This Week’s Show 22nd December 2017

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SHOW NOTES

Beginning with the Blizzard Survival 20% discount offer then the Water-to-Go 15% discount offer I move on to the Wilderness Gathering, keeping warm in the cold, Fear and what it does, the zip lock bag omelette, my survival meal, Walking Home – Survival Tips, survival napping, survival and stress, ground to air signals.

Blizzard Survival 20% Discount Offer

Blizzard Survival .com have a fantastic offer for you the listener they are offering a 20% discount on all goods bought from them at www.blizzardsurvival.com

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Life-saving technology has never been so affordable. All you have to do to get a 20% discount is enter the code “PREPPER” at the checkout, it is that simple. Thank you Blizzard Survival.coml 20% Discount Offer www.blizzardsurvival.com

Water-to-Go Filter Bottle

This is another fantastic offer for you dear listener. I am proud to announce that I have teamed up with the guys at Water-to-Go to bring you this special deal.

Now you can drink safely from any water source with the water-to-go filter bottle. It removes fluoride, chlorine and heavy metals from tap water.

It removes Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa, Cysts, bad taste and odour from dirty water sources.

In fact if you drink water then get yourself a Water-to-Go filter bottle as it’s cheaper than drinking bottled water and it’s cleaner too. Get 15% discount at the checkout, code word premprep https://www.watertogo.eu/ukpreppersradionetwork

The Wilderness Gathering

If you’ve never been to the Gathering before and you love nature and the outdoors, then this is the family show for you – Wilderness Gathering, a unique Bushcraft event, is the longest running and still the original festival of bushcraft, survival and primitive living skills.

The Gathering has become a social event and brings together families and friends, all those interested in Bushcraft and Wilderness living skills to enjoy a weekend of knowledge sharing in a relaxed and family friendly atmosphere

Live Music

Not only is the Gathering the place you to come to – to learn new skills, brush up on your old ones and meet some of the best bushcraft experts in the country but it has also become, over the past fifteen years, the place you come to – to gather and socialise round the campfire with friends, old and new.

Children’s Bushcraft

The Coyote Clubs were introduced in 2005 and host a comprehensive range of events and activities specifically tailored for children from 5 to 15 year old.

The Masterclass

The Masterclasses were introduced in 2005 and are your opportunity to study your favourite Bushcraft subject in depth with a leading Bushcraft instructors.

Where is it?

Located on a South Wiltshire farm with lakes and 30 acres of old oak woodlands. You get access to woodlands and fields to erect whatever shelter you want.

Add to this great food, local cider, mead, evening entertainment. great people and it’s now over 5 days it has to time to get booked http://www.wildernessgathering.co.uk/tickets.htm.

Keeping Warm in the Cold

Post SHTF it will be keeping warm that will be difficult for most survivors.

Especially during very cold weather, simply, because the central heating will not be there to keep you warm.

The survivor’s only survival option is to learn how to deal with this threat to life.

Remember with a little knowledge, planning, and good equipment you can defend yourself from the elements.

Wet Cold Weather

During wet AND cold weather conditions you are facing a double threat. Water is very efficient at exchanging heat. So, you must concentrate on protecting yourself from the wet ground and from freezing rain or wet snow.

WINDCHILL

Windchill is often given on weather reports because cold coupled with high winds saps you heat much faster than the cold alone. Keep this in mind. Understand this. Knowledge is the key to survival.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COLD WEATHER SURVIVAL

Always keep your head covered. You can lose 40 to 45 percent of body heat from an unprotected head and even more from the unprotected neck, wrist, and ankles.

Your head is basically a radiator. It has lots of blood flow for a couple of reasons but has very little fat for insulation. Good insulation on your head and neck is half the battle. Forget this area and you are doomed.

Now that you realize your head is an important part of the heat loss equation we can look at how to keep your body warm by identifying four basic principles.

Four basic principles to keep warm!

Keep clothing clean.

Avoid overheating and sweating.

Wear clothes loose and in layers.

Keep clothing dry.

Keep clothing clean. This principle here is that your clothing is your insulation. Contaminate your clothes with dirt and oil etc reduces their insulating value.

No sweat! avoid overheating. Overheat and you will sweat! Get your insulation/clothing wet and your insulation become a conductor.

And when water evaporates it takes the hottest molecules away, leaving the colder ones behind. Effectively sucking the heat out of you like an air conditioner.

That is what sweat is designed to do after all… cool you off. So, sweating/turning on your bodies AC can kill you in a survival situation.

This one issue probably contributes to a very large percentage of hypothermia deaths when people find themselves in a survival situation.

Keep a cool head and think. Be smart! Remember your head is a great radiator. So, if physical exertion starts to overheat you, removing head gear is the first line of action to keep yourself from sweating.

Wear your clothing loose and in layers. This goes for your feet as well. Wearing tight clothing restricts blood circulation and you need good circulation to keep your extremities warm.

Feet and hands do not produce much heat. Most of your heat comes from the large muscles. Tight clothing reduces the amount of trapped air and it is this air that also acts as insulation… it isn’t JUST the clothing themselves that is going to keep you warm.

Keep clothing dry. In cold temperatures, your inner layers of clothing can become wet from sweat and your outer layer, if not water repellent, can become wet from snow and frost melted by body heat or rain or standing water or even dew.

Wearing water repellent outer clothing, if available is a great advantage.

OK so you know not to get wet but eventually you will get wet and you need to know some techniques to remedy the situation if you want to survive.

Hanging wet articles of clothing is one method of drying them.

Getting direct sun light on them is a big help as well as in the wind. If this is not an option, then maybe your body can be used as a dryer. Body heat can raise the garments temperature to facilitate evaporation. But first you should wring out as much excess water as possible.

In a campsite you should hang damp clothing inside the shelter near the top because heat rises.

Using fire is the best option as it will dry clothing much faster than any of the other alternatives. Just be careful to not try and dry to quickly as you can shrink leather and burn clothing if they get to hot.

Drying shoes and boots is one area that you are probably most likely to screw up. These articles do not dry easily so warping them or worse because you got them to hot is a big concern.

A heavy sleeping bag can be a life saver in a cold weather survival situation. Sleep in a survival situation where you don’t have adequate equipment can be almost impossible and a sleeping bag allows you to sleep much longer in cold weather than you would be able to without one.

Like your clothing it is imperative that you keep your sleeping bag clean and dry. Placing it directly on damp ground can quickly turn your one chance at a good night’s sleep into a struggle for survival.

Take the time to prepare a bed of leaves and such to keep the sleeping bag from contacting the wet cold ground.

HYGIENE

Although washing yourself may be uncomfortable in a cold environment, you really need to wash periodically to help prevent rashes. Once you have a rash it can quickly turn into something more serious when in a survival situation.

COLD INJURIES

When dealing with injuries and sicknesses it is imperative to take measures to prevent them from ever happening. Prevention is paramount.

Hypothermia

Hypothermia is the lowering of the body temperature. Initial symptom of hypothermia is shivering. First you shiver. Then you shiver to the point that you can’t control it or stop it.

This is your body trying to produce heat to warm itself. Sluggish thinking, irrational reasoning are next and eventually a feeling of warmth may occur.

This is a critical point. You feel warm, but you MUST at this point try to warm yourself up or you will die.

But warming up brings on the sensation of pain again. But you must endure this, or you will not make it.

The will to survive is paramount here and it is at this point that many people give in and stop fighting to live. Death comes at around 77-degree core body temperature.

CAUTION

Rewarming the entire body say in a warm bath should shelter be reached should be slow because of the real risk of cardiac arrest and rewarming shock.

CAUTION

 Never force an unconscious or semi-conscious person to drink.

Frostbite

Frostbite means having parts of your body freeze. Mild frostbite involves only the skin that takes on a dull whitish pallor. Deep frostbite extends to a depth below the skin.

Feet, hands, and exposed facial areas usually the first areas affected by frostbite. There is no fix once it has happened so prevention here is the only option available to combat it.

Trench Foot

Trench Foot occurs after many hours or days of exposure to wet or damp conditions at low temperatures just above freezing.

The symptoms are a sensation of pins and needles, tingling, numbness, and then pain. The skin will appear wet, white and shrivelled.

Eventually if the condition is not corrected with dry warmth the skin will turn red and then a bluish or black. The feet will swell.

Walking becomes difficult and the feet feel heavy and numb. In extreme cases, the flesh dies, and it may become necessary to have the foot or leg amputated. The best prevention is to keep your feet dry.

Dehydration

When clothed for cold weather, you must drink water to replace lost fluids. Your need for water is as great in a cold environment as it is in hot weather.

One way to tell if you are becoming dehydrated is to check the colour of your urine. The darker the urine the worse the dehydration.

Snow Blindness

The reflection of the sun’s ultraviolet rays off snow causes this condition. The symptoms of snow blindness are a sensation of grit in the eyes, pain in and over the eyes that increases with eyeball movement, red eyes, and a headache that intensifies with continued exposure to light.

Continued exposure to these bright snowy conditions will result in permanent eye damage. To treat snow blindness, bandage your eyes until the symptoms disappear, you can basically make a set of eye patches with a hole just big enough to see through to help or prevent the occurrence.

You can prevent snow blindness by wearing sunglasses.

SHELTERS

Building a shelter is an important skill in surviving a cold weather event.

Shelter material should be made of insulators not conductors such as metal.

Be sure your shelter has some ventilation especially if you intend to build a fire in it. The shelter should be no larger than needed so that it is easier to heat. In a survival situation smaller is better when it comes to building a temporary shelter.

Never sleep directly on the ground put clothing, sleeping bag or other equipment on the ground. Lay down a bed of leaves, grass, or other insulating material to keep the ground from absorbing your body heat.

If your shelter is good, then be wary of Carbon monoxide poisoning.

Never sleep with a lamp or heater burning. Carbon monoxide is a great danger.

It is colourless and odourless. Any time you have an open flame, it may generate carbon monoxide. Always check your ventilation. Even in a ventilated shelter, incomplete combustion can cause carbon monoxide poisoning. Usually, there are no symptoms.

FIRE

Fire is especially important in cold weather. It not only provides a means to cook food, melt snow or ice for water but it provides light and can be a huge psychological boost.

Remember that the smoke, smell, and light from your fire may reveal your location to anyone around.

When you know what hits the fan it might be a good idea to take measures to keep you fire as small as possible and as hidden as possible.

Light travels a long way and you don’t want to have others hone in on you while you are sleeping.

Some wood burns easier than others. For example, pine trees that contain resin and tar create more and darker smoke than deciduous trees, but they are also easy to light.

So, pine would be the choice to get a fire started but then switching to hardwoods later can help with less smoke, longer slower burns.

For heating purposes, a single

Tip:

Avoid drinking a lot of liquid before going to sleep. Getting out of a warm sleeping bag at night to relieve yourself means less rest and more exposure to the cold.

A candle or a small fire the size of your hand provides enough to heat to keep you warm if you have built an enclosed shelter.

Fear and What It Does

What can freeze a human being on the spot, erase the memory of every plan, cause a heart attack, and possibly dirty your pants as well?  Fear.  You’ll notice it’s a four-letter word and should be treated as such. 

It is insidious, diabolical and sneaky and can really turn rock-solid men or women into melting crying wimps.

Fear is usually the result of some sort of sensory overload – something you see, hear, feel, even imagine- that sets off a string of involuntary responses in your body.    

You can learn to identify it and manage it, but you cannot control it unless you eliminate the source of the fear and thus the fear altogether.

There are different levels of fear as well, from low-level anxiety to all-out panic attacks. 

Your body has different levels of involuntary responses to each. 

It can be very helpful to know what your body is doing while you’re going through such episodes, so that you can plan to be prepared during anything.

For the purposes of this article – keeping yourself alive in a survival situation- we’re going to focus on a genuine, heart-stopping event of fear – like a terrorist attack or a wild animal attack. 

Events that you hope to never encounter, but when you do, you “will” be afraid. 

It is important to realize that all human beings are susceptible to fear and it’s okay.  God designed our bodies with responses to keep us alive. 

But these same responses, if we’re not aware of them and educated, can create a survival dilemma.  So, let’s look at what happens in our bodies when the terrorist attacks and think through what we can do to best maximize our survival potential considering these phenomena. What goes on when the panic button goes off?

The terrorist attacks (and I want to say, THIS is my own personal nightmare scenario) having lived through the “troubles” in N.I. I have seen many bombs explode, seen and heard gun fights and lived through uncertainty for many years.

The first bombs where frightening and we where scared, but as time went on we became used to them and in fact got annoyed when TV programs where interrupted with requests for shop owners to return to their premises.

You see the fear was in the uncertainty not the explosion itself.

Right away you will have a racing heart rate, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) goes hog-wild by immediately releasing tons of stress hormones- called adrenaline – into the circulatory system.

This is a reflex.  You can’t control it. 

The chemical cocktail is the basis for the body’s fight-or-flight- mechanism and is characterized by several factors including an increased heart rate (from 70 beats per minute to more than 200 in less than one second), increased cardiac output, higher blood pressure, and increased blood sugar. 

Blood is diverted from organs to the larger muscle groups, resulting in increased strength capabilities and enhanced gross motor skills while the breathing rate accelerates, thereby transporting greater amounts of oxygen to the newly recruited muscle fibers. At the same time, sweating increases to cool the muscles.  Minor blood vessels in the arms and legs constrict to reduce bleeding from potential injuries, digestion ceases, and muscle tremors take over.  

 

The pupils dilate, reducing depth perception, while axillary muscle performance takes a nosedive, creating blurred vision. And, as if this isn’t enough, the field of sight narrows, producing tunnel vision. 

To a greater or lesser extent, time appears to pass more slowly, called the tache-psyche effect, allowing for increased reaction time to perceived emergency.

So, if you wind up outdoors faced with your real fear, you better have thought out a plan of action beforehand, wouldn’t you say? 

You can’t see well, your judgement is impaired, your circulatory system could be messing with your core body temperature, putting you at risk, and you have no fine or complex motor skills. 

One thing he adds later, is that you also lose parasympathetic nerve system control – read: bowel control.  Down in those war trenches it got nasty…

 

Think through all your gear in your pack.  What kind of fire starter/s do you have packed?  Things that need fine motor skills to get a fire going?  How about your shelter?   

Complicated or simple?  Always consider the worst-case scenario and using these facts about your body in crisis, plan for survival!

The Zip Lock Bag Omelette

And this is what you will you will need:

A large size plastic freezer ziplock bag for each person

A permanent marker

2 eggs per person

A large pot of water

Tongs optional

Ideas for ingredients to add to your Omelet:

 Precooked meat (bacon, sausage, ham)

Onion

Any kind of green pepper, sweet or hot pepper

Mushrooms

Spinach

Olives

Cheese

Salt and pepper, or seasoning of your choice

Diced Tomatoes

Any foraged foods.

Method

Break your eggs into the bag add your ingredients, now squeeze as much air out of the bag as possible and zip it shut.

Move the ingredients gently around to ensure they are mixed then add the bag into the boiling water for about 13 to 15 minutes. Job done enjoy.

My Survival Meal

This is a survival meal I have designed not only to be cheap at around 25p each meal but to also to be filling and more importantly tasty.

I have made some trial pasta meals (my own recipe)

The ingredients cost me

Pasta 1kg £0.38p

Lentils1/2 kg £ 0.99p

Cup-a-soup x10 £0.57p

Total £1.94p

 

Put as much pasta into a zip bag as you want then put in as much lentils as you like and bring to the boil once cooked then add the cup-a-soup and instantly your meal is ready to eat.

 

I made 8 meals at a cost of 24.1/4p each I think that is fantastic and very cheap and very filling too.

 

It is easy to add food to them say hotdogs chopped up or any tinned meat in fact, as they are already cooked and just need heating up.

 

You can also change the flavour by using different cup-a-soups flavours, or use garlic salt, spices or curry powder, dried onions or even fresh or dried peppers.

 

All you need to do is put the cup-a-soup packet (unopened) into the zip lock bag along with a half-a-cup of lentils and then fill the bag with the pasta.

 

Mark the soup flavour on the bag.

 

Instead of cup-a-soups you can use Pot Noodles; Pasta sauce mixes etc. to flavour your survival meal.

 

This way you can vary the meal flavours as you like each day.

 

To cook you firstly put the pasta and lentils into water and bring it to the boil and let it boil for 10 minutes when the pasta is cooked then add the cup-a-soup and stir then simply serve.

 

Please note that the lentils may not be fully cooked, but they will be cooked enough to eat and the fact that they are chewy allows for a different texture to the meal anyway.

Walking Home – Survival Tips

Here are three survival (security) tips that are free, and won’t cost you anything.

 

There is a caveat though, that is you may need to force a slight change in your behavior and habits.

 

In today’s world of increasing economic woes, more individuals are turning towards criminal behaviour as they become angrier, looking for someone to blame, and may be downright desperate.

 

You, as a ‘normal’ person, may be walking among them from time to time and you don’t even know it or recognize it.

 

To a large extent, the key to avoid being victimized is to simply be aware. Awareness consciously (and subconsciously) changes your own behaviour such that you will be more likely to avoid dangerous situations that could escalate into violence.

 

Let me define ‘awareness’ in the context of your self-security:

 

Well firstly you should know what is happening or has happened in your field of travel, you should also look around you (and behind you) while moving (walking, driving, etc) and even outside your home, make eye contact while scanning in crowded public places.

 

Whether by paying attention to the news or ‘hearsay’, understand the history of the area you are about to travel in.

 

Most people over time will come to understand where the ‘bad’ areas are in their local region – areas especially vulnerable to crime.

 

If you are new to the area, or if traveling outside your own area, try to discover where these ‘bad’ areas are.

 

A great tool to look for crime reports is on CrimeReports.com, which shows maps dotted with crime reports in Canada, the U.S., and the UK

 

This simple behaviour is more effective than you may imagine.

 

The reason being, is that so many people do not do this, they are ignorant to their surroundings, and are the first to become victims.

 

Predators look for the weaker prey. Someone who is looking down, or who appears to be in their own little world, they are prime targets for criminals.

 

Instead, you should scan around you from time to time, with your head up straight, as you walk with purpose – shoulders back, and confident.

 

Not only might you avoid an unruly-looking gang of troublemakers, but they might avoid targeting YOU.

 

Make eye contact while scanning in crowded public places

 

Making purposeful, but quick eye contact is another very effective deterrent to a criminal.

 

Here’s the reason… Most people purposely avoid eye contact in public places.

They want to remain in their own little world and by looking down or avoiding eye contact, they are convinced that they will remain in that cocoon.

 

The reality is that they are entirely wrong.

 

Sure, that type of behaviour may avoid unwanted conversation that otherwise might initiate from a stranger, but that’s about it…

 

By occasionally scanning and making quick eye contact with others, tells any potential criminal that you are not afraid.

‘Quick’ eye contact simply means don’t stare. Staring will provoke a stranger.

 

Is this type of behaviour simply a bunch of paranoia? Do you have to walk around being paranoid to avoid being in the wrong place at the wrong time?

 

No, of course not.

 

Granted, for some people, learning to do these simple things will feel uncomfortable at first – and they may feel as though they are being paranoid.

 

However, after a while, this will become part of you, just like being able to carry on a conversation with someone while driving a car. It’s no big deal…

 

Bolster some confidence while you’re out and about. It may unknowingly ward off a pick-pocket, purse-snatcher, or worse criminal, without you even knowing it happened!

 

Survival Napping

As expert survivors we often think in terms of acting to survive.

 

For example, we have our bug-out bags pre-packed and are ready to go, so that we may walk or drive many miles with enough supplies to get us there.

 

Survivors know how to build a fire in many ways under a variety of adverse conditions.

 

Survivors can obtain drinkable water and forage edible foods from a plethora of sources.

 

As survival experts we can defend ourselves and our property to the best of our ability.

 

And that is just the beginning. When the going gets tough the experienced wilderness and urban survivor springs into action, taking adversity head on.

 

But not always. A wise old friend of mine once told me, “Sometimes the best thing you can do – is do nothing!”

 

When the going gets tough sometimes the best thing to do is to take a long nap. During very bad weather or social unrest it is often not wise to continue with your plans.

 

Rather than flail about in wind and storm or risk altercation during social unrest, simply go to sleep and wait it out!

You will save your energy, reduce the risk of injury, and get a good rest besides.

 

Sometimes the best thing you can do- is do nothing!

 

This strategy has been employed by experienced wilderness survivors such as the northern

 

Native Americans during foul winter weather, arctic explorers, and high mountain expeditions like those on Mount Everest and K2.

 

Even the very squirrels and other animals, natures experienced survival instructors, will hunker down during the worst of conditions.

 

They simply curl up in their dens and go to sleep.

 

During a survival situation of any kind, the ability to sleep warm, dry, and comfortable is very important and can mean the difference between health and the ability to take action during waking hours or possibly not making it out alive.

 

If you have the proper survival gear and knowledge, your outdoor sleep system can get you through the most trying of times with little expenditure of precious energy or exposure to danger.

Survival and Stress

We’ve all commented at one point or another about having a stressful day. But most of us don’t have a clue as to how debilitating stress can be especially in survival situations.

 

To reduce its impact and to increase the chance of survival in the wilderness, it’s important to not only understand stress but to also overcome it.

 

The environment, your physical and mental condition, and the availability of materials all affect the amount of stress you will have to manage.

 

Environment Stress

 

There are three environmental factors that will directly impact you in a survival situation.

 

They are the climate (temperature, moisture, and wind), terrain (mountainous, desert, jungle, arctic), and life forms (plants and animals).

 

At first glance these obstacles may seem insurmountable and history has provided plenty of examples of people perishing as a result of unfavorable environmental conditions.

 

Still, there are other stories of survivors that successfully adapted to the given conditions or travelled to another location that was better equipped to meet their needs so we know it can be done.

 

Understanding how the environment might affect you is the first and necessary step to overcoming the unpredictable hardships of nature.

 

Physical and Psychological Stress

 

Both the physical and psychological stresses of survival will directly affect your outlook of your situation.

 

If you’re not careful, you may lose all hope virtually guaranteeing your death. These stresses may also end up dictating the order in which you meet your needs which is not the ideal way to prioritize.

 

Instead, it is important to make decisions based on logic and not emotion.

 

Physical stresses are brought about by the physical hardships of survival. Overcoming them requires proper preparation.

 

The six Ps provide a good rule for all wilderness travelers: prior proper preparation prevents poor performance.

 

So, what does preparing mean? It involves the following: ensuring that your immunizations are up-to-date, staying well hydrated both before and during any outback adventure, and being physically fit prior to traveling into the wilderness.

 

The amount of time a survivor goes without rescue will have a significant impact upon his will or drive to survive. As time passes, the survivor’s hopes of being found ultimately begin to diminish.

 

With decreased hope comes increased psychological stress.

This sort of stress is much more insidious than other forms and you need to be on the lookout for it.

 

The basic stresses that will affect you, the survivor, psychologically are as follows: pain, hunger and thirst, heat or cold, fatigue, loneliness, and fear.

 

Overcoming Survival Stress

 

The most important key to surviving is the survivor’s will.

The will or drive to survive is not something that can be bought.

 

However, your will is directly affected by the amount of stress associated with a survival situation.

 

Prior preparation, keeping a clear head and thinking logically, prioritizing your needs, and improvising all will help alleviate some of this stress.

 

When a problem arises, remember the acronym STOP:

S: Stop – Clear your thoughts and focus on the problem.

T: Think – Identify practical solutions. Consider each in detail.

O: Organize – After looking at your options, pick one. Develop a step-by-step plan from beginning to end.

P: Proceed with Your Plan – Be flexible and adjust as necessary.

Ground to Air Signals

 

When you’re in distress in the outdoors and you need to call for help, you can use a number of different rescue signal techniques.

 

But if you believe that an airplane, helicopter, or other airborne rescue party may be searching for you, then you can use the five-symbol ground-to-air emergency code to signal a specific message in advance of the aircraft’s landing.

 

Most importantly, the ground-to-air emergency code can help let rescuers know whether anyone in your party is injured, and it can guide them more effectively towards your location.

 

The five ground-to-air emergency code symbols and their meanings are as follows:

 

Require Assistance: V

 

A V-shaped signal communicates that you need assistance, in general, but it doesn’t imply that you or someone in your party is injured.

 

Require Medical Assistance: X

 

Use the letter X to communicate that you or someone in your party needs medical attention.

 

Whereas the V symbol communicates a call for help, the X symbol communicates a more urgent request for assistance.

 

No or Negative: N

 

The N symbol can be used to communicate your negative response to a question that the aircraft or rescue organization has asked.

 

Yes, or Affirmative: Y

 

The Y symbol can be used to communicate your affirmative response to a question that the aircraft or rescue organization has asked.

 

Proceed in this Direction: Arrow, pointing towards the location

 

Place an arrow-shaped symbol with the head, or point, of the arrow indicating the direction of your location.

 

This symbol is a good one to use when rescuers may need additional information about how to reach your location after they have identified another ground-to-air signal, such as a group of X symbols in an open area indicating a need for medical assistance.

 

Place the arrow in a position that will guide rescuers from the open area towards your location.

 

Tips for Using the Air-to-Ground Emergency Code:

 

Signal using the air-to-ground emergency code as you would signal with other methods, such as a smoke rescue fire.

 

Remember these key ideas when arranging signals and communicating with rescue crews:

 

Choose to place signals on the highest, flattest terrain you can find near your location.

 

Choose a signal that will contrast with the underlying terrain.

 

Choose dark-coloured branches, for example, on top of white snow.

 

Go big! Use several rows of rocks or debris to build each part of a signal letter so that it is thick enough and big enough to be seen clearly from above.

 

Be prepared to use a back-up signal, such as a signal mirror, to confirm your location as soon as you see aircraft in the area.

As with other visual signals, signalling in threes communicates and confirms distress.

 

Choose a large, open area as close as possible to your location for the signal location.

 

 

 

 

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