it.

They are currently raising funds on Crowdcube to continue their mission, so if you feel youd like to find out more or send to your friends, check out their crowdcube page.

https://www.crowdcube.com/companies/water-to-go-1/pitches/Zp17vb

Capital at Risk

Blizzard Survival 20% Discount Offer

Blizzard Survival .com have a fantastic offer for you the listener they are offering a 20% discount on all goods bought from them at www.blizzardsurvival.com

The Ultimate in Lightweight Thermal Protection.

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Life-saving technology has never been so affordable.

All you have to do to get a 20% discount is enter the code “PREPPER” at the checkout, it is that simple. www.blizzardsurvival.com

The Titan Depot 15% Discount offer

Fantastic prices and a great selection of survival and prepping gear and loads more

NOW thanks to the owner at the Titan Depot get 15% DISCOUNT, by using the code “preppers15” https://titandepot.co.uk/

Wilderness121’s 10% discount

Wilderness121 really mean business, having spoken to the director Rob Williams he has agreed to offer you dear listener a 10% discount just by putting the letters UKPRN into the code box it is that simple.

Now pop along to www.wilderness121.co.uk and check out their great range of survival related products.

Off Grid Tools 10% discount offer

Now you can get 10% DISCOUNT on all products at OFF GRID TOOLS, by using the code word prepare. http://www.ukpreppersradionetwork.co.uk/off-grid-tools/

Now you can get 10% DISCOUNT on all products at OFF GRID TOOLS, by using the code word prepare. http://www.ukpreppersradionetwork.co.uk/off-grid-tools/

I had a good chat on messenger this morning with Jimmy Morrow from Norn Iron

It turns out that he’s the guy to go to if you want a Nessmuk, he work quality speaks for itself.

Check out his site at. https://www.dreadnoughtforge.co.uk/

Why not book onto my Nuclear Survival Course, it based on my experience and training as an NCO in the Royal Observer Corps and my recently published book The Complete Nuclear Survival Guide.

The next course runs on the 12th, 13, 14th of April at the best government training site in the UK in North Yorkshire. Full details are available here http://www.ukpreppersradionetwork.co.uk/the-nuclear-urban-wilderness-survival-school/

Campfire Skillet Breakfast

I love a good Campfire Breakfast. Combine a skillet breakfast made campfire style and it’s irresistible to me and the whole family.

I mean, seriously, hash browns with melted cheese, ham, eggs, and green peppers…This Make in advance Western Skillet Campfire Breakfast is the best campfire breakfast ever!

Ingredients

  1. 30 oz. of frozen shredded hash browns

  2. 1 cup of diced ham (about 8 thick slices of ham) – I bought a pre-sliced boneless ham and used the extra for sandwiches

  3. 1 diced large bell pepper

  4. 2 cups of shredded cheddar cheese

  5. 8 eggs

  6. 1/4 cup of water

  7. 1 tsp. of onion powder

  8. 1/2 tsp. of salt

  9. 1/2 tsp. of ground black pepper

  10. 9×13 Foil Cake Pan

Instructions

  1. In a large bowl, mix the hashbrowns, diced ham, and green pepper, and cheese

  2. In a medium bowl, mix the eggs, water, onion powder, salt, pepper

  3. Add the egg mixture to the hashbrown mixture and mix together

  4. Use a cast iron frying pan or spray a 9×13 foil cake pan with non-stick spray

  5. Pour everything into the cake pan and cover with foil

  6. *You can store this in a cooler or refrigerator for a couple of days if made at home.

  7. When you are ready to cook, you can cook on the coals – just place the cast iron pan or cake tin over medium coals and cook for the same length of time as if in the oven.

  8. Move around the grill several times during cooking to ensure even cooking preheat grill to medium heat and cook over the flame for about 40-45 minutes or until egg is cooked through.

Notes

To enjoy this treat at home bake in Oven – Preheat the oven to 375 degrees, place foil pan on a baking sheet and bake for about 15-20 minutes, or until eggs and hash browns are cooked through.

How to Store
Meat for Years With Out Refrigeration

So you are living off the land post SHTF and you manage to kill a deer or domestic cow, as you cannot eat it all at the same time you will have to find a way to preserve the rest of the meat.

Now if you lived in the frozen north you could place your extra meat underground and keep it edible for months.

If you lived in the desert you could even hang the extra meat out to dry in the sun.

But what if you live in the UK which has a temperate climate, how will you preserve this extra protein now?

Dehydrating

Dehydrating if you have emergency power is a chemical-free way to preserve meat so it becomes too dry for microbial action. Compared to traditional sun-drying, using an electric dehydrator is faster and safer.

Whether you like the chewy texture of beef jerky cut along the grain or the more crumbly cross-cut chips, the slices need to be thin to ensure thorough drying inside and out.

Fat in the meat may go rancid when kept, so be sure to remove all skin and fat before slicing the meat into strips not more than one-fourth of an inch in thickness.

Lean cuts and chicken breasts are preferable to fattier portions.

Make sure your dehydrator has a temperature setting of 165 degrees Fahrenheit required for heating the meat strips to destroy harmful bacteria like E.coli and Salmonella.

It is much safer if you thoroughly heat the prepared meat in an oven set over 250 degrees F for 10-15 minutes before transferring it to the dehydrator.

Continuous running of the dehydrator at its maximum temperature for 16-20 hours will make the jerky sufficiently dry. Store the dried jerky lightly packed in airtight containers. It will stay good at room temperature for up to two months.

Extend its shelf life by storing in the freezer or by vacuum sealing it.

Curing with salt

However if you have no power then common salt is the dehydrating agent that helps preserve the meat.

Meat cured with salt is safe, as salt acts as an anti-microbial.

There are basically two ways to salt-cure meat. Rubbing salt on the meat and letting the juices drain off will result in a dry product.

The process is as easy as mixing salt with the meat, but for better flavour, spices and herbs are often used.

Meat can be preserved in salt solution, too; it is called “brining.” You can add brown sugar or honey for extra taste.

Another traditional curing process called “biltong” involves marinating the meat in vinegar prior to salting and drying.

Commercially available salt-cured meat products contain several additives to improve their texture.

You can cut down the chemical load by curing the meat with “Maldon Salt,” which is free of additives.

Specially formulated “curing salt” contains about 6 percent sodium nitrite, a chemical that’s known to offer some protection against botulism, but bad for you over the permitted limits.

The recommendation is one ounce of curing salt per quart of water.

Whatever method you use, the success of meat preservation hinges on the quality of the meat used. Always go for the freshest cuts.

Be Prepared… For a Power Cut

Winter is on the way or depending on where in the UK i.e. Somerset, Yorkshire it is already here.

Depending on where you live, experiencing a power cut can range from being moderately inconvenient to a complete nightmare.

Being prepared means that a power cut needn’t be a disaster…

Emergency supplies

Last winter there were families in remote parts of the country where a power cut left them stranded for days without heat, light, cooking facilities and hot water. Shops had to be closed and heavy snowfall blocked roads and railways.

With a power cut – no matter where you are – can cause real problems.

Candles can be dangerous, keeping warm is difficult and milk and food may turn rancid. A little preparation is definitely worthwhile.

Here’s an emergency check-list of what you should have in the house:

Candles, minimum four to five dozen.

Candle stick holders. In a pinch, fold aluminium foil around the candle bases

Matches and disposable lighters.

Emergency heater

Torches and extra batteries.

Canned goods and dry food mixes

Water and juices.

Extension cords, long enough to reach your neighbour’s house.

Hand tools such as hammer, screwdriver and wood saw.

Seasoned firewood.

Extra blankets.

Paper plates, cups and plastic utensils.

First-aid kit

Fire Extinguisher

Remember to keep these things together and in a place where they will be easy to reach and find in the dark.

It’s also a good idea to keep some emergency lighting on each level of the house, a lighter with candles
should be fine until you can access the torches.

Try to get children used to candles – from distance!

Bath-time is a good time to introduce candlelight – it makes a relaxing atmosphere and your child is safely contained in the tub.

During a power cut you’ll only be able to use them on high surfaces.

Do not walk around with a lit candle, use torches instead to get about the house.

During a power cut

You will find the temperature in your home drops quickly.

Keep a small baby close to you for warmth, and consider co-sleeping. Toddlers will need extra clothes and blankets at bed times.

A torch may make an impromptu night-light.

However even adults will need extra layers of clothes as well as blankets hats and gloves.

Report the power cut to your electricity supplier immediately.

They should have a 24-hour emergency telephone number that is on your electricity bill or in the front of the yellow pages.

Tell them if you have a young children, elderly person or those with medical problems in the
house and ask for an estimated length of time.

If the power cut is going to last several days, consider staying with a friend or relative with power.

Having no heat or light is going to be, at the best, inconvenient and at the worst, dangerous.

And finally…

Get your family into good habits. Stairs should always be kept free of toys and clutter in case you do end up stumbling around in the dark.

What is a BOV, and Do I Need One?

Firstly this is for Paul who emailed me last week wanting to know a bit about BOV’s.

A BOV or Bug Out Vehicle is some form of transport that will take you away from your current location in a time of crisis or distress.

Almost anything that will move can be considered a potential BOV candidate.

That includes motor vehicles, animals, human powered devices or anything that can carry or tow some kind of load.

The next question is “do I need one?”

The simple answer is yes, it is very likely that you will need something to move you and
your stuff around at one time or another.

Even if you are well set up in a great location, there may come a time you will need to move.

I can’t elaborate on what the circumstances may be to make you move, but I can make some
suggestions that will help you decide what you may require when that time
comes.

Firstly, how many, how far, how much, how often?

This is where you start to question what you need to move and how far you need to move
it.

If it is just one person, and they have a small bag of things, then the demands are not great.

However, if it is your whole family, and everything goes with you including the kitchen sink, then you will need something more substantial.

How many?

So, how many people are included in the group that are willing and able to move from your established location?

Take into consideration that if your group is large, some might not wish to go even if it is against their better judgment.

Some of the group may have special requirements that will take up more space, things that cannot be left behind like medical equipment or wheelchairs.

Also consider that you may even have extra people to move around. You never know what might happen, and if you can make provision for these possibilities, within reason, more power to you.

How far?

Is your new location across the road, across the city, across the county, across the country, maybe even across the world! You will need to identify the location you wish to get to, and what might be required to get there.

That includes consumables, possible repairs and any chance you might have to adjust your course. Make allowances in your plan to get there via the ‘scenic route’.

How much?

This is what you plan to take with you if you do have to move. If you are in a set location with good resources and a chance of living well, then your absence may be short, until you can return.

In that case, short term items are of prime consideration, with a few longer term items thrown in
just in case.

If you plan to bug out, and stay bugged out, then you will have to take a lot of gear with you. You must make plans to take all that gear with you safely and efficiently.

You may have to leave some of it behind, or hide it until the time is right to retrieve it. You may have to hide some of your gear beforehand to lessen the burden later on. This must all be considered
and factored into your plan.

How often?

Do you plan to move once, a few times or be continually on the move? If it is just once, think about where that one move is going to, and will you have to move again?

If the answer is yes, then your plans for the one move have already failed. Also, if you plan to continually move, will you be able to stay for an extended period in one spot if the circumstance permit?

You must be willing to be flexible in these plans, even ifyou have no thoughts of going anywhere, it is wise to be prepared ahead of time if the unthinkable occurs and you do have to move.

Different styles of travel require different modes of transport, and the transport you select must be able to follow those plans, orn you aren’t going anywhere!

In the end, if you plan to survive for a long time, you will very likely have to move around a little no matter how well prepared you are, as even the best-laid plans sometimes fail.

Whichever way you decide to go, a good reliable BOV should always be placed high on the list of
needs, even if it is just as an emergency.

BREAK

Prepping/Survival Tips

As more catastrophes seem to be accelerating more and more I am becoming convinced that the collapse of society is only a matter of time.

The true survivalist can feel that they are ready for the chaos, but without actually experiencing these extreme adversities first hand are they?

In the military soldiers are conditioned and trained beforehand and made to be as prepared as possible for the real hardships on and off the battlefield.

The survivalist can to be more mentally and physically prepared for the falling apart of civilization that so many survivalists and the general public feel is inevitable.

Self-reliance also has to do with being ready for the sudden loss of everything we all have become way too accustomed to.

Experiencing a type of mock realism can get you more mentally prepared for when society starts
to quickly disintegrate around you.

The following tips (suggestions) should help you, ‘the survivalist/prepper cope better when things do start to fall apart.

See what it is like to go without the utilities such as electricity by turning them off for at least a couple of hours.

Go at least 24 hours without electronic conveniences; no computer, no television, no cell phone, etc.

This will be a wakeup call for many.

The internet will not be there after many catastrophes, become use to receiving information from other sources such as books.

Spend some nights using only candles and or battery operated lights to illuminate the darkness.

Start storing rainwater and start watering your plants and garden with it.

Try cooking some of your meals using a solar oven, barbecue, fire pit, something not dependent on the electric or gas companies.

Flush the toilet for one day or more using only water you have previously stored, or use a portable toilet.

Instead of throwing away a piece of damaged clothing, try to repair it, sew it, then wear it again.

Take any household item and write down every creative way you can use it.

Find other means of some of your trash disposal, something else rather than the city or county trash pick up services.

Have a fake imaginary illness and fictionally treat that sickness with only what you have available to you in your home.

Gather your family and even your friends together that feel like you do, and see what it like for all of you to be confined to a smaller space.

Use ‘other” means of cooling or heating your home for a few days that is of course safe.

Actually walk or bicycle to run some of your errands other than using a motor vehicle.

Start spending some very quiet time alone. You may have to be alone after ‘it’ happens.

Try using alternative means of bathing occasionally, like using one of those solar showers, or heating water over a fire to be used to bathe with.

See what ingenious gadget made from junk you can think of to make hard times easier.

Try washing dishes and clothes on occasion without using the dishwasher or washing machine, dry clothes on a clothes line.

Experiment by trying to purify dirty polluted water, without drinking it, and see how clean you can get it.

Scavenger hunt. Take some time and collect everything, not, you find on the ground and ask yourself, what can I do and use what I have?

Take along a pad of paper and write down everything you see at a park or recreation area.

Observation skills will help you stay alivebetter after chaos breaks loose.

Try to locate someplace off the beaten path using only a paper map, compass, or landmarks.

Spend some days outdoors when the weather is miserable (not dangerous), like raining all day long, you may have to live this way in the future.

See how fast you can get your essentials together and ready to leave.

If you plan to stay where you are, thoroughly become familiar with every street, landmark, trees, houses, etc. within 2 miles of your home, walk the area often.

The truly “ready” survivalist should be training themselves to be prepared to undergo things that are going to be vastly different and very difficult to adjust to and handle.

By using some or all of these  prep tips now and before the aftermath of “the nightmare” that is coming, you will be more adapt at handling it.

Add your personal preparation exercises to this to make you even more mega disaster ready.

Caching Supplies

If your Urban Survival Plan is to Bug Out at the appropriatetime to a safe location, which may be a family farm or a friends remote home, you need to consider pre-locating some supplies, material and equipment close to this safe location in case you do not have the chance to upload your vehicle
with everything you are planning on taking, or, in case you are regulated to moving on foot to this safe location.

One method to pre-locate Survival supplies would be just to have your friends or family stock it for you.

However if you drop off a few padlocked foot lockers at your safe location, you run the risk of it not being there when you arrive.

What happens if you are late in arriving there and they get curious as to what you have in those foot lockers or worse yet, didn’t plan well themselves and are scavenging for food or whatever you have in these foot lockers?

What happens if your friends or family get overrun?

One of the best ways to pre-locate Survival Supplies is by Caching. Caching is the art of preparing, packaging and hiding items so you can retrieve them when needed.

There are a few considerations for stashing caches.

You want to emplace them in a location where you can get to them in case the safe location is compromised.

What happens if you finally get to your safe location and you see an angry crowd surrounding your friends house and your friends hanging in the tree or lying face down on the ground?

The caches have to be well hidden and survive accidental discovery by passers-by and from discovery by people who may think you have hidden something in the area.

You have to be able to find these caches, months or years after you emplace them – don’t trust your memory, prepare a cache report.

The Survival items must be prepared well and the cache container should provide protection from the elements, most notably water or moisture.

Good cache containers are surplus military ammunition cans, sealable buckets and large PVC tubes. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) makes excellent cache containers since it is relatively cheap and easy to find, and can be water proofed easily (using PVC cement) and painted to help camouflage and
hide.

Plus PVC pipe in available in many different sizes (diameters) so you can custom make cache containers to what you want to cache. However, the larger the container, the harder it is to hide it.

So you will have to determine which cache concealment method (below ground cache, above ground concealment cache or submersible cache) is necessary.

The general idea being to bury the cache containing your Survival supplies. Some locations, such as rocky areas, may require an above ground concealment cache.

You will have to determine if you want each separate cache to be a mix of Survival items you forecast a need for, or if you will have separate caches for each Survival item group, e.g..food, water, matches/butane lighters, clothing, etc.

The ability to make a fire, maybe some clothing, sparefootwear, flashlights, water, medical supplies are all items you would want to consider.

When you emplace the cache you will need to record, in some fashion, where it is. It is not a case of simply recording the coordinates on your GPS.

Consider an easily recognizable Initial Reference Point(IRP) which should be a terrain feature which will not move Crossroads, maybe a bridge for example.

From the IRP a distance and direction to a Final Reference Point (FRP) which should be another terrain feature that will not move, such as a rock outcropping or a large and distinguishable tree for example.

From the FRP a direction and distance to the buried, submersed or above ground concealed cache.

You may want to consider recording what tools you will need to recover the cache, such as a metal rod for probing for a buried cache and a shovel to dig it up with.

Catapult or Slingshot Small Game Hunting

Like most British kids I played with a handmade catapult, hand made by me that is. Now OK, I say handmade but in truth it was a cut “Y” shaped branch of the right size with elastic bands, but you know, it actually worked.

The upgrade then was for a steel caty with bands fitted by the manufacturer.

Last year I was sent the Survivalslingshot from www.survivalslingshot.com and I fell in love again with this form of hunting.

We as members of the preparedness community should consider slingshots and their effectiveness as a small game hunting tool, especially in a large-scale disaster scenario where food stockpiles may run out.

So let’s talk about slingshots and their usefulness as a disaster prep.

 Before we even get into this topic, we need to make a couple things very clear.

First, a slingshot is not a toy, it’s a weapon.

You should be taking just as many precautions and safety procedures with a slingshot that you would with any other weapon.

In fact, due to the inherent design of a slingshot, you will want to take even greater precautions, especially in eye protection. If you don’t believe me, go to YouTube and search for “slingshot accidents”. Warning: some of those videos are quite graphic.

Secondly, before the clever emails roll in, yes there are several other weapons that are better suited for hunting than a slingshot.

Depending on the situation though, there can be several advantages to using a slingshot over other types of hunting tools, which I will cover later.

The benefits of using a slingshot for hunting

On the surface it might seem that slingshots would be one of the worst choices for a hunting weapon.

They’re not nearly as powerful as a bow (let alone a firearm), they take a lot of practice to be accurate with, you have to be much closer to your target and they’re usually pretty limited as far as what kind of game you can really go after with it.

However, there are actually quite a few benefits for using a slingshot instead of a normal hunting weapon, including:

They are easier to use in an urban areas – IE you’re unlikely to get reported to the police for shooting a slingshot in your backyard.

They are legal to openly carry in most areas

They don’t attract nearly as much attention as a firearm or bow

They are one of the quietest ways to hunt game

Finding ammo for a slingshot can be as easy as picking up a rock off the ground

They have very few parts and can be made and maintained very easily

You don’t need any sort of documentation or licenses to own a slingshot

A commercial slingshot is a fraction of the cost of any other hunting tool

Slingshot hunting is very challenging and can teach you to be a better hunter all-around

In a SHTF, long-term disaster scenario, slingshots will be perfect for hunting small game when ammunition and gun parts are scarce and you want to be as quiet as possible.

Follow the seasons  

Just because you’re hunting with a slingshot doesn’t mean you’re exempt from hunting seasons. Although in many areas small game hunting is legal year-round, some countries have specific seasons when you can hunt specific small game.

 Safety- slingshots really can kill you

 A slingshot is simply a modified form of a Sling, which has been used for hunting and even defensive purposes for literally thousands of years. It’s not a toy. It can kill someone.

Most commercial slingshots can shoot projectiles anywhere from 150-300 feet per second. Specialty hunting slingshots can actually reach over 400 feet per second.

Combined with the heavy weight of most slingshot ammo, this is more than enough power to kill someone.

Types of slingshots

There are several types of slingshots on the market today ranging from a simple plastic fork with cheap bands, all the way to top-of the line hunting slingshots outfitted with super-strength bands, stabilizing bars and even laser sights.

Usually with gear, the rule of thumb is that you get what you pay for, however it’s been my experience that slingshots are kind of an exception to that rule.

Some of the most expensive commercial hunting slingshots out there are pure JUNK.

They’re inaccurate and wear out faster than even traditional, forked stick, backyard-made slingshots.

It almost seems like the designers were much more concerned about making the thing look cool instead of actually making it functional.

In my opinion, the best slingshots are homemade. I’m not talking about a simple “Y” shaped stick in your backyard, but actually designing a slingshot out of high-quality material that fits your hand perfectly and experimenting with several band and pouch options until you have something that is tailor fit just for you and serves your purposes.

Types of slingshot bands

There are several types of pre-made bands you can buy for your slingshot. Most are made out of decent quality rubber and will last for at least a few months of normal use before noticing any decrease in performance.

That being said, a lot of people don’t actually recommend buying pre-made bands for slingshots. For one, they’re overpriced.

Secondly, slingshot hunting is, unfortunately, not that popular. Slingshots in general aren’t all that popular. When you buy a package of those replacement bands, it’s very likely they’ve been sitting on that shelf for over a year. For slingshot bands, that’s not good.

Your slingshot bands need to be changed regularly. Not only will they deliver a more consistent shot and velocity but it’s much safer this way.

Bands that have been sitting around a while will dry out and could even be cracked straight out of the package. There’s a real chance that it could break on your first shot and cause injury.

 So why not buy band material and make your own. It’s extremely simple.

The most common band material is called TheraBand Gold. It’s the industry standard for custom slingshot makers.

Hunting Slingshot ammunition

Yes, you can shoot rocks and pebbles out of your slingshot with no problem. It’s been done for generations. That being said, natural materials shouldn’t be your usual ammunition for a slingshot.

Rocks and pebbles are oddly shaped, have edges that could hurt your pouch and bands aren’t usually weighted correctly to give you consistent, accurate shot placement. Your best bet is to go with steel or lead shot.

Personally I like steel shot better for hunting. I believe it’s just a better round for the distances I like to shoot. Your experiences can and will be different depending on your setup. One major advantage steel shot has though is that it is magnetic, which makes it easier to collect after shooting it.

Don’t hunt if you can’t hit your target reliably

Hunting with a slingshot isn’t easy. You have to be much closer to your target since the slingshot doesn’t generate enough energy to keep the heavy projectile from falling mid-flight.

You also have to be experienced with approaching small animals without spooking them.

Additionally, slingshot ammunition doesn’t cause piercing damage, it causes blunt force damage. This means that you have to put your shots in an area that isn’t going to cause internal damage to your animal which can spoil your meat. This means headshots only guys.

 My rule of thumb for this is simple. If you can’t hit a target the size of a 2P piece consistently, keep practicing and don’t go out hunting. Killing an animal humanely is a responsibility of every hunter.

Continue practicing at varying distances from your target. Once you get proficient enough that you can hit a target the size of a 2P piece reliably, then you’ll be ready to take those headshots on small game.

Ground to Air Signals

When you’re in distress in the outdoors and you need to call for help, you can use a number of
different rescue signal techniques.

But if you believe that an airplane, helicopter, or other airborne rescue party may be searching for you, then you can use the five-symbol ground-to-air emergency code to signal a specific message in advance of the aircraft’s landing.

Most importantly, the ground-to-air emergency code can help let rescuers know whether or not anyone in your party is injured, and it can guide them more effectively towards your location.

The five ground-to-air emergency code symbols and their meanings are as follows:

Require Assistance: V

A V-shaped signal
communicates that you need assistance, in general, but it doesn’t imply that you or someone in your party is injured.

Require Medical Assistance: X

Use the letter X to communicate that you or someone in your party needs medical attention.

Whereas the V symbol communicates a call for help, the X symbol communicates a more
urgent request for assistance.

No or Negative: N

The N symbol can be used to communicate your negative response to a question that the aircraft or rescue organization has asked.

Yes or Affirmative: Y

The Y symbol can be used to communicate your affirmative response to a question that the aircraft
or rescue organization has asked.

Proceed in this Direction: Arrow, pointing towards the location

Place an arrow-shaped symbol with the head, or point, of the arrow indicating the
direction of your location.

This symbol is a good one to use when rescuers may need additional information about how to reach your location after they have identified another ground-to-air signal, such as a group of X symbols in an open area indicating a need for medical assistance.

Place the arrow in a position that will guide rescuers from the open area towards your location.

Tips for Using the Air-to-Ground Emergency Code:

Signal using the air-to-ground emergency code as you would signal with other methods, such as a
smoke rescue fire.

Remember these key ideas when arranging signals and communicating with rescue crews:

As with other visual signals, signalling in threes communicates and confirms distress.

Choose a large, open area as close as possible to your location for the signal location.

Choose to place signals on the highest, flattest terrain you can find near your location.

Choose a signal that will contrast with the underlying terrain. Choose dark-coloured branches, for
example, on top of white snow.

Go big! Use several rows of rocks or debris to build each part of a signal letter so that it is
thick enough and big enough to be seen clearly from above.

Be prepared to use a back-up signal, such as a signal mirror, to confirm your location as soon as
you see aircraft in the area.

How do you make char cloth?

The simplest prepper method of making char cloth is to take something like pieces of cotton a t-shirt or old jeans and put it into a small tin, like an altoids tin or an air pellet tin.

You can also use a tuna tin, coffee tin etc. as long as you can seal it fairly well after you put the
material in it and it won’t burn itself up.

I wanted to make some char cloth just using stuff I had lying around the house so instead of an altoids tin I used an old pellet tin I had lying around.

You need the gasses to escape from the inside after they’re released from the cotton, so you need to poke a small hole in the tin with something like a nail.

You don’t want it too big though, or oxygen will get in and your fabric will catch fire.

I got my Gillie Kettle out and lit it and put the old pellet tin on top then I cut a strip denim from some old jeans about as wide as the tin is long, rolled it up and put it into the tin.

The smoke was coming out of the hole in the top of the tin, and if I was to put a flame to it, that smoke would catch fire.

This is essentially a mini-gasifier. That gas is flammable enough to be used in a generator or carb for an engine.

Then, you just cook the tin in the fire for a while until you don’t see any more smoke coming out, and that’s it.

Depending on how much stuff you have, how big your tin is and how hot your fire is, it should take anywhere from 15-45 minutes. 

Obviously, the proof is in the pudding so I took out my magnesium fire starter that I keep in my pocket as a part of my EDC kit, and it lit after one spark.

That’s really all there is to it. You should experiment with different types of fabrics and different temperatures and times to heat it up but it’s not really all that hard.

You don’t even need to use cloth. Almost any organic material should work, such as wood or plant fibres.

You just need to get all the gasses out without burning it.

Char cloth vs other tinder?

Char cloth catches so easily that just one spark will usually catch, so not only can you place it right under your tinder bundle, things like a breeze or damp air shouldn’t be a problem. It will burn usually for a few minutes too, giving it enough time to catch.

Because it doesn’t give off a flame though, char cloth isn’t really going to be able to catch kindling.

Other tinder like dry leaves, grass, cat tail fluff, etc. burns pretty well but isn’t always easy to catch from a spark. Especially if it’s damp out.

Putting them together though, makes a powerful combination.

How to use char cloth to start a fire.

Char cloth catches easily but it won’t burn hot enough to catch twigs on fire unless they’re REALLY tiny.

You also probably won’t have a lot of char cloth in your kit. It will, however, burn enough to catch other tinder on fire.

By making a tinder bundle out of dry material that burns quickly and then putting the char
cloth inside it, you make an easy-to-light pile of stuff known as a nest that
will burn hot enough to catch twigs.

Having a successful fire started is all about sticking to the sequence of fire starting.

The spark catches the char cloth.

The char cloth catches the rest of the tinder.

The tinder then catches your kindling.

The kindling catches the fuel wood and you can then boil water or cook a meal.

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