Water Purification

Melting Snow
for Water


Many of us are
familiar with the phrase, “Never drink yellow snow”.
While that’s an easy
truth to remember, the contaminants that we are most concerned about (disease
causing organisms known as pathogens) are not easily detected or clearly
obvious for that matter.
And while you and I
may think that newly fallen snow is pristine & perfectly safe for creating
drinking water, we should always take steps where possible to reduce our risk
of getting sick from consuming contaminated snow.
Here are the two
most common ways to turn that freshly fallen snow into usable drinking water.
Gradually add snow
to a bottle that already has some drinking water in it. As the snow melts to
create more water, add some more snow. Eventually, you’ll have a bottle full of
water which can then be passed through a water purifier or treated with
Traditionally, water
treatment drops & tablets are thought to present less of a threat to your
health than the pathogen.
Most good water
purifiers are designed to address those same pathogenic organisms & remove
them from the water without needing chemicals. If you subscribe to the
best-practice of redundancy, then water filters are your ideal go-to kit as
they will also remove those water treatment chemicals as well.
In an appropriate
container that already has some water in it, add some snow and then melt that
snow by placing it near a heat source such as a stove/fire pit (use fire-safe
container), solar oven, once the water cools, you can drink it.


Unusual Ways of
Water Purification

Here are some cheap
and easy ways for anyone in the developed (or underdeveloped) world to purify
their water. The peels of some of the most widely consumed fruits in the world
are remarkably efficient at absorbing a wide variety of harmful pollutants,
including heavy metals, and they can be transformed into effective water
filters with only minor preparation.


Minced banana peels
could be used repeatedly to purify water contaminated by industrial plants and
farms — up to 11 times — and still be effective.
Banana Peel Applied
to the Solid Phase Extraction of Copper and Lead from River Water:
Pre-concentration of
Metal Ions with a Fruit Waste they also noted the very low cost of banana
peels and the fact there is no need to prepare them chemically for the water
purification procedure.
Runoff from farms,
and industrial wastes can all put heavy metals, such as lead and copper, into
waterways. Heavy metals can have adverse health and environmental effects.
Current methods of
removing heavy metals from water are expensive, and some substances used in the
process are toxic themselves.
Compounds in banana
peels contain atoms of nitrogen, sulphur and organic compounds such as
carboxylic acids. These acids are charged such that their negatively charged
electron pairs are exposed, meaning they can bind with metals in the water that
usually have a positive charge.
An easy, cheap way
for a rural community in the developing world and those bugged out to purify
their water.
Apple and tomato
peels — two of the most widely consumed fruits in the world — are remarkably
efficient at absorbing a wide variety of harmful pollutants, and that they could
be transformed into effective water filters with only minor preparation.
You begin by peeling
your apples and tomatoes and placing them in a rubbing alcohol solution and
letting them soak. Next, remove the peels and let them dry out. Once they’re
thoroughly desiccated, simply place the peels in a container of water and wait.
After a few hours, remove the peels from the water and it’s ready to drink.
The apple and tomato
peels together were reliable absorbents of toxic heavy metal ions, dissolved
organic and inorganic chemicals, various nanoparticles, dyes and pesticides.
Solar disinfection
of water combined with almost any type of citrus is very effective at reducing
dangerous E. coli levels, however limes seem to work best.
A recent study
published by the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine found
that adding limes to water that is being disinfected by the sun speeds up the
disinfection process.
The preliminary
results of this study show solar disinfection of water combined with citrus
could be effective at greatly reducing E. coli levels in just 30 minutes, a
treatment time on par with boiling and other household water treatment methods.
In addition, the 30
millilitres of juice per 2 litres of water amounts to about one-half lime per
bottle, a quantity that will likely not be prohibitively expensive or create an
unpleasant flavour.”
Please note that
these methods do not remove all pathogens from the water, just a wide variety
of pollutants, so you shouldn’t use it as an all-encompassing water purifier.
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Fluoride Is



To all my listeners especially those who have small children and those
that suffer with Fibromyalgia

I wouldn’t have researched this subject if I wasn’t concerned with your health
and safety, and the health and safety of your loved ones.

I know we all get crazy emails trying to scare us about
everything imaginable, and I am always the last one to believe them and the
first one to disprove them as urban legend.


But unfortunately this reality is one that has irrefutable
science behind it and a shocking truth that I have been compelled to share with
everyone I know. The truth revealed here maybe the biggest scientific cover up
of our modern era.Please share this with your friends and family, and spread the word…

What is Fluoride
Let me ask you a few rational questions;Would you brush your teeth with rat poison if it just might have some kind of
beneficial properties as an anti-cavity agent? Yes, I am asking you if you
would put a highly toxic poison that was used as rat killer and as insecticide
in your mouth and brush your teeth with it.

Would make your children brush their teeth with a toxin
slightly less poisonous than arsenic and even more poisonous than lead, even
though everyday they ingested some of this toxic substance that would
accumulate throughout their body and could cause numerous health problems?

What if there was so much poison in their toothpaste that it
would kill them if they ate the whole tube because it tasted like bubble gum;
would you leave it in their bathroom drawer or would you keep it locked up with
the medicines or toxic cleaning agents?If you have been using fluoride toothpaste to brush your teeth, you should have
answered “yes” to all of the above questions.

Before we go any further, let’s look at the definition of Sodium Fluoride and
establish the fact that it is a highly poisonous substance.

Here is the definition of Sodium Fluoride that is used in toothpaste to prevent

sodium fluoride
– noun
a colourless, crystalline, water-soluble, poisonous solid, NaF, used chiefly in the fluoridation of water, as an insecticide, and as a rodenticide.

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2010.

Hmmm, there’s just something insane about using the words “poisonous solid”, “rodenticide”, “insecticide”, and the “fluoridation of water” in
the same definition. Fluorine compounds, or fluorides, are listed by the US
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) as being in the top 20
of 275 toxic substances which pose the most significant threat to human health.

We have all been brushing our teeth with rat poison and one of the most
environmentally damaging toxic waste substances produced by the aluminium and
fertilizer industries in America, Sodium Fluoride.

We’ve also been drinking Fluorosilicic Acid (an inexpensive
liquid by-product of phosphate fertilizer manufacturering process) in our tap
water and cooking with it as well.Go read the warning on the back of your toothpaste tube.
“WARNING: Keep out of reach of children under 6 years of age. If you
accidentally swallow more than used for brushing, seek professional help or
contact a doctor .”

Your toothpaste warning says that if you ingest more than the usual
amount while brushing, call a doctor.

That’s because fluoride is a highly toxic poison and each
tube of toothpaste, even the bubble gum flavoured specifically marketed for
children, contains enough fluoride to kill a child.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/toothpaste.htmlWhen I was a child there wasn’t a poison warning label on my toothpaste tube
letting me know not to swallow it because it was poison. Back then toothpaste
commercials showed a tooth brush just loaded with toothpaste.

Back then no one was telling anyone, “Don’t swallow
your toothpaste”. Fluoride was portrayed as perfectly safe to your health
in commercials and by government publications.
It wasn’t until April 7th, 1997, that the United States FDA
(Food & Drug Administration) required that all fluoride toothpastes sold in
the U.S. carry a poison warning
on the label.In this country we consume highly fluoridated tap water, processed foods and
drinks every day. We consume more than the usual amount we would ingest by
brushing our teeth alone. One of the fastest ways to absorb a medicine is
directly under your tongue and we hold this poison in our mouths 2-3 times a
day when we brush our teeth.

Think about how often your children are swallowing it while brushing their
teeth because it tastes like bubble gum. We’ve been ingesting it for years and
it has been building up in our bodies because fluoride is an accumulative

This toxin is taking its toll on the health and smiles of people of all ages in
the U.S., Britain, Canada, and other modernized countries. Dental Fluorosis is
a mild form of fluoride poisoning that is the most visible and well-recognized
side-effects of ingesting fluoride toothpaste and drinking too much fluoridated

Dental Fluorosis is a discoloration of teeth that ranges
from mild to severe. Whereas dental fluorosis used to impact less than 10% of
children in the 1940s, the latest national survey found that it now affects
over 30% of children.
Fluoridation could
turn out to be one of the top 10 mistakes of the 21st century.


Finding Water
in an Urban Area

If your taps ran
dry, what kind of plans do you have in place? As with everything else in my
prep plans, water is broken down into 3 phases – short term, medium term, and
long term solution.



Short Term –
this is your bottled water. Most people should have a couple of cases of
bottled water laying around somewhere.



When the water goes
stops, the bottled and stockpiled water will go first. It’s convenient, as all
you do is un-screw the top of the bottle and the water is ready to drink. Most
people like to take the easy way out, and bottled water is about as easy as it


Medium Term –
this is your water filters. This may include your bought water filters or some
kind of backpacking, lightweight water filter.
But sooner or later,
the filter is going to reach its lifespan, and that is it.
Long term –
private water well that is safe to drink. This could include water wells on
farms, or rural water wells where people do not get piped water.
So where exactly do
you get water in an urban survival situation?  Don’t panic, stop and
think, local ponds, streams, rivers, lakes, canals and even rain fall offer you
a source of the nectar of life.
For example at the
end of my road is a river and by simply walking 60 yards with some water bottles
to carry the water, bring it back home and run it through my water
There are three
rivers and numerous ponds within 5 miles of me.
Rain water –
once those 55 gallon drums run out of water, they could be positioned under the
down spout of a rain gutter.  But this only works if you live in an area
that gets a lot of rain.
If you do not have
any 55 gallon drums, some 5 gallon buckets should work just as good.  If
nothing else, refill those water bottles that were used when the event first
Waterborne diseases – As sewers fill up and start to back up, people will start doing their
“business” outside.
The problem here, is
when an area receives rain fall, the sewage can be washed off the soil and into
the local rivers, streams, ponds, canals etc. in fact any kind of surface
If water can stand
around the pipe going into a well, there is a chance that contaminated water
can get into the well.  That is why it’s recommended that a cement step be
built around the pipe of a well.
Possible diseases
E. Coli
Legionellosis – Legionnaires disease
Salmonellosis – Salmonella (mostly foodborne)
Typhoid fever
Hepatitis A – food and waterborne
In my opinion, the
ideal situation would be to have a water well with some kind of solar water
pump on it, or at least a hand operated water pump.  In a worse case
situation, having a well and a hand powered pump is better than nothing.
One of the big
differences between urban and rural water plans, would probably be that a lot
of people in rural areas already have some kind of water well in place.
Whether it’s to
water the cows, horses or other livestock, or as their main water source, a lot
of people who live in rural areas have access to some kind of water well.
From there, it’s
just a matter of getting the water out of the well with no electricity.
As usual with
prepping to survive you must firstly plan act and test.


Water for Survival
Your body loses water through normal body
processes (sweating, urinating, defecating and even breathing). During
average daily exertion when the atmospheric temperature is 20 degrees Celsius
(C) (68 degrees Fahrenheit), the average adult loses and therefore requires 2
to 3 litres of water daily. Other factors, such as heat exposure, cold
exposure, intense activity, high altitude, burns, or illness, can cause your
body to lose more water. You must replace this water.
Our body consists of 60% water, 75% of our
brain and lean muscles is water, and 83% of water in our blood. Dehydration
results from inadequate replacement of lost body fluids. It decreases your
efficiency and, if injured, increases your susceptibility to severe shock.
Consider the following results of body fluid loss:
A 2% dehydration, results in a feeling of
A 5% dehydration, results in a feeling of
being hot and tired, and strength and endurance decrease.
A 10% dehydration, results in a feeling of
delirium and blurred vision.
A 20% dehydration, results in death.
The most common signs and symptoms of
dehydration are:
Dark urine with a very strong odour.
Low urine output.
Dark, sunken eyes.
Emotional instability.
Loss of skin elasticity.
Delayed capillary refill in fingernail
Trench line down centre of tongue.
Thirst. Last on the list because you are already
2 per cent dehydrated by the time you crave fluids.
In any situation where food intake is low,
drink 6 to 8 litres of water per day. In an extreme climate, especially an
arid one, the average person can lose 2.5 to 3.5 litres of water per hour. In
this type of climate, you should drink 14 to 30 litres of water per day.
With the loss of water there is also a loss
of electrolytes (body salts). The average diet can usually keep up with these
losses but in an extreme situation or illness, additional sources need to be
provided. A mixture of 0.25 teaspoon of salt to 1 litre of water will provide
a concentration that the body tissues can readily absorb.
Of all the physical problems encountered in
a survival situation, the loss of water is the most preventable. The
following are basic guidelines for the prevention of dehydration:
Always drink water when eating. Water is
used and consumed as a part of the digestion process and can lead to
Acclimatize. The body performs more
efficiently in extreme conditions when acclimatized.
Conserve sweat not water. Limit
sweat-producing activities but drink water.
Ration water. Until you find a suitable
source, ration your water sensibly. A daily intake of 500 cubic centimetre
(0.5 litre) of a sugar-water mixture (2 teaspoons per litre) will suffice to
prevent severe dehydration for at least a week, provided you keep water
losses to a minimum by limiting activity and heat gain or loss.
You can estimate fluid loss by several
means. A standard field dressing holds about 0.25 litre (one-fourth canteen)
of blood. A soaked T-shirt holds 0.5 to 0.75 litres.
You can also use the pulse and breathing
rate to estimate fluid loss. Use the following as a guide:
With a 0.75 litre loss the wrist pulse rate
will be under 100 beats per minute and the breathing rate 12 to 20 breaths
per minute.
With a 0.75 to 1.5 litre loss the pulse
rate will be 100 to 120 beats per minute and 20 to 30 breaths per minute.
With a 1.5 to 2 litre loss the pulse rate
will be 120 to 140 beats per minute and 30 to 40 breaths per minute. Vital
signs above these rates require more advanced care.
Don’t eat (especially dry food) if you
cannot find water, because to digest food your body will need water.
If you’re very thirsty and find water, drink
it slowly, don’t overload your system, and try to drink every 10 minutes
until you don’t feel thirsty anymore.
Ways to Find
Water is one of your most urgent needs in a
survival situation. You can’t live long without it, especially in hot areas
where you lose water rapidly through perspiration. Even in cold areas, you
need a minimum of 2 litres of water each day to maintain efficiency.
More than three-fourths of your body is
composed of fluids. Your body loses fluid as a result of heat, cold, stress,
and exertion. To function effectively, you must replace the fluid your body
loses. So, one of your first goals is to obtain an adequate supply of water.
Water Sources
Almost any environment has water present to
some degree, here are some?
Frigid Areas: Snow and ice can be melted. Warning: Do
not eat snow or ice without melting! Eating snow and ice can reduce body
temperature and will lead to more dehydration. Sea ice that is grey in colour
or opaque is salty. Do not use it without desalting it. Sea ice that is
crystalline with a bluish cast has little salt in it.
For sea water you need to use desalted kit,
do not drink seawater without desalting.
Rain Water: Rain water is not the main source in
survival situation but in case it rains and you’re short of water it would be
of a big help, try to find a wide container, because the width in this case
is more important than the depth especially if it’s going to rain only for a
short time, you may want to occupy the widest surface possible to take
advantage of every drop of rain the wider the better (a kids inflatable
swimming pool would be nice). Also you can spread a big clean sheet of
plastic and make a hole in the middle, place it about 2 feet above the
ground, place a bucket underneath the plastic sheet, exactly underneath the
hole, so that the rain collected from the big plastic would pour rain water
through the hole into the bucket, you may need to empty the bucket to a
bigger container and place it again under the hole. (Try to make the centre
of the plastic form a V so that the rain water will accumulate only in the
centre by placing a clean stone in the centre).
Water at the
: Dig a hole deep enough to
allow water to seep in, obtain rocks, build fire and heat rocks, drop hot
rocks in water, hold cloth over hole to absorb steam, wring water from cloth.
The rocks will make the water evaporate; the cloth will capture the
evaporated water and convert it into water.
Alternate method if a container or bark pot
is available, fill container or pot with seawater, build fire and boil water
to produce steam, hold cloth over container to absorb steam; wring water from
Water in the
: In deserts you can find
water in:
Valleys and low areas
Foot of concave banks of dry river beads
Foot of cliffs or rock outcrops.
First depression behind first sand dune of
dry desert lakes.
Wherever you find damp surface sand
Wherever you find green vegetation
After you spot one of the options above dig
holes deep enough to allow water to seep in.
In a sand dune belt, any available water
will be found beneath the original valley floor at the edge of dunes.
Cacti can contain a good source of water,
once a barrel cactus is found cut off the top and mash or squeeze the pulp.
Caution: do not eat pulp, place pulp in mouth, suck out juice and discard
pulp. Without a machete cutting into a cactus is difficult and takes time
since you must get past the long strong spines and cut through the tough
Stills (Solar Stills): You can use stills
in various areas of the world. They draw moisture from the ground and from
plant material. You need certain materials to build a still, and you need
time to let it collect the water. It takes about 24 hours to get 0.5 to 1
litre of water.
To make a belowground still, you need a
digging tool, a container, a clear plastic sheet, a drinking tube, and a rock
(See image below).
Solar Still
Select a site where you believe the soil
will contain moisture (such as a dry stream bed or a low spot where rainwater
has collected). The soil at this site should be easy to dig, and sunlight
must hit the site most of the day.
To construct the still:
Dig a bowl-shaped hole about 1 meter across
and 60 centimetres deep.
Dig a sump in the centre of the hole. The
sump’s depth and perimeter will depend on the size of the container that you
have to place in it. The bottom of the sump should allow the container to
stand upright.
Anchor the tubing to the container’s bottom
by forming a loose overhand knot in the tubing.
Place the container upright in the sump.
Extend the unanchored end of the tubing up,
over, and beyond the lip of the hole.
Place the plastic sheet over the hole,
covering its edges with soil to hold it in place.
Place a rock in the centre of the plastic
Lower the plastic sheet into the hole until
it is about 40 centimetres below ground level. It now forms an inverted cone
with the rock at its apex. Make sure that the cone’s apex is directly over
your container. Also make sure the plastic cone does not touch the sides of
the hole because the earth will absorb the condensed water.
Put more soil on the edges of the plastic
to hold it securely in place and to prevent the loss of moisture.
Plug the tube when not in use so that the
moisture will not evaporate.You can drink water without disturbing the still
by using the tube as a straw. You may want to use plants in the hole as a
moisture source. If so, dig out additional soil from the sides of the hole to
form a slope on which to place the plants.
Then proceed as above. If polluted water is
your only moisture source, dig a small trough outside the hole about 25
centimetres from the still’s lip the trough about 25 centimetres deep and 8
centimetres wide. Pour the polluted water in the trough.
Be sure you do not spill any polluted water
around the rim of the hole where the plastic sheet touches the soil. The
trough holds the polluted water and the soil filters it as the still draws
it. The water then condenses on the plastic and drains into the container.
This process works extremely well when your
only water source is salt water. Note: This can only be done as a last resort
in absence of other water sources.
Rainwater collected in clean containers or
in plants is usually safe for drinking. However, purify water from lakes,
ponds, swamps, springs, or streams, especially the water near human
settlements or in the tropics.
When possible, purify all water you got
from vegetation or from the ground by using iodine or chlorine, or by
Purify water by:
Using water purification tablets.
Placing 5 drops of 2 per cent tincture of
iodine in a canteen full of clear water. If the canteen is full of cloudy or
cold water, use 10 drops. (Let the canteen of water stand for 30 minutes
before drinking.)
Boiling water for 1 minute at sea level,
adding 1 minute for each additional 300 meters above sea level, or boil for
10 minutes no matter where you are.
By drinking no potable water you may
contract diseases or swallow organisms that can harm you. Examples of such
diseases or organisms are:
Dysentery. Severe, prolonged diarrhoea with
bloody stools, fever, and weakness.
Cholera and typhoid. You may be susceptible
to these diseases regardless of inoculations.
Flukes. Stagnant, polluted
water–especially in tropical areas–often contains blood flukes. If you
swallow flukes, they will bore into the bloodstream, live as parasites, and
cause disease.
Leeches. If you swallow a leech, it can
hook onto the throat passage or inside the nose. It will suck blood, create a
wound, and move to another area. Each bleeding wound may become infected.
Water Filtration
If the water you find is also muddy,
stagnant, and foul smelling, you can clear the water:
By placing it in a container and letting it
stand for 12 hours.
By pouring it through a filtering system.
Note: These procedures only clear the water
and make it more palatable. You will have to purify it.
To make a filtering system, place several
centimetres or layers of filtering material such as sand, crushed rock,
charcoal, or cloth in bamboo, a hollow log, or an article of clothing.
Remove the odour from water by adding
charcoal from your fire. Let the water stand for 45 minutes before drinking
What not to
Alcoholic beverages: dehydrate the body and
cloud judgment.
Urine: contains harmful body wastes and is
2 per cent salt.
Blood: is salty and considered a food,
therefore requires additional body fluids to digest, and may transmit
Seawater: is about 4 per cent salt. It
takes about 2 litres of body fluids to rid the body of waste from 1 litre of
seawater, therefore by drinking seawater you deplete your body’s water
supply, which can cause death.


The Importance of Water
If you’re faced with a survival situation one of the things
you’re going to have to do is to find water.
Your body loses around 2 to 3
litres of water every day through sweating and urination and this can be even
greater if the weather’s hot and/or you’re using a lot of physical energy.
Therefore, in order to prevent dehydration, it’s important
to find water to replace these lost fluids quickly.
Observing Nature
If you’re fortunate, you may be near a lake, river, stream
or pond where you’re only concern will then be purifying the water but if
you’re in arid terrain where there is no immediate evidence that flowing water
is nearby, there are a number of resources that you can still tap into – it’s
just a case of knowing where to look.
Low areas and valleys are natural places into which water
will drain. Therefore, if you’re situated in an elevated area, you need to
descend to have the best chance of finding water.
Look out for rock crevices as you go as rain will often
collect in them. Muddy or damp ground is also a good indicator as are any areas
of noticeably different green vegetation or a group of trees that seem ‘out of place’
with the rest of the landscape.
Have you seen any animals in the area? If not, what about
animal tracks? If you’re able to spot some tracks which all tend to travel in
the same direction, this could be a sign that the animal has headed for a place
to drink.
Flocks of birds gathering in the same place and even a swarm
of insects often means that there is water close by.
Rainwater, Dew and
Even if you’ve followed the observations above and still
haven’t come across water, there are other things you can do to collect it. If
it rains, many people have been able to survive simply by harvesting rainwater.
You can collect it from your tent by lowering the tent and
having some kind of container in which to catch the raindrops which have landed
on it – even a plastic bag will do.
Even if it’s sunny, there will still be dew to collect first
thing in the morning. The easiest way to harvest dew is to get a cloth or an
old T-shirt and simply drag it through the grass until the cloth is soaked with
dew. Then, simply wring it out either directly into your mouth or into a
You can even use condensation as a useful source of
drinkable water. Both trees and plants draw moisture from the ground and the
best way of utilising this is to tie a plastic bag to a branch which is facing
the sun and tie a knot in the bag at the top over the branch. Evaporation from
the leaves will then result in condensation forming in the bag which you can
then use to drink.
Solar Still
Building a solar still harnesses the sun’s energy to provide
water and is still a device that is used by many tribes’ people today.
Basically, they can be built using a sheet of strong plastic, a cup or some
other kind of container and a piece of plastic tubing.
You should set up your still in the lowest, dampest area you
can find then beginning digging a hole until you hit damp soil.
Then, place your cup in the middle of the hole and place one
end of the plastic tubing in the cup. Next you need to cover the hole with the
plastic sheet ensuring that you have access to the other end of the tube
outside the confines of your still and you can use the earth you have dug up to
act as weight on top of the plastic sheet so that no air can escape.
As the soil is heated by the sun, the moisture evaporates
and condenses on the plastic which then drips down to the lowest portion of the
plastic then into your cup.
You can then drink from the cup by sucking on the tube which
means you don’t have to disassemble your still first which can then be used again.
The Importance of
Water Purification
Wherever possible, opt for flowing water as opposed to using
water collected from stagnant pools as it’s less likely to contain as many
impurities. However, it’s important that you purify ALL water that’s been collected.
Even if you come across a stream that looks crystal clear,
you can’t be sure that a dead animal isn’t lying further upstream, so you
should purify all water that you take from the environment.
However, don’t collect water that has scum floating on it or
where it’s surrounded by dead vegetation. Clear, fast flowing water should
always be your chosen option where possible and if the water bubbles or seems
to be a strange colour or gives off an unpleasant odour, only use it as a last
Remember that, in a survival situation, water takes on far
more importance than food and until you’re sure you have enough water resources
available, you should try to conserve as much energy as you can.
So, when out searching for water, try to do it early in the
morning or late in the day when it will be cooler and you’re less likely to
lose as much fluid through perspiring.
Rain Water
Whether you are planning ahead for future droughts or just
want to lower your water bill, saving rainwater makes sense.
Rainwater is pure
compared to ground water because it does not contain the chemicals or minerals
typically found in soil. Rain-collection systems vary in expense. Choose a
system that meets your needs without exceeding your budget.
Collecting free rain water is also a preppers right and he
would be silly to ignore it.
The easiest way to collect rainwater is to leave an open
bucket or container outside. Covering the container on dry days will prevent
evaporation and insect contamination.
To collect more rainwater, connect a
container to your gutter’s downspout.
The large area of your roof will collect the rain. Your
home’s gutters will funnel the water into the container. A simple system such
as this might supply enough water for a typical home’s outdoor watering needs.
More advanced systems collect more water, but are more
expensive. Depending on your situation, you might need to invest in a quality
pump to remove the water from your container.
For example, if your storage
container is lower than the area where you plan to use the water, a pump will
allow you to transport the water uphill.
You might need to filter the rainwater you collect. Simple
filtration involves keeping out large debris and contaminants, such as leaves
and insects. For example, if you collect water via your home’s gutters, install
wire-mesh gutter screens to block leaves and sticks.
Clear the debris regularly to ensure proper water flow. If
you plan to drink the rainwater you collect, you must filter it first.
Use a
quality filtration system that removes dangerous contaminants, such as
bacteria, viruses and parasites, especially if you store the rainwater for long
Retail hardware stores sell plastic containers suitable for
storing water. During winter months, don’t allow the barrels to fill past the
3/4 mark. This leaves the water room to expand if it freezes.
Domestic rainwater collection offers certain economic and
environmental benefits: The water collected is free to use and saves on energy
that might otherwise be used to treat and pump water from a municipal source.
Installation of a rainwater collection system requires some initial expense,
the extent of which depends in part on how you plan to use the water.
Rooftops are the primary source of rainwater collection, as
the process involved is fairly straightforward and inexpensive. As the
rainwater lands on the top of a building, it drips into gutters that are
affixed to the edges of the roof.
The water is then funnelled through a downspout and into a
large barrel fitted with a screen on top in order to prevent debris from
entering. As an added benefit, the screen also prevents mosquitoes from
breeding in the water.
The barrels used to hold rainwater are also known as
cisterns and generally hold between 200 and 1,000 gallons of water. Some
collection systems use a single barrel, while others use two or more barrels
joined together by hose and connected to a single spigot.
The ideal location for a cistern is on solid, level ground
with enough distance from the home to accommodate the discharge of overflow
There are a number of ways to use rainwater, with gardening
being one of the more common. In some areas, collected water is used directly
in irrigation. Additionally, homeowners can design gardens to take advantage of
runoff by situating them in a depressed area with a soil that drains well,
alternative uses of rainwater include car washing, laundry and showering.
Rainwater is naturally low in mineral content, which means
that no additional “softening” is generally required. In many cases,
collected water is used as is; however, indoor use demands special treatment in
order to eliminate risks posed by contaminants.
For toilet flushing and laundering purposes, simple pressure
filters may be sufficient. Where rainwater is to be used for cooking or
drinking, additional treatment is often necessary, as drinking untreated
rainwater brings the risk of contracting diseases such as listeria.
The type of roofing material used can affect the quality of
the rainwater collected. For example, wood shingles are sometimes treated with
herbicides in order to prevent rot and mould, which may render collected water
unsuitable for gardening and drinking.
Similarly, roofs containing copper or zinc materials may
also leach contaminants into the water.



Another method to reduce water is using greywater.
The term greywater is used to describe all household
wastewater, excluding toilet waste. It includes water collected from the
shower, bath, basin, laundry tub, washing machine and dishwasher.
Greywater is usually sent directly to sewer, however many
people now divert their greywater to a greywater reuse system, or collect it
for reusing on the garden.
Untreated greywater should not be stored for more
than 24 hours.



The Lack of Water
With sweat pouring down your face, your swollen tongue
sticking to the roof of your mouth and a regular sledgehammer-thump in your
head you stagger towards the dark water, fall to your knees and gulp mouthfuls
of the wonderfully cool liquid.
Melodramatic maybe, and certainly not something common in
the British hills, but I’ve felt like that on a few occasions when I’ve
neglected to drink enough and cursed not diverting to a nearby water source
because, at the time, it seemed too far. And I’ve experienced this in the
Yorkshire dales as well as in Corfu.
While consuming enough liquid in hot, dry weather might seem
obvious drinking regularly is important even in damp, humid weather.
Dehydration is unlikely to kill anyone in Britain, except perhaps in a heat
wave, but well before it endangers your health dehydration can dull your mind,
spoiling your enjoyment making it hard to think straight.
Not a good idea if there’s any difficult navigation to do.
The best way to avoid becoming dehydrated is to drink often whether you feel
thirsty or not. A good indicator is the colour and amount of your urine. It
should be clear and copious. The yellower it is, the more you need to drink.
How much liquid you need depends in part on how hot and dry
the weather is your energy output and, for backpackers, the type of food
In cool, damp conditions I can get by with little to drink
during the day, though I don’t recommend doing this.
However I have also drunk
and needed – a litre an hour on very hot days in shade less places. In camp at
least four litres are needed for drinks and to rehydrate dried food. That
doesn’t include water for pot or personal washing either.
On day walks most people of course carry water or other
drinks with them. In case this isn’t enough it’s still advisable to know where
water sources are on your route. In the hills this usually requires little
thought, as there are plenty of streams and pools in most areas. However rocky
ridges can be dry for long distances.
There is of course the question of whether water is safe to
drink. Clarity is not necessarily an indication of purity as we know. However,
water in the hills, away from habitations, farmland and grazing stock, is
generally okay. In lowland areas I’d avoid drinking from streams and pools.
There’s too much likelihood of them containing industrial, agricultural or
domestic waste. Finding water from a tap or buying drinks isn’t a problem in
most places of course. Water can be filtered and purified of course
Water containers used to be simple items. There were small
rigid bottles for use while walking and large compressible bags for use in
Now, in addition to these, we have small soft containers
that take minimal room in the pack when empty and hydration systems with long
tubes, on which we can suck while we walk ensuring an effortless drink whenever
we want.
There are also water containers in the form of bum bags and even small
rucksacks for times when water is all that has to be carried.
However even on a day walk a water container is needed. When
little water needs to be carried, half litre bottles are adequate, but I prefer
the litre size.
Empty soft drinks or mineral water bottles can be used but
these don’t usually last very long and often have lids that leak after not much
use. For regular use higher quality bottles are better as they are very durable
and shouldn’t spring leaks.
Outdoor stores stock many different sorts of water
containers, some of which aren’t actually very good. In particular the lids
often leak. Before buying an unfamiliar brand I’d fill it with water and shake
it to see what happens.
Bottles with push-pull spouts seem particularly prone
to leakage. Even a slight leak can result in a lot of liquid escaping into your
rucksack over a period of several hours, so a bottle with a properly sealed top
is well worth having.
There are also many large collapsible, roll-up or foldaway
containers for use in camp. Again, many have a tendency to leak, though this
isn’t that important if you’re not going to carry water in them in the pack.
more significance is the weight and bulk. Some don’t actually compress that
much and are made from thick heavy material.
To save weight some backpackers don’t bother carrying an
extra water container for camp use. However, if you make do in camp with a
water bottle plus your cook pots, you will spend a lot of time fetching water –
fine in sunny weather but not so nice when it’s wet and stormy.
At the same
time constant trips to fetch water can lead to path scars being created.
Collecting all the water needed for camp at one time is both convenient and has
less impact on the area.

Treating Water

I want to hammer home to you the importance of always,
always, always (did I say “always”?) treating any water before you use it for
anything you will ingest into your body.
In short, before you use water for any
purpose that ends up in your body including drinking water, oral hygiene such
as rinsing your mouth or brushing your teeth, cleaning of vegetables and other
foods cleaning of cooking and eating utensils or even showering.
The water must
first be de-contaminated so that all water borne pathogens are destroyed or
rendered inert. Otherwise you may become very sick indeed.
Your best chance of survival and staying healthy depends
upon proper treatment of ALL sources of water.
One of the most basic concepts
you must completely understand in order to stay healthy in wilderness survival
situations is that all sources of water are suspect.
Urban dwellers that we tend to be, we are usually accustomed
to simply turning on the tap and drinking the water that comes from it.
It is important to note that tap water usually comes from
protected sources and has been treated
to destroy disease causing organisms.
This water is also frequently
tested in order to insure it meets the required
standards. In more rural areas tap water often comes from wells and
springs where natural processes have purified the water.
Because we usually obtain our water so easily from the tap,
the mind-set to always consider water from untested sources as contaminated can
be difficult to fully accept.
Old habits die hard and many people will be tempted to
ignore my advice and drink any outdoor water source that appears to be fresh
and clean.
But I want you to drop any preconceived notion you may have on this
subject and trust this information completely when it comes to treating your
It could very well save your life.
Too many times to count people have told me that a certain
stream or lake is safe to drink because it is clear, cold, and natural.
I have
some important information that could very well prevent you from becoming very
That crystal clear mountain stream may seem clean enough to
the eye, but invisible microorganisms are thriving in its waters by the
Most of the tiny living things in water are harmless to
humans, but all too often there are types that can make you very sick should
you ingest them.
Many disease organisms contaminate water sources due to
improper disposal of human wastes including faeces. Another common natural
source of water contamination comes from the local wildlife that often
defecates in or near the water.
Birds and mammals that live in or near water think nothing
of releasing their bodily wastes into it.
But worse, many ignorant humans will
improperly dispose of urine, faeces, and kitchen wastes close to communal water
supplies. No matter how remote you feel you are, I guarantee someone has been
there before you.
They may be swimming, washing up, or even have deposited a
steaming pile of faeces just upstream minutes before you filled your water
Humans are veritable poop machines and wherever they have
been you can be assured there is plenty of faeces laying about. Historically,
wastes and human faecal contamination of water supplies has resulted in large
epidemics of cholera and other diseases that have ended the lives of millions.
Do not let the actions of dumb people take you down: treat all water before you
ingest it.
Water can contain a range of nasty organisms you would do
well to avoid.
These include bacteria such as
Escherichiacoli (E. Coli)
Protozoa, which also often come from human an animal faeces:
Microsporidia including
Toxoplasma gondii
And lets not forget helminth zoonoses such as:
So much for crystal clear mountain streams being safe to
drink from Eh! Buy a Purificup at www.purificup.co.uk


Water Purification

Now that I have convinced you to consider
all sources of water as contaminated until treated, I would like to
suggest the best way to make water safe to drink. Once again I am sure
to be stirring up a hornet’s nest of dissent on this subject but I stand
by what I write as proven beyond doubt. Try to release any preconceived
notions you may have as you read what follows.

miracle of modern advertising would have you believe that the portable
water filters on the market today will remove nearly all pathogens and
disease causing organisms from water. Nothing could be further from the

The fact is, studies have conclusively shown water
filters vary a great deal in the types and amount of organisms they are
able to filter. And that is when the water filters are functioning
properly and users correctly operate and maintain them. A tall order
indeed, especially in the field during adverse conditions.

you drink water from a filter that is removing only 85% of water borne
disease organisms? Chances are the water filter you use isn’t even doing
that well.

Various chemicals used to treat water also lack the ability to destroy 100% of disease causing organisms in water.

manufacturers of chemicals and water filters don’t want you to know
what the best way to make water safe to drink really is. That’s because
it’s simple,inexpensive to operate, and they cannot sell it.

fact is, the best way to make water safe for consumption will destroy
or render inert 100% of disease causing organisms. What’s more, this
process is readily available and nearly fool proof. It has been
successfully used for centuries and remains hands down the best method
of all: boiling.
The age old question has always been “how Long Does the Water Need to Boil”?

here is my answer, water does do not even have to reach the boiling
point (about 212° F or 100° C at sea level) to be rendered safe to
drink; Once the water temperature reaches 185° F (85° C) nearly all
disease causing organisms have been destroyed.
And the only
reason you typically get water up to the boiling point is you probably
do not have a “thermometer” handy to measure the water temperature and I
would suggest that boiling is “proof positive” the water is hot enough
to make it safe to drink.

You can also throw out the myth
that you must boil water longer at higher elevations. The boiling point
of water even on Mount Everest is still high enough to destroy all
disease causing organisms even before the water has started to boil.

So to finish you must  consider water from any source as contaminated with disease causing organisms.
By far the best way to treat water is by boiling it.
only have to bring the water to a boil. Don’t waste fuel; there is no
need to boil water for 10-minutes, 5-minutes, or even 1-minute. Once it
is boiling all disease causing organisms have been destroyed or rendered
inert some time earlier.

9 Responses to Water Purification

  1. Thanks for such an informative content of Water Filtration UK

  2. Tom Linden says:

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  4. Tom Linden says:

    Hi aquasafesolutions,
    Thank you for reading my blog and for listening to my show I appreciate your support and your comments.

    I will start posting more, I have been to lazy lol, but being honest I do have a lot on.

    Please keep reading and as they say please "Watch this space"

  5. Hi Tom Linden,

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  6. john carter says:

    Great post! I am sure this is going to aware a lot of people about the threat of water-borne diseases and the importance of water purifiers. portable water filter bottle

  7. Tom says:

    Thank you John, of course you are right and thank you for your comments.
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  9. Tom says:

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