familiar with the phrase, “Never drink yellow snow”.
truth to remember, the contaminants that we are most concerned about (disease
causing organisms known as pathogens) are not easily detected or clearly
obvious for that matter.
may think that newly fallen snow is pristine & perfectly safe for creating
drinking water, we should always take steps where possible to reduce our risk
of getting sick from consuming contaminated snow.
most common ways to turn that freshly fallen snow into usable drinking water.
to a bottle that already has some drinking water in it. As the snow melts to
create more water, add some more snow. Eventually, you’ll have a bottle full of
water which can then be passed through a water purifier or treated with
treatment drops & tablets are thought to present less of a threat to your
health than the pathogen.
purifiers are designed to address those same pathogenic organisms & remove
them from the water without needing chemicals. If you subscribe to the
best-practice of redundancy, then water filters are your ideal go-to kit as
they will also remove those water treatment chemicals as well.
container that already has some water in it, add some snow and then melt that
snow by placing it near a heat source such as a stove/fire pit (use fire-safe
container), solar oven, once the water cools, you can drink it.
Unusual Ways of
and easy ways for anyone in the developed (or underdeveloped) world to purify
their water. The peels of some of the most widely consumed fruits in the world
are remarkably efficient at absorbing a wide variety of harmful pollutants,
including heavy metals, and they can be transformed into effective water
filters with only minor preparation.
could be used repeatedly to purify water contaminated by industrial plants and
farms — up to 11 times — and still be effective.
to the Solid Phase Extraction of Copper and Lead from River Water:
Metal Ions with a Fruit Waste they also noted the very low cost of banana
peels and the fact there is no need to prepare them chemically for the water
and industrial wastes can all put heavy metals, such as lead and copper, into
waterways. Heavy metals can have adverse health and environmental effects.
removing heavy metals from water are expensive, and some substances used in the
process are toxic themselves.
peels contain atoms of nitrogen, sulphur and organic compounds such as
carboxylic acids. These acids are charged such that their negatively charged
electron pairs are exposed, meaning they can bind with metals in the water that
usually have a positive charge.
for a rural community in the developing world and those bugged out to purify
peels — two of the most widely consumed fruits in the world — are remarkably
efficient at absorbing a wide variety of harmful pollutants, and that they could
be transformed into effective water filters with only minor preparation.
your apples and tomatoes and placing them in a rubbing alcohol solution and
letting them soak. Next, remove the peels and let them dry out. Once they’re
thoroughly desiccated, simply place the peels in a container of water and wait.
After a few hours, remove the peels from the water and it’s ready to drink.
peels together were reliable absorbents of toxic heavy metal ions, dissolved
organic and inorganic chemicals, various nanoparticles, dyes and pesticides.
of water combined with almost any type of citrus is very effective at reducing
dangerous E. coli levels, however limes seem to work best.
published by the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine found
that adding limes to water that is being disinfected by the sun speeds up the
results of this study show solar disinfection of water combined with citrus
could be effective at greatly reducing E. coli levels in just 30 minutes, a
treatment time on par with boiling and other household water treatment methods.
millilitres of juice per 2 litres of water amounts to about one-half lime per
bottle, a quantity that will likely not be prohibitively expensive or create an
these methods do not remove all pathogens from the water, just a wide variety
of pollutants, so you shouldn’t use it as an all-encompassing water purifier.
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that suffer with Fibromyalgia
I wouldn’t have researched this subject if I wasn’t concerned with your health
and safety, and the health and safety of your loved ones.
everything imaginable, and I am always the last one to believe them and the
first one to disprove them as urban legend.
science behind it and a shocking truth that I have been compelled to share with
everyone I know. The truth revealed here maybe the biggest scientific cover up
of our modern era.Please share this with your friends and family, and spread the word…
beneficial properties as an anti-cavity agent? Yes, I am asking you if you
would put a highly toxic poison that was used as rat killer and as insecticide
in your mouth and brush your teeth with it.
slightly less poisonous than arsenic and even more poisonous than lead, even
though everyday they ingested some of this toxic substance that would
accumulate throughout their body and could cause numerous health problems?
would kill them if they ate the whole tube because it tasted like bubble gum;
would you leave it in their bathroom drawer or would you keep it locked up with
the medicines or toxic cleaning agents?If you have been using fluoride toothpaste to brush your teeth, you should have
answered “yes” to all of the above questions.
Before we go any further, let’s look at the definition of Sodium Fluoride and
establish the fact that it is a highly poisonous substance.
Here is the definition of Sodium Fluoride that is used in toothpaste to prevent
a colourless, crystalline, water-soluble, poisonous solid, NaF, used chiefly in the fluoridation of water, as an insecticide, and as a rodenticide.
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2010.
Hmmm, there’s just something insane about using the words “poisonous solid”, “rodenticide”, “insecticide”, and the “fluoridation of water” in
the same definition. Fluorine compounds, or fluorides, are listed by the US
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) as being in the top 20
of 275 toxic substances which pose the most significant threat to human health.
We have all been brushing our teeth with rat poison and one of the most
environmentally damaging toxic waste substances produced by the aluminium and
fertilizer industries in America, Sodium Fluoride.
liquid by-product of phosphate fertilizer manufacturering process) in our tap
water and cooking with it as well.Go read the warning on the back of your toothpaste tube.
“WARNING: Keep out of reach of children under 6 years of age. If you
accidentally swallow more than used for brushing, seek professional help or
contact a doctor .”
Your toothpaste warning says that if you ingest more than the usual
amount while brushing, call a doctor.
tube of toothpaste, even the bubble gum flavoured specifically marketed for
children, contains enough fluoride to kill a child.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/toothpaste.htmlWhen I was a child there wasn’t a poison warning label on my toothpaste tube
letting me know not to swallow it because it was poison. Back then toothpaste
commercials showed a tooth brush just loaded with toothpaste.
your toothpaste”. Fluoride was portrayed as perfectly safe to your health
in commercials and by government publications.
(Food & Drug Administration) required that all fluoride toothpastes sold in
the U.S. carry a poison warning
on the label.In this country we consume highly fluoridated tap water, processed foods and
drinks every day. We consume more than the usual amount we would ingest by
brushing our teeth alone. One of the fastest ways to absorb a medicine is
directly under your tongue and we hold this poison in our mouths 2-3 times a
day when we brush our teeth.
Think about how often your children are swallowing it while brushing their
teeth because it tastes like bubble gum. We’ve been ingesting it for years and
it has been building up in our bodies because fluoride is an accumulative
This toxin is taking its toll on the health and smiles of people of all ages in
the U.S., Britain, Canada, and other modernized countries. Dental Fluorosis is
a mild form of fluoride poisoning that is the most visible and well-recognized
side-effects of ingesting fluoride toothpaste and drinking too much fluoridated
from mild to severe. Whereas dental fluorosis used to impact less than 10% of
children in the 1940s, the latest national survey found that it now affects
over 30% of children.
turn out to be one of the top 10 mistakes of the 21st century.
in an Urban Area
dry, what kind of plans do you have in place? As with everything else in my
prep plans, water is broken down into 3 phases – short term, medium term, and
long term solution.
this is your bottled water. Most people should have a couple of cases of
bottled water laying around somewhere.
stops, the bottled and stockpiled water will go first. It’s convenient, as all
you do is un-screw the top of the bottle and the water is ready to drink. Most
people like to take the easy way out, and bottled water is about as easy as it
this is your water filters. This may include your bought water filters or some
kind of backpacking, lightweight water filter.
the filter is going to reach its lifespan, and that is it.
private water well that is safe to drink. This could include water wells on
farms, or rural water wells where people do not get piped water.
you get water in an urban survival situation? Don’t panic, stop and
think, local ponds, streams, rivers, lakes, canals and even rain fall offer you
a source of the nectar of life.
end of my road is a river and by simply walking 60 yards with some water bottles
to carry the water, bring it back home and run it through my water
rivers and numerous ponds within 5 miles of me.
once those 55 gallon drums run out of water, they could be positioned under the
down spout of a rain gutter. But this only works if you live in an area
that gets a lot of rain.
any 55 gallon drums, some 5 gallon buckets should work just as good. If
nothing else, refill those water bottles that were used when the event first
when an area receives rain fall, the sewage can be washed off the soil and into
the local rivers, streams, ponds, canals etc. in fact any kind of surface
around the pipe going into a well, there is a chance that contaminated water
can get into the well. That is why it’s recommended that a cement step be
built around the pipe of a well.
Legionellosis – Legionnaires disease
Salmonellosis – Salmonella (mostly foodborne)
Hepatitis A – food and waterborne
ideal situation would be to have a water well with some kind of solar water
pump on it, or at least a hand operated water pump. In a worse case
situation, having a well and a hand powered pump is better than nothing.
differences between urban and rural water plans, would probably be that a lot
of people in rural areas already have some kind of water well in place.
water the cows, horses or other livestock, or as their main water source, a lot
of people who live in rural areas have access to some kind of water well.
just a matter of getting the water out of the well with no electricity.
prepping to survive you must firstly plan act and test.
processes (sweating, urinating, defecating and even breathing). During
average daily exertion when the atmospheric temperature is 20 degrees Celsius
(C) (68 degrees Fahrenheit), the average adult loses and therefore requires 2
to 3 litres of water daily. Other factors, such as heat exposure, cold
exposure, intense activity, high altitude, burns, or illness, can cause your
body to lose more water. You must replace this water.
brain and lean muscles is water, and 83% of water in our blood. Dehydration
results from inadequate replacement of lost body fluids. It decreases your
efficiency and, if injured, increases your susceptibility to severe shock.
Consider the following results of body fluid loss:
being hot and tired, and strength and endurance decrease.
delirium and blurred vision.
2 per cent dehydrated by the time you crave fluids.
drink 6 to 8 litres of water per day. In an extreme climate, especially an
arid one, the average person can lose 2.5 to 3.5 litres of water per hour. In
this type of climate, you should drink 14 to 30 litres of water per day.
of electrolytes (body salts). The average diet can usually keep up with these
losses but in an extreme situation or illness, additional sources need to be
provided. A mixture of 0.25 teaspoon of salt to 1 litre of water will provide
a concentration that the body tissues can readily absorb.
a survival situation, the loss of water is the most preventable. The
following are basic guidelines for the prevention of dehydration:
used and consumed as a part of the digestion process and can lead to
efficiently in extreme conditions when acclimatized.
sweat-producing activities but drink water.
source, ration your water sensibly. A daily intake of 500 cubic centimetre
(0.5 litre) of a sugar-water mixture (2 teaspoons per litre) will suffice to
prevent severe dehydration for at least a week, provided you keep water
losses to a minimum by limiting activity and heat gain or loss.
means. A standard field dressing holds about 0.25 litre (one-fourth canteen)
of blood. A soaked T-shirt holds 0.5 to 0.75 litres.
rate to estimate fluid loss. Use the following as a guide:
will be under 100 beats per minute and the breathing rate 12 to 20 breaths
rate will be 100 to 120 beats per minute and 20 to 30 breaths per minute.
will be 120 to 140 beats per minute and 30 to 40 breaths per minute. Vital
signs above these rates require more advanced care.
cannot find water, because to digest food your body will need water.
it slowly, don’t overload your system, and try to drink every 10 minutes
until you don’t feel thirsty anymore.
survival situation. You can’t live long without it, especially in hot areas
where you lose water rapidly through perspiration. Even in cold areas, you
need a minimum of 2 litres of water each day to maintain efficiency.
composed of fluids. Your body loses fluid as a result of heat, cold, stress,
and exertion. To function effectively, you must replace the fluid your body
loses. So, one of your first goals is to obtain an adequate supply of water.
some degree, here are some?
not eat snow or ice without melting! Eating snow and ice can reduce body
temperature and will lead to more dehydration. Sea ice that is grey in colour
or opaque is salty. Do not use it without desalting it. Sea ice that is
crystalline with a bluish cast has little salt in it.
do not drink seawater without desalting.
survival situation but in case it rains and you’re short of water it would be
of a big help, try to find a wide container, because the width in this case
is more important than the depth especially if it’s going to rain only for a
short time, you may want to occupy the widest surface possible to take
advantage of every drop of rain the wider the better (a kids inflatable
swimming pool would be nice). Also you can spread a big clean sheet of
plastic and make a hole in the middle, place it about 2 feet above the
ground, place a bucket underneath the plastic sheet, exactly underneath the
hole, so that the rain collected from the big plastic would pour rain water
through the hole into the bucket, you may need to empty the bucket to a
bigger container and place it again under the hole. (Try to make the centre
of the plastic form a V so that the rain water will accumulate only in the
centre by placing a clean stone in the centre).
Beach: Dig a hole deep enough to
allow water to seep in, obtain rocks, build fire and heat rocks, drop hot
rocks in water, hold cloth over hole to absorb steam, wring water from cloth.
The rocks will make the water evaporate; the cloth will capture the
evaporated water and convert it into water.
is available, fill container or pot with seawater, build fire and boil water
to produce steam, hold cloth over container to absorb steam; wring water from
Desert: In deserts you can find
dry desert lakes.
holes deep enough to allow water to seep in.
will be found beneath the original valley floor at the edge of dunes.
once a barrel cactus is found cut off the top and mash or squeeze the pulp.
Caution: do not eat pulp, place pulp in mouth, suck out juice and discard
pulp. Without a machete cutting into a cactus is difficult and takes time
since you must get past the long strong spines and cut through the tough
in various areas of the world. They draw moisture from the ground and from
plant material. You need certain materials to build a still, and you need
time to let it collect the water. It takes about 24 hours to get 0.5 to 1
litre of water.
digging tool, a container, a clear plastic sheet, a drinking tube, and a rock
(See image below).
will contain moisture (such as a dry stream bed or a low spot where rainwater
has collected). The soil at this site should be easy to dig, and sunlight
must hit the site most of the day.
and 60 centimetres deep.
sump’s depth and perimeter will depend on the size of the container that you
have to place in it. The bottom of the sump should allow the container to
by forming a loose overhand knot in the tubing.
over, and beyond the lip of the hole.
covering its edges with soil to hold it in place.
it is about 40 centimetres below ground level. It now forms an inverted cone
with the rock at its apex. Make sure that the cone’s apex is directly over
your container. Also make sure the plastic cone does not touch the sides of
the hole because the earth will absorb the condensed water.
to hold it securely in place and to prevent the loss of moisture.
moisture will not evaporate.You can drink water without disturbing the still
by using the tube as a straw. You may want to use plants in the hole as a
moisture source. If so, dig out additional soil from the sides of the hole to
form a slope on which to place the plants.
your only moisture source, dig a small trough outside the hole about 25
centimetres from the still’s lip the trough about 25 centimetres deep and 8
centimetres wide. Pour the polluted water in the trough.
around the rim of the hole where the plastic sheet touches the soil. The
trough holds the polluted water and the soil filters it as the still draws
it. The water then condenses on the plastic and drains into the container.
only water source is salt water. Note: This can only be done as a last resort
in absence of other water sources.
in plants is usually safe for drinking. However, purify water from lakes,
ponds, swamps, springs, or streams, especially the water near human
settlements or in the tropics.
from vegetation or from the ground by using iodine or chlorine, or by
iodine in a canteen full of clear water. If the canteen is full of cloudy or
cold water, use 10 drops. (Let the canteen of water stand for 30 minutes
adding 1 minute for each additional 300 meters above sea level, or boil for
10 minutes no matter where you are.
contract diseases or swallow organisms that can harm you. Examples of such
diseases or organisms are:
bloody stools, fever, and weakness.
to these diseases regardless of inoculations.
water–especially in tropical areas–often contains blood flukes. If you
swallow flukes, they will bore into the bloodstream, live as parasites, and
hook onto the throat passage or inside the nose. It will suck blood, create a
wound, and move to another area. Each bleeding wound may become infected.
stagnant, and foul smelling, you can clear the water:
stand for 12 hours.
and make it more palatable. You will have to purify it.
centimetres or layers of filtering material such as sand, crushed rock,
charcoal, or cloth in bamboo, a hollow log, or an article of clothing.
charcoal from your fire. Let the water stand for 45 minutes before drinking
2 per cent salt.
therefore requires additional body fluids to digest, and may transmit
takes about 2 litres of body fluids to rid the body of waste from 1 litre of
seawater, therefore by drinking seawater you deplete your body’s water
supply, which can cause death.
you’re going to have to do is to find water.
litres of water every day through sweating and urination and this can be even
greater if the weather’s hot and/or you’re using a lot of physical energy.
to find water to replace these lost fluids quickly.
or pond where you’re only concern will then be purifying the water but if
you’re in arid terrain where there is no immediate evidence that flowing water
is nearby, there are a number of resources that you can still tap into – it’s
just a case of knowing where to look.
will drain. Therefore, if you’re situated in an elevated area, you need to
descend to have the best chance of finding water.
collect in them. Muddy or damp ground is also a good indicator as are any areas
of noticeably different green vegetation or a group of trees that seem ‘out of place’
with the rest of the landscape.
animal tracks? If you’re able to spot some tracks which all tend to travel in
the same direction, this could be a sign that the animal has headed for a place
of insects often means that there is water close by.
haven’t come across water, there are other things you can do to collect it. If
it rains, many people have been able to survive simply by harvesting rainwater.
having some kind of container in which to catch the raindrops which have landed
on it – even a plastic bag will do.
thing in the morning. The easiest way to harvest dew is to get a cloth or an
old T-shirt and simply drag it through the grass until the cloth is soaked with
dew. Then, simply wring it out either directly into your mouth or into a
drinkable water. Both trees and plants draw moisture from the ground and the
best way of utilising this is to tie a plastic bag to a branch which is facing
the sun and tie a knot in the bag at the top over the branch. Evaporation from
the leaves will then result in condensation forming in the bag which you can
then use to drink.
water and is still a device that is used by many tribes’ people today.
Basically, they can be built using a sheet of strong plastic, a cup or some
other kind of container and a piece of plastic tubing.
can find then beginning digging a hole until you hit damp soil.
end of the plastic tubing in the cup. Next you need to cover the hole with the
plastic sheet ensuring that you have access to the other end of the tube
outside the confines of your still and you can use the earth you have dug up to
act as weight on top of the plastic sheet so that no air can escape.
and condenses on the plastic which then drips down to the lowest portion of the
plastic then into your cup.
means you don’t have to disassemble your still first which can then be used again.
water collected from stagnant pools as it’s less likely to contain as many
impurities. However, it’s important that you purify ALL water that’s been collected.
you can’t be sure that a dead animal isn’t lying further upstream, so you
should purify all water that you take from the environment.
where it’s surrounded by dead vegetation. Clear, fast flowing water should
always be your chosen option where possible and if the water bubbles or seems
to be a strange colour or gives off an unpleasant odour, only use it as a last
more importance than food and until you’re sure you have enough water resources
available, you should try to conserve as much energy as you can.
morning or late in the day when it will be cooler and you’re less likely to
lose as much fluid through perspiring.
want to lower your water bill, saving rainwater makes sense.
compared to ground water because it does not contain the chemicals or minerals
typically found in soil. Rain-collection systems vary in expense. Choose a
system that meets your needs without exceeding your budget.
would be silly to ignore it.
bucket or container outside. Covering the container on dry days will prevent
evaporation and insect contamination.
container to your gutter’s downspout.
home’s gutters will funnel the water into the container. A simple system such
as this might supply enough water for a typical home’s outdoor watering needs.
expensive. Depending on your situation, you might need to invest in a quality
pump to remove the water from your container.
container is lower than the area where you plan to use the water, a pump will
allow you to transport the water uphill.
filtration involves keeping out large debris and contaminants, such as leaves
and insects. For example, if you collect water via your home’s gutters, install
wire-mesh gutter screens to block leaves and sticks.
you plan to drink the rainwater you collect, you must filter it first.
quality filtration system that removes dangerous contaminants, such as
bacteria, viruses and parasites, especially if you store the rainwater for long
storing water. During winter months, don’t allow the barrels to fill past the
3/4 mark. This leaves the water room to expand if it freezes.
environmental benefits: The water collected is free to use and saves on energy
that might otherwise be used to treat and pump water from a municipal source.
the extent of which depends in part on how you plan to use the water.
the process involved is fairly straightforward and inexpensive. As the
rainwater lands on the top of a building, it drips into gutters that are
affixed to the edges of the roof.
large barrel fitted with a screen on top in order to prevent debris from
entering. As an added benefit, the screen also prevents mosquitoes from
breeding in the water.
cisterns and generally hold between 200 and 1,000 gallons of water. Some
collection systems use a single barrel, while others use two or more barrels
joined together by hose and connected to a single spigot.
with enough distance from the home to accommodate the discharge of overflow
being one of the more common. In some areas, collected water is used directly
in irrigation. Additionally, homeowners can design gardens to take advantage of
runoff by situating them in a depressed area with a soil that drains well,
alternative uses of rainwater include car washing, laundry and showering.
that no additional “softening” is generally required. In many cases,
collected water is used as is; however, indoor use demands special treatment in
order to eliminate risks posed by contaminants.
filters may be sufficient. Where rainwater is to be used for cooking or
drinking, additional treatment is often necessary, as drinking untreated
rainwater brings the risk of contracting diseases such as listeria.
the rainwater collected. For example, wood shingles are sometimes treated with
herbicides in order to prevent rot and mould, which may render collected water
unsuitable for gardening and drinking.
also leach contaminants into the water.
wastewater, excluding toilet waste. It includes water collected from the
shower, bath, basin, laundry tub, washing machine and dishwasher.
people now divert their greywater to a greywater reuse system, or collect it
for reusing on the garden.
than 24 hours.
sticking to the roof of your mouth and a regular sledgehammer-thump in your
head you stagger towards the dark water, fall to your knees and gulp mouthfuls
of the wonderfully cool liquid.
the British hills, but I’ve felt like that on a few occasions when I’ve
neglected to drink enough and cursed not diverting to a nearby water source
because, at the time, it seemed too far. And I’ve experienced this in the
Yorkshire dales as well as in Corfu.
obvious drinking regularly is important even in damp, humid weather.
wave, but well before it endangers your health dehydration can dull your mind,
spoiling your enjoyment making it hard to think straight.
The best way to avoid becoming dehydrated is to drink often whether you feel
thirsty or not. A good indicator is the colour and amount of your urine. It
should be clear and copious. The yellower it is, the more you need to drink.
the weather is your energy output and, for backpackers, the type of food
during the day, though I don’t recommend doing this.
and needed – a litre an hour on very hot days in shade less places. In camp at
least four litres are needed for drinks and to rehydrate dried food. That
doesn’t include water for pot or personal washing either.
drinks with them. In case this isn’t enough it’s still advisable to know where
water sources are on your route. In the hills this usually requires little
thought, as there are plenty of streams and pools in most areas. However rocky
ridges can be dry for long distances.
drink. Clarity is not necessarily an indication of purity as we know. However,
water in the hills, away from habitations, farmland and grazing stock, is
generally okay. In lowland areas I’d avoid drinking from streams and pools.
domestic waste. Finding water from a tap or buying drinks isn’t a problem in
most places of course. Water can be filtered and purified of course
rigid bottles for use while walking and large compressible bags for use in
that take minimal room in the pack when empty and hydration systems with long
tubes, on which we can suck while we walk ensuring an effortless drink whenever
rucksacks for times when water is all that has to be carried.
little water needs to be carried, half litre bottles are adequate, but I prefer
the litre size.
these don’t usually last very long and often have lids that leak after not much
use. For regular use higher quality bottles are better as they are very durable
and shouldn’t spring leaks.
containers, some of which aren’t actually very good. In particular the lids
often leak. Before buying an unfamiliar brand I’d fill it with water and shake
it to see what happens.
to leakage. Even a slight leak can result in a lot of liquid escaping into your
rucksack over a period of several hours, so a bottle with a properly sealed top
is well worth having.
containers for use in camp. Again, many have a tendency to leak, though this
isn’t that important if you’re not going to carry water in them in the pack.
more significance is the weight and bulk. Some don’t actually compress that
much and are made from thick heavy material.
extra water container for camp use. However, if you make do in camp with a
water bottle plus your cook pots, you will spend a lot of time fetching water –
fine in sunny weather but not so nice when it’s wet and stormy.
time constant trips to fetch water can lead to path scars being created.
Collecting all the water needed for camp at one time is both convenient and has
less impact on the area.
always, always (did I say “always”?) treating any water before you use it for
anything you will ingest into your body.
purpose that ends up in your body including drinking water, oral hygiene such
as rinsing your mouth or brushing your teeth, cleaning of vegetables and other
foods cleaning of cooking and eating utensils or even showering.
first be de-contaminated so that all water borne pathogens are destroyed or
rendered inert. Otherwise you may become very sick indeed.
upon proper treatment of ALL sources of water.
you must completely understand in order to stay healthy in wilderness survival
situations is that all sources of water are suspect.
to simply turning on the tap and drinking the water that comes from it.
protected sources and has been treated
to destroy disease causing organisms.
tested in order to insure it meets the required
standards. In more rural areas tap water often comes from wells and
springs where natural processes have purified the water.
the mind-set to always consider water from untested sources as contaminated can
be difficult to fully accept.
ignore my advice and drink any outdoor water source that appears to be fresh
subject and trust this information completely when it comes to treating your
stream or lake is safe to drink because it is clear, cold, and natural.
some important information that could very well prevent you from becoming very
the eye, but invisible microorganisms are thriving in its waters by the
humans, but all too often there are types that can make you very sick should
you ingest them.
improper disposal of human wastes including faeces. Another common natural
source of water contamination comes from the local wildlife that often
defecates in or near the water.
of releasing their bodily wastes into it.
improperly dispose of urine, faeces, and kitchen wastes close to communal water
supplies. No matter how remote you feel you are, I guarantee someone has been
there before you.
steaming pile of faeces just upstream minutes before you filled your water
been you can be assured there is plenty of faeces laying about. Historically,
wastes and human faecal contamination of water supplies has resulted in large
epidemics of cholera and other diseases that have ended the lives of millions.
well to avoid.
drink from Eh! Buy a Purificup at www.purificup.co.uk
Now that I have convinced you to consider
all sources of water as contaminated until treated, I would like to
suggest the best way to make water safe to drink. Once again I am sure
to be stirring up a hornet’s nest of dissent on this subject but I stand
by what I write as proven beyond doubt. Try to release any preconceived
notions you may have as you read what follows.
miracle of modern advertising would have you believe that the portable
water filters on the market today will remove nearly all pathogens and
disease causing organisms from water. Nothing could be further from the
The fact is, studies have conclusively shown water
filters vary a great deal in the types and amount of organisms they are
able to filter. And that is when the water filters are functioning
properly and users correctly operate and maintain them. A tall order
indeed, especially in the field during adverse conditions.
you drink water from a filter that is removing only 85% of water borne
disease organisms? Chances are the water filter you use isn’t even doing
Various chemicals used to treat water also lack the ability to destroy 100% of disease causing organisms in water.
manufacturers of chemicals and water filters don’t want you to know
what the best way to make water safe to drink really is. That’s because
it’s simple,inexpensive to operate, and they cannot sell it.
fact is, the best way to make water safe for consumption will destroy
or render inert 100% of disease causing organisms. What’s more, this
process is readily available and nearly fool proof. It has been
successfully used for centuries and remains hands down the best method
of all: boiling.
The age old question has always been “how Long Does the Water Need to Boil”?
here is my answer, water does do not even have to reach the boiling
point (about 212° F or 100° C at sea level) to be rendered safe to
drink; Once the water temperature reaches 185° F (85° C) nearly all
disease causing organisms have been destroyed.
And the only
reason you typically get water up to the boiling point is you probably
do not have a “thermometer” handy to measure the water temperature and I
would suggest that boiling is “proof positive” the water is hot enough
to make it safe to drink.
You can also throw out the myth
that you must boil water longer at higher elevations. The boiling point
of water even on Mount Everest is still high enough to destroy all
disease causing organisms even before the water has started to boil.
So to finish you must consider water from any source as contaminated with disease causing organisms.
By far the best way to treat water is by boiling it.
only have to bring the water to a boil. Don’t waste fuel; there is no
need to boil water for 10-minutes, 5-minutes, or even 1-minute. Once it
is boiling all disease causing organisms have been destroyed or rendered
inert some time earlier.